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Патент USA US2138155

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Nov. 29, _1938.
w. H. HALL, .1R
Original Filed Oct. 13, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet l
Nov. 29, 1938.
Original Filed 0012. 13 , 1936
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4 Sheets-Shea?l 2
Nov. 29, 193s.
w. H. HALL, JR `
Original Filed Oct. l5, 1936
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4 Sheets-Sheet 75
f Nov. 29, 1938.
w. H. HALL, JR
2,138,155 `
Original Filed Oct. 13, 1936
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Nov. 29, 1938
William H. Hall, Jr., Trenton, N. J., assignor to
Thermoid Company, Trenton, N. J., a corpora
tion of Delaware
Original application October 13, 1936, Serial No. `
105,428. Divided and this application Novem
ber 29, 1937, Serial No. 177,132
3 Claims.
This invention relates to looms, and more par
ticularly to a loom capable of Weaving pile carpet,
double, i. e., weaving the base fabrics for two
(Cl. 139-104)
and the crank, and the axis of the crank shaft
independent carpets in superposed relation to
each other with pile-forming threads extending
from one base fabric to the other base fabric
during weaving; and wherein the pile warps are
subsequently cut in a plane intermediate the two
base fabrics, to split the two carpets apart and
10 . thereby produce a cut pile face on each carpet.
The present application is a division of copend
ing application, Serial No. 105,428, iiled October
13, 1936.
The present invention more especially concerns
' an improved form of warp feeding or tensioning
The cooperation and coordination
mechanism of the present invention ‘with other
new and normal elements of the loom will be fully
disclosed hereinafter, reference being had to the
accompanying drawings, of which:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional elevation, in
more or less diagrammatic form, illustratlng'the
mechanism of the present invention applied to a
loom of the type noted and showing the lay of the
25 loom in the beat-up or front-center position with
moved thereby to the “back-center” position,
wherein the above noted axes are again in line,
with a line extending from the axis at one end of
the connecting link to the axis at the opposite
end thereof lying across the axis of the crank
The loom also normally includes a series of
heddle frames illustrated at 5, 6,- 'I, 8, 9 and III
These heddle frames are normally
raised and lowered in predetermined relationship
to each other while the lay is in the front-center
position, in order to provide an open warp shed
for the reception of the ñlling shuttle which is'
shot transversely across the loom when the lay
moves again to the back-center position above
The raising and lowering of the heddle frames 20
5 to IIJ inclusive, in predetermined relationship to
each other, is normally produced by a series of
cams individual to the heddle frames and mount
ed on a common shaft which is driven at a pre
determined speed with respect tov the oscillations
the reed immediately adjacent the fell of the
of the lay 2.
type of loom noted and is well known to those
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary view illus
trating the lay in the same >position as in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a still greater enlargement at and
immediately surrounding the fell of the fabric
being woven, with the lay in the beat-up position
shown in Figs. 1 and 2 and the carpet in longitudi
This mechanism is common in the
familiar with the weaving art and for that reason
has not been illustrated in the present instance.
The loom also includes the usual whip roll II
nal section;
and warp guide roll I2 about which the warp
threads pass in normally extending from a warp
beam at the rear of the loom to and through the
heddles of the frames 5 to I0 inclusive and
Fig. 4 is a side elevation partly in section of the
warp-tensioning mechanism forming a part of
through the dents in the lay reed 4, to the fell of
the fabric at the front of the loom.
the present invention;
On the front upper corner of the breast beam I
and extending transversely of the loom, and nor
mally mounted for rotation in suitable bearings
Fig. 5 is a sectional plan view taken on the line
itself all lying in a. straight line. As the crank
shaft revolves to the extent of 180° the lay 2 is
5_5, Fig. 4;
Fig. 6 is a front elevation of the Warp-tension
ing mechanism shown in Fig. 4; and
Fig. '7 is a vertical sectional elevation taken on
the line 'I---'I, Fig. 6.
A loom of the type above noted normally com
" prises a breast beam I.
The loom also includes a
lay 2 which is pivoted at 3 to the frame of the
loom. The lay 2 is provided with the usual reed
4. The lay 2 is normally rocked about the pivot 3
by a crank shaft (not shown) connected to the
50 lay by the usual form of connecting rod. When
the reed is in the beat-up or “front-center” posi
tion shown in Figs. 1 and 2 the crank and con
necting link are fully extended with the axis of
the pivot between the connecting link and the lay,
' the axis of the pivot between the connecting link
carried by the breast beam I orby the main frame 40
of the loom, is a guide roll I3 over which the
iinished fabric passes.
The loom also includes the usual form of pin roll
I6 and guide roll I1 around which the fabric also 45
passes. The fabric is taken up» intermittently,
i. e. for each beat-up motion of the lay or for each
pick, by the pin roll I6, which maintains the
fabric and the warp threads under tension. The
rolls I6 and I'I are suitably mounted for rotation 50
in the side frames I4 of‘the loom.
The loom is also provided with fabric guide
rolls I8 and I9 and a mandrel 20 on which the
completed fabric is wound, said mandrel being
driven in any suitable manner to wind the fabric 55
step by step as it is advanced from the fell by the
intermittent movements of the pin roll I6.
In the present instance, the warp beam is sup
planted by a suitable rack of any well known type
heddle frames 9 and I IJ respectively. The warp
threads a pass from said heddle eyes 4I and 42
through the dents in the reed 4 of the lay 2, to
the lower base fabrics A at the fell X.
The warp threads b pass from the separating Cl
bar 4B to heddle eyes 45 and 46 which are carried
and upon which is mounted a series of cones,
bobbins, spools or other yarn packages 2|, 2| con
taining warp .threads a_, which, as will be more by heddle wires 41 and 48. These heddle Wires
fully disclosed hereinafter, constitute the warp are carried by the heddle'frarnesI 1 and 8 respec
threads for the lowermost of the two base fabrics. tively. The warp threads b pass from the heddle
The rack also supports a series of yarn packages ~ eyes 45 and 46 through the dents in the lay reed
22 which supply threads b, which constitute the 4 to the upper basefabric B at the fell X.
warp threads for the uppermost base fabric. Also
The fabrics A and~B are maintained in ver
carried by the rack is a plurality of yarn packages tically spaced relation .to each other by separat
23 which supply the pile warps c. The pile warps ing blades 50, said blades being arranged in
15 c are adapted to be interwoven with each of the laterally spaced relation to each other and dis
base fabrics and to extend from one to the other posed horizontally between a rearwardly pro
thereof in a manner hereinafter described more jecting lip 5I of thebreast beam I and a trans
versely extending bar 52 which is arranged above
The warps a, b and c respectively pass through and in spaced relation to the upper surface of
20 guide or separating plates` 24, 25 and 26 from
the breast beam to provide a guideway 53 for
the bobbins 2I, 22 and 23'respectively to guide
rolls 21, 28 and'ZS. The guide plates 24, 25 and
2S are provided with suitable relatively spaced
openings or perforations 30 through which the
25 warp threads a., b and c pass and by which the
threadsv of each group thereof are retained in
predetermined relation to each other for pre
sentation to the guide rolls 21, 28 and 29. From
the guide rolls 21, 28 and 29 the groups of warp
30 threads a, b and c pass around tensioning rolls
3l, 32 and` 33 respectively.
From the tensioning roll 3I the warp threads a
pass to and around a guide roll 34 and in so
doing said warp threads pass through and be
35 tween the threads a, where said group of threads
are passing from the guide plate 24 to the guide
roll 21, as indicated at :t1 in Fig. l. The threads
a pass from the guide roll 34 to and over a fixed
supporting bar 35, which is disposed adjacent
40 and parallel to the guide roll I 2.
The bar 35 is provided with a series of vertical
pins 36 which are spaced apart longitudinally
of the support 35 which latter extends trans
versely of the loom- and vis supported in any suit
45 able manner by the main frames I4 of they loom.
The warp threadsY b pass “from the tensioning
roll 32 through that portion of the group of
threads b which is stretched between the guide
roll >28 and the tensioning roll 32', as indicated
the separating blades 50.
'I'he blades 50, 50 extend longitudinally of the
loom and are arranged to move longitudinally
through the guideway 53, with the fabrics A, B,
during the beat-up movement of the lay to the
front-center position and to be retracted slightly
in the opposite direction during the movement
of the lay to the back-center position, as will be.
more fully disclosed hereinafter.
The separating blades are of a width corre-` 30
sponding to twice the height of the vpile required
on each of the fabrics A and B, said separating
blades being arranged in vertical planes and
spaced laterally to provide spaces therebetween
through which the pile warps c pass in extend
ing from the lower base fabric Ato the' upper
base fabric B and vice versa to produce the in
terconnecting pile area C between said fabrics A
and B.
'I'he groups of body or ground warp threads
a and b are sub-divided into two substantially
equal series which as the heddle frames rise and
fall during the course of the weaving operation
are alternately raised and lowered to produce an
open warp shed D through which the weft or fill
ing-threads a1, b1 of theV> fabrics A and AB are alter
nately carried by a separate shuttle propelled
through successive Warp sheds by the usual pick
ing mechanism of the loom.
50 at x2, said threads b then passing to the support
The heddle cams `are so arranged that a warp
35 and between the guide pins 36~thereon, which
maintains the threads b in predetermined rela
tion to the thread a for delivery to the guide roll
shedis first produced by raising all of the warp
threads band one-half of the warpvthreads a,
the other half of the warp threadsy a and the pile
warps c being lowered, and producing the warp
I2 and Whip roll I! of the loom.
The pile warp threads c pass` from the tension
ing roll 33 through the group c where said group
extends from the guide roll 29 to the tension
roll 33, as indicated at .r3 in Fig. I. The pile warp
threads c pass from the intersecting point :1:3
60 directly to and through heddle eyes 31.
heddle .eyes 31 are carried by heddle wires 38
which in turn are carried by the heddle frame 6,
in the present instance, said threads passing
from the heddle eyes 31 to the fell :c of the fabric,
65 as illustrated in Fig. 3.
shed for >receiving one of the weft or filling
threads a1 of the lower fabric A.
After insertion of the filling or weft threads a1v
the warp shed changes. A-ll of.y rthe warp threads
a and one-half of the warp threads b are loweredI
and one-half` of the warp threads b and all of 60
the pile warps c. are raised to produce the next;
openwarp shed D2, shownin Fig. 3, forthe-recep
tion of one of the wefts b1 of the Vupper fabric B;
After the insertion of each weft al» or bl, as thecase. may-be, the lay »2- beats up in the usual
From the whip roll I I the warp threads a and b
respectively pass under and' over a separating
bar 39, then over and under a second separating
bar 4B. The two groups of threads cross eachy
70 other and pass through each other between the
bars 39 and 4Q at the intersecting points :c4 as
illustrated in Fig. l. From the bar 40 the warp
threads a pass to and through heddle eyes 4I
and 42 carried byheddlewires 43 -and 44 respec
illustrated in. Fig.A 3,- and ¿holding it inV position
at the fell'Xas theheddle frames change posi
.tionsto produce the next warp'shed for the-in 70
troductiongoik the. next ñlling thread a1 `or b1, >as
tively. The wires 43 >and 4_4 _are carried byfthe
of. the filling _threads or weftthreads b1 Yof the 75
manner, the bladeszor wires constituting the reed
@engaging the Vlast inserted weft, in the4 manner
the case >may be.
It will be> noted that all of the weft threads a1
are inserted below the spacing blades 50 and all`
upper fabric B are inserted above the spacing
blades 50, and in order to accomplish this pro
cedure with the limited rise and fall of the heddle
frames available in the loom of the type noted
each of the spacing blades `5|'l is provided with a
relatively movable section 55.
The movable sections 55, 55 of the spacing
blades 50, 50 are pivotally connected at 56, 5B to
the back ends 51, 51 of the spacing blade 50, 55
tance> equal vto the distance the blades advanced
with the fabric.
The retracting of the spacing blades 50 is
effected at the time the lay moves into its back
center position and for that purpose the lay is
provided with a bar 80 which extends trans
versely across the loom behind the lay 2 and in
front of the heddle frame 5 >and which as said
lay moves to its back-center position engages the
respectively and rise and fall with and in pre
forward edges of the heddle blades 12, which, as 10
determined relation to the warp threads a, b
the said lay approaches and movesrinto its ex
treme back-centerv position exerts a pull on the
sections 55 of the spacing blades 50. The rear
ward pull of the sections 55 of the blades. 50 irn
parts a corresponding rearward movement to the
and c.
As shown in Fig. 3, the two base fabrics A and
B, after being woven at the fell X, ridejlongi
tudinally along the lower and upper edges 59 and
58 respectively of the blades 50. The two base
blade 50 through the joint 56 and by which the
fabrics A and B are separated by the vertical
fabrics A and B are delivered over the forward
width of the blades 50, which determines the
ends 50 of the blades 50.
In order to produce the necessary tension on
the'warp threads a, b- and c, the peripheral faces
of the tensioning drums 3|, 32 and 33 are
roughened to grip the threads moresecurely. In
the present instance these rolls are spirally
wrapped with strips of abrasive material, such as
sandpaper, as indicated at 50 in Fig. 6. The
abrasive material, by reason of its rough char
acter, retains a firm grip on said warp threads
and prevents relative slippage between the warp
threads and the surfaces of the tensioning drums.
length of the pile tufts to beformed by the pile
threads c in each case as the threads c, c pass
across the pile region C between the two fabrics.
The double pile fabric composed of the two base
fabrics and interconnecting pile threads rides off
the forward ends 60 of the spacing blades 50 as
the pin roll I6 takes off the fabric, step by step,
with the beat-up movements of the lay 2. ,
The forward ends 6| of the movable sections 55
of the blades 50 are each provided with an open
ing 62. A tongue 65 projecting laterally from the
30 rear end 51 of each of the blades 50 passes
through the opening 62 formed in the movable
section 55 of the blade 50. The tongues 65 are
formed integrally with the rear ends 51 of the
blades 50 and, after passing through the open
35 ings 62 in the movable sections 55, are bent for
wardly and lie substantially parallel to the
blades 50.
The free ends 61 of the tongue portions 66 pro
ject forwardly beyond and terminate in front of
40 the joints 56 formed between the two relatively
movable blade sections 50 and 55, so that as the
double fabric moves along the blades 50 in the
manner above noted and passes olf the ends 60
thereof the pile threads c within the pile region
45 C will slide freely past and over the free ends 61
of the blade tongues B6.
The rear end of the movable section 55 of each
spacing blade 50 is pivotally connected at 1l to
and between a pair of heddle blades 12. The
50 control blades 12 extend vertically and are dis
As the fabric is woven and taken up by the Y
in roll |5, the warp threads a, b and c are inter
mittently pulled, which intermittently revolves
the tensioning rolls 3|, 32 and 33. Such rotation
of the rolls 3|, 32 and 33 is retarded, to apply the
desired tension to the warp threads, by means
o-f brake bands 9|, 92 and 93, which are respec
tively applied to peripheral surfaces of brake
drums S4, S5 and 95. The brake drums 05, 95
and 96 are carried by the shafts 91, S8 and 99
which support the drums 3|, 32 and 33 respec- 40
tively. The shafts 91, 98 and 59 are mounted for
rotation in and relative to fixed frames |00, |00
by which the tensioning rolls, the spacing bars
24, 25 and 26, and the guide rolls 21, 20 and 20
are supported in predetermined relation to each 45
One end of the brake band 92 is permanently
-attached to the guide bar 28 around which the
warp threads b pass, the opposite end of said
brake band being adjustably secured at I0| to a 50
posed in laterally spaced relation to each other lever |02. The lever |02 is pivoted at §03 to a
within the plane of and suitably connected to the bracket |04 which in turn is adjustably mounted
heddle frame 5 which, as shown in Fig.l, is the on the guide bar 28. The arm or lever |02 is
provided with adjustable weights |05 by which
ñrst of the heddle frames and is disposed im
the braking effort applied to the tension roll 32 55
may be regulated at will.
back-center position above noted.
One end of the brake band 53 is permanently
The heddle frame 5 is controlled by one of the
cams on the common shaft by which the frames
B to I0 inclusive are controlled, said frame being
60 movable from a high to a low position and vice
versa to carry the movable sections 55 of the
fabric-spacing blades 50 up and down between
the full and dotted line position shown in Fig. 1
as the warp sheds are formed for the introduc
tion of the weft threads dl---bl respectively.
As previously noted, whenA the lay moves to its
front-center position to beat up a newly _inserted
weft thread and the pin roll I6 advances to take
up the fabric to the desired extent, the blades 50,
being interwoven with the double pile fabric be
tween the two base fabrics A and B, advance a
corresponding distance with the fabric and in
order to strip the fabric off the ends 60 _of the
blades 50, these blades are moved rearwardly,
75 after each beat up movement of the lay, a dis
attached to the guide bar 29 over which the pile
warps c pass. The opposite end of the braise
band 93 is pivotally connected at |05 to one end 60
of a lever |01. The lever |01 is pivotally mounted
at |08 to a bracket |09 which is adjustably
mounted on the guide bar 29. The lever |01 is
provided vwith a single weight ||0 adjustable
longitudinally of the arm i01 for regulating the 65
braking effort applied to the tensioning roll 33.
In order to prevent wrinkling of the under
fabric A which apparently is caused by reason
of »this fabric assuming an arc of smaller radius
than that assumed by the fabric B in passing 70
around the breast beam roller I3, it has been
found necessary'to apply a greater tension to the
warp threads a, of which the groundwork of the
fabric A is composed, than is necessary to be
applied >to the warp threads b, forming the
ground fabric B, and in order to apply the de
tothe fabric and breast plate and point toward
sired amount of tension to the warps a it has
the opposite selvage so that the two series are
been found necessary to increase the diameter of in opposed relation to each other with the planes
the tensioning roll 3|, around which the threads a of the two series of wheels in divergent relation
pass, over the diameter of the roll 32 for the
to the longitudinal center line of the fabric and
threads b, in order to grip each thread a to a vertical plane coincident with the longi
throughout a greater portion of its length than tudinal center line of the fabric, i. e. a line sub
is required in the case of the threads b, in order stantially equidistant from the oppositely dis-A
to withstand the increased tension without slip~ posed selvages of the fabric.
ping on the roll 3|. A relatively different form
A valuable advantage of the above resides in 10
of braking mechanism has also been employed in the fact that in addition to keeping the >fabric
connection with the tensioning `of the threads a, from wrinkling it permits the use of a lesser num
said braking mechanism comprising, as shown ber of warp ends across the fabric to maintain
particularly in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, a lever I I | having a predetermined width to the fabric than can
a depending transversely elongated lug H2 ar
normally be used to produce a fabric of equal
ranged to rock in a cradle surface H3 formed in width, with a resulting saving in the cost of ma
the upper edge of a bracket H4 carried by the terial to the manufacturer.
side frame |08 of the tensioning device. The
'I'he double pile fabric is woven in a continuous
lever |I| is provided with a pair of laterally strip which is made possible by the warp threads
spaced depending lugs H5 between which ex
being drawn from individual packages, making it
tends a rod HS to which one end of the brake possible to replenish the Warp'threads at any
band 9| is secured. The opposite end of the time and _in any numbers so that the knots made
brake band 9| is provided with a threaded shackle in tying the threads of new packages to the
bolt Hl which passes through a slot H8 formed threads of depleted packages are distributed
in one end of the lever |H. At the opposite throughout the length of the continuous strip
sides of the slot H8, the end H9 of the lever ||| of fabric.
is provided with a series of teeth |20. The teeth
In order to remove the fabric from Ythe loom
l2@ are adapted to receive a tooth |2| formed the strip is cut transversely when the roll on the
on each side of the plate |22 through which the mandrel 20 is of 'a predetermined size containing
shackle bolt Hl passes. Threaded onto the a predetermined number of yards. In order to
shackle bolt Hl' is a nut |23'which is arranged provide for such cutting and in order to facili’
to be screwed down against the plate |22 for tate the splitting operation, wherein the two
effecting minute adjustment of the brake band strips of double woven fabric are split apart ina
9|. The opposite end |24 of the lever Hí sup
plane intermediate the planes of the two base
35 ports suitable weight |25 which in rocking the
lever ||| about its pivot H2 applies the neces
sary retarding force to the rotation of the
tensioning roll 3|.
At times, during the weaving of double pile
40 fabric or, and especially, during the weaving of
a heading between the ends of two lengths or
strips of the fabric, wherein the pile-forming
warps are floated beneath the lowermost of the
two superposed base fabrics which at that time
are being woven more or less as separate fabrics
connected together only at the selvage edges
thereof by the weft or filling thread woven first
into one and then into the other of the base
fabrics at alternate picks respectively, the fabric
50 tends to wrinkle in the direction of the warps,
i. e. the selvage edges tend to move inwardly
toward each other and cause the fabric to become
wrinkled therebetween. These wrinkles extend
longitudinally of the fabric through the heading
and, in some cases, for some distance into the
pile section which is woven subsequent to the
In order to overcome the above noted longi
tudinal wrinkling of the fabric, the loom is pro
vided, between the guide bar 52 for the base
fabric spacers 59 and the guide roll I3 over
which the composite fabric C passes after weav
ing, with a spreading device |30.
rI‘he spreading device |352 comprises a plurality
of peripherally toothed wheels which are spaced
apart across the breast beam and disposed in
positions to contact with the fabric. The
spreader wheels are arranged in two series. The
wheels of each series are disposed in substan
70 tially parallel planes with the planes of the
wheels of the one series arranged at acute angles
'to the plane of the fabric and breast plate | and
pointing toward one edge of the fabric, while
the planes of the wheels of the other series are
arranged at reversely corresponding acute angles
fabrics, non-pile headings are made periodically
in the continuous strip by dropping the pile warps
below the lower base fabric and not weaving
these threads into either of the base fabrics.
The dropping of the pile warps to non-weaving
position during the weaving of a heading is ac afb
complished by rendering inoperative the means
by which the heddle frame which 'controls the
pile warps is raised and lowered. In different
looms this would be accomplished in different
ways. In looms of the type to which the pres
ent case is directed rendering of the pile-lifting
means ineffective is accomplished merely by hold
ing a cam follower out of contact with a cam by
which the pile warps are normally raised.
I claim:
1. In a loom of the kind described employing
a group of warp threads for each of the upper
and lower base fabrics of a double pile fabric
and a group of pile warps for connecting said base
fabrics, the combination of a tension roll for ,ì
each group of warp threads, with the tension
roll for the warps of the lower base fabric of
relatively greater diameter than the rolls for the
other groups of said warp threads as and for the
purpose described.
2. In a loom‘of the kind described employing
a group of warp threads for each of the upper
and lower base fabrics of a double pile fabric and
a group of pile warps for connecting said base
fabrics, the combination of a tension roll for each
group of warp'threads, with the tension roll for
the warps of the lower base fabric of relatively
greater diameter than the rolls for the other
groups of said warp threads, and guides for said'
threads disposed adjacent said rolls and arranged 70
to guide said threads around substantially the
full circumference of each roll to increase the
grip areas ofthe rolls on the threads of each
group respectively.
3. In a loom of the kind described employingI
a group of Warp threads for each of the upper
and lower base fabrics of a double pile fabric
and a group of pile Warps for connecting said
base fabrics, the combination of a tension roll for
atively greater diameter than the rolls for the
other groups of said warp threads, and abrasive
each group of warps threads, with the tension
roll for the warps of the lower base fabric of re1
tape spirally Wound on each roll with the abra
sive Íace thereof outwardly to engage said threads
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