Патент USA US2138155код для вставки
Nov. 29, _1938. w. H. HALL, .1R 21,138,155 WARVP FEEDING AND TENSIOÑING MEANS Original Filed Oct. 13, 1956 l 1 4 Sheets-Sheet l Nov. 29, 1938. w. .HA HALL, JR 2,138,155 WARP FEEDING AND TENSIÓNING MEANS Original Filed 0012. 13 , 1936 /__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 Sheets-Shea?l 2 Nov. 29, 193s. w. H. HALL, JR ` 2,138,155 WARP FEEDING ANIS TENSIONING MEANS Original Filed Oct. l5, 1936 . /00 4 Sheets-Sheet 75 f Nov. 29, 1938. w. H. HALL, JR 2,138,155 ` WARP FEEDING AND TENSIONING MEANS Original Filed Oct. 13, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 2,138,155 Patented Nov. 29, 1938 PATENT OFFICE UNITED STATES 2,138,155 WARP FEEDING AND TENSIONING lVIEANS William H. Hall, Jr., Trenton, N. J., assignor to Thermoid Company, Trenton, N. J., a corpora tion of Delaware Original application October 13, 1936, Serial No. ` 105,428. Divided and this application Novem ber 29, 1937, Serial No. 177,132 3 Claims. This invention relates to looms, and more par ticularly to a loom capable of Weaving pile carpet, double, i. e., weaving the base fabrics for two (Cl. 139-104) and the crank, and the axis of the crank shaft independent carpets in superposed relation to each other with pile-forming threads extending from one base fabric to the other base fabric during weaving; and wherein the pile warps are subsequently cut in a plane intermediate the two base fabrics, to split the two carpets apart and 10 . thereby produce a cut pile face on each carpet. The present application is a division of copend ing application, Serial No. 105,428, iiled October 13, 1936. The present invention more especially concerns ' an improved form of warp feeding or tensioning mechanism. The cooperation and coordination mechanism of the present invention ‘with other new and normal elements of the loom will be fully 20 disclosed hereinafter, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, of which: Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional elevation, in more or less diagrammatic form, illustratlng'the mechanism of the present invention applied to a loom of the type noted and showing the lay of the 25 loom in the beat-up or front-center position with moved thereby to the “back-center” position, wherein the above noted axes are again in line, with a line extending from the axis at one end of the connecting link to the axis at the opposite end thereof lying across the axis of the crank shaft. The loom also normally includes a series of heddle frames illustrated at 5, 6,- 'I, 8, 9 and III respectively. These heddle frames are normally raised and lowered in predetermined relationship to each other while the lay is in the front-center position, in order to provide an open warp shed for the reception of the ñlling shuttle which is' shot transversely across the loom when the lay moves again to the back-center position above noted. The raising and lowering of the heddle frames 20 5 to IIJ inclusive, in predetermined relationship to each other, is normally produced by a series of cams individual to the heddle frames and mount ed on a common shaft which is driven at a pre determined speed with respect tov the oscillations the reed immediately adjacent the fell of the of the lay 2. carpet; type of loom noted and is well known to those Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary view illus trating the lay in the same >position as in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a still greater enlargement at and 30 immediately surrounding the fell of the fabric being woven, with the lay in the beat-up position shown in Figs. 1 and 2 and the carpet in longitudi This mechanism is common in the familiar with the weaving art and for that reason has not been illustrated in the present instance. The loom also includes the usual whip roll II nal section; and warp guide roll I2 about which the warp threads pass in normally extending from a warp beam at the rear of the loom to and through the heddles of the frames 5 to I0 inclusive and Fig. 4 is a side elevation partly in section of the warp-tensioning mechanism forming a part of through the dents in the lay reed 4, to the fell of the fabric at the front of the loom. the present invention; On the front upper corner of the breast beam I and extending transversely of the loom, and nor mally mounted for rotation in suitable bearings - Fig. 5 is a sectional plan view taken on the line 40 itself all lying in a. straight line. As the crank shaft revolves to the extent of 180° the lay 2 is 5_5, Fig. 4; p Fig. 6 is a front elevation of the Warp-tension ing mechanism shown in Fig. 4; and Fig. '7 is a vertical sectional elevation taken on the line 'I---'I, Fig. 6. A loom of the type above noted normally com " prises a breast beam I. The loom also includes a lay 2 which is pivoted at 3 to the frame of the loom. The lay 2 is provided with the usual reed 4. The lay 2 is normally rocked about the pivot 3 by a crank shaft (not shown) connected to the 50 lay by the usual form of connecting rod. When the reed is in the beat-up or “front-center” posi tion shown in Figs. 1 and 2 the crank and con necting link are fully extended with the axis of the pivot between the connecting link and the lay, ' the axis of the pivot between the connecting link carried by the breast beam I orby the main frame 40 of the loom, is a guide roll I3 over which the iinished fabric passes. The loom also includes the usual form of pin roll I6 and guide roll I1 around which the fabric also 45 passes. The fabric is taken up» intermittently, i. e. for each beat-up motion of the lay or for each pick, by the pin roll I6, which maintains the fabric and the warp threads under tension. The rolls I6 and I'I are suitably mounted for rotation 50 in the side frames I4 of‘the loom. The loom is also provided with fabric guide rolls I8 and I9 and a mandrel 20 on which the completed fabric is wound, said mandrel being driven in any suitable manner to wind the fabric 55 2 2,138,155 step by step as it is advanced from the fell by the intermittent movements of the pin roll I6. In the present instance, the warp beam is sup planted by a suitable rack of any well known type heddle frames 9 and I IJ respectively. The warp threads a pass from said heddle eyes 4I and 42 through the dents in the reed 4 of the lay 2, to the lower base fabrics A at the fell X. The warp threads b pass from the separating Cl bar 4B to heddle eyes 45 and 46 which are carried and upon which is mounted a series of cones, bobbins, spools or other yarn packages 2|, 2| con taining warp .threads a_, which, as will be more by heddle wires 41 and 48. These heddle Wires fully disclosed hereinafter, constitute the warp are carried by the heddle'frarnesI 1 and 8 respec threads for the lowermost of the two base fabrics. tively. The warp threads b pass from the heddle The rack also supports a series of yarn packages ~ eyes 45 and 46 through the dents in the lay reed 22 which supply threads b, which constitute the 4 to the upper basefabric B at the fell X. warp threads for the uppermost base fabric. Also The fabrics A and~B are maintained in ver carried by the rack is a plurality of yarn packages tically spaced relation .to each other by separat 23 which supply the pile warps c. The pile warps ing blades 50, said blades being arranged in 15 c are adapted to be interwoven with each of the laterally spaced relation to each other and dis base fabrics and to extend from one to the other posed horizontally between a rearwardly pro thereof in a manner hereinafter described more jecting lip 5I of thebreast beam I and a trans fully. versely extending bar 52 which is arranged above The warps a, b and c respectively pass through and in spaced relation to the upper surface of 20 guide or separating plates` 24, 25 and 26 from the breast beam to provide a guideway 53 for the bobbins 2I, 22 and 23'respectively to guide rolls 21, 28 and'ZS. The guide plates 24, 25 and 2S are provided with suitable relatively spaced openings or perforations 30 through which the 25 warp threads a., b and c pass and by which the threadsv of each group thereof are retained in predetermined relation to each other for pre sentation to the guide rolls 21, 28 and 29. From the guide rolls 21, 28 and 29 the groups of warp 30 threads a, b and c pass around tensioning rolls 3l, 32 and` 33 respectively. From the tensioning roll 3I the warp threads a pass to and around a guide roll 34 and in so doing said warp threads pass through and be 35 tween the threads a, where said group of threads are passing from the guide plate 24 to the guide roll 21, as indicated at :t1 in Fig. l. The threads a pass from the guide roll 34 to and over a fixed supporting bar 35, which is disposed adjacent 40 and parallel to the guide roll I 2. The bar 35 is provided with a series of vertical pins 36 which are spaced apart longitudinally of the support 35 which latter extends trans versely of the loom- and vis supported in any suit 45 able manner by the main frames I4 of they loom. The warp threadsY b pass “from the tensioning roll 32 through that portion of the group of threads b which is stretched between the guide roll >28 and the tensioning roll 32', as indicated the separating blades 50. ‘ 'I'he blades 50, 50 extend longitudinally of the loom and are arranged to move longitudinally through the guideway 53, with the fabrics A, B, during the beat-up movement of the lay to the front-center position and to be retracted slightly in the opposite direction during the movement of the lay to the back-center position, as will be. more fully disclosed hereinafter. The separating blades are of a width corre-` 30 sponding to twice the height of the vpile required on each of the fabrics A and B, said separating blades being arranged in vertical planes and spaced laterally to provide spaces therebetween through which the pile warps c pass in extend ing from the lower base fabric Ato the' upper base fabric B and vice versa to produce the in terconnecting pile area C between said fabrics A and B. 'I'he groups of body or ground warp threads a and b are sub-divided into two substantially equal series which as the heddle frames rise and fall during the course of the weaving operation are alternately raised and lowered to produce an open warp shed D through which the weft or fill ing-threads a1, b1 of theV> fabrics A and AB are alter nately carried by a separate shuttle propelled through successive Warp sheds by the usual pick ing mechanism of the loom. 50 at x2, said threads b then passing to the support The heddle cams `are so arranged that a warp 35 and between the guide pins 36~thereon, which maintains the threads b in predetermined rela tion to the thread a for delivery to the guide roll shedis first produced by raising all of the warp threads band one-half of the warpvthreads a, the other half of the warp threadsy a and the pile warps c being lowered, and producing the warp 55 I2 and Whip roll I! of the loom. The pile warp threads c pass` from the tension ing roll 33 through the group c where said group extends from the guide roll 29 to the tension roll 33, as indicated at .r3 in Fig. I. The pile warp threads c pass from the intersecting point :1:3 60 directly to and through heddle eyes 31. The heddle .eyes 31 are carried by heddle wires 38 which in turn are carried by the heddle frame 6, in the present instance, said threads passing from the heddle eyes 31 to the fell :c of the fabric, 65 as illustrated in Fig. 3. shed for >receiving one of the weft or filling threads a1 of the lower fabric A. f After insertion of the filling or weft threads a1v the warp shed changes. A-ll of.y rthe warp threads a and one-half of the warp threads b are loweredI and one-half` of the warp threads b and all of 60 the pile warps c. are raised to produce the next; openwarp shed D2, shownin Fig. 3, forthe-recep tion of one of the wefts b1 of the Vupper fabric B; After the insertion of each weft al» or bl, as thecase. may-be, the lay »2- beats up in the usual From the whip roll I I the warp threads a and b respectively pass under and' over a separating bar 39, then over and under a second separating bar 4B. The two groups of threads cross eachy 70 other and pass through each other between the bars 39 and 4Q at the intersecting points :c4 as illustrated in Fig. l. From the bar 40 the warp threads a pass to and through heddle eyes 4I and 42 carried byheddlewires 43 -and 44 respec illustrated in. Fig.A 3,- and ¿holding it inV position at the fell'Xas theheddle frames change posi .tionsto produce the next warp'shed for the-in 70 troductiongoik the. next ñlling thread a1 `or b1, >as tively. The wires 43 >and 4_4 _are carried byfthe of. the filling _threads or weftthreads b1 Yof the 75 manner, the bladeszor wires constituting the reed @engaging the Vlast inserted weft, in the4 manner the case >may be. l y Í . l It will be> noted that all of the weft threads a1 are inserted below the spacing blades 50 and all` 2,188,155 upper fabric B are inserted above the spacing blades 50, and in order to accomplish this pro cedure with the limited rise and fall of the heddle frames available in the loom of the type noted each of the spacing blades `5|'l is provided with a relatively movable section 55. The movable sections 55, 55 of the spacing blades 50, 50 are pivotally connected at 56, 5B to the back ends 51, 51 of the spacing blade 50, 55 3 tance> equal vto the distance the blades advanced with the fabric. The retracting of the spacing blades 50 is effected at the time the lay moves into its back center position and for that purpose the lay is provided with a bar 80 which extends trans versely across the loom behind the lay 2 and in front of the heddle frame 5 >and which as said lay moves to its back-center position engages the respectively and rise and fall with and in pre forward edges of the heddle blades 12, which, as 10 determined relation to the warp threads a, b the said lay approaches and movesrinto its ex treme back-centerv position exerts a pull on the sections 55 of the spacing blades 50. The rear ward pull of the sections 55 of the blades. 50 irn parts a corresponding rearward movement to the and c. As shown in Fig. 3, the two base fabrics A and B, after being woven at the fell X, ridejlongi tudinally along the lower and upper edges 59 and 58 respectively of the blades 50. The two base blade 50 through the joint 56 and by which the fabrics A and B are separated by the vertical fabrics A and B are delivered over the forward width of the blades 50, which determines the ends 50 of the blades 50. In order to produce the necessary tension on the'warp threads a, b- and c, the peripheral faces of the tensioning drums 3|, 32 and 33 are roughened to grip the threads moresecurely. In the present instance these rolls are spirally wrapped with strips of abrasive material, such as sandpaper, as indicated at 50 in Fig. 6. The abrasive material, by reason of its rough char acter, retains a firm grip on said warp threads and prevents relative slippage between the warp threads and the surfaces of the tensioning drums. length of the pile tufts to beformed by the pile threads c in each case as the threads c, c pass across the pile region C between the two fabrics. The double pile fabric composed of the two base fabrics and interconnecting pile threads rides off the forward ends 60 of the spacing blades 50 as the pin roll I6 takes off the fabric, step by step, with the beat-up movements of the lay 2. , The forward ends 6| of the movable sections 55 of the blades 50 are each provided with an open ing 62. A tongue 65 projecting laterally from the 30 rear end 51 of each of the blades 50 passes through the opening 62 formed in the movable section 55 of the blade 50. The tongues 65 are formed integrally with the rear ends 51 of the blades 50 and, after passing through the open 35 ings 62 in the movable sections 55, are bent for wardly and lie substantially parallel to the blades 50. The free ends 61 of the tongue portions 66 pro ject forwardly beyond and terminate in front of 40 the joints 56 formed between the two relatively movable blade sections 50 and 55, so that as the double fabric moves along the blades 50 in the manner above noted and passes olf the ends 60 thereof the pile threads c within the pile region 45 C will slide freely past and over the free ends 61 of the blade tongues B6. The rear end of the movable section 55 of each spacing blade 50 is pivotally connected at 1l to and between a pair of heddle blades 12. The 50 control blades 12 extend vertically and are dis As the fabric is woven and taken up by the Y in roll |5, the warp threads a, b and c are inter mittently pulled, which intermittently revolves the tensioning rolls 3|, 32 and 33. Such rotation of the rolls 3|, 32 and 33 is retarded, to apply the desired tension to the warp threads, by means o-f brake bands 9|, 92 and 93, which are respec tively applied to peripheral surfaces of brake drums S4, S5 and 95. The brake drums 05, 95 and 96 are carried by the shafts 91, S8 and 99 which support the drums 3|, 32 and 33 respec- 40 tively. The shafts 91, 98 and 59 are mounted for rotation in and relative to fixed frames |00, |00 by which the tensioning rolls, the spacing bars 24, 25 and 26, and the guide rolls 21, 20 and 20 are supported in predetermined relation to each 45 other. One end of the brake band 92 is permanently -attached to the guide bar 28 around which the warp threads b pass, the opposite end of said brake band being adjustably secured at I0| to a 50 posed in laterally spaced relation to each other lever |02. The lever |02 is pivoted at §03 to a within the plane of and suitably connected to the bracket |04 which in turn is adjustably mounted heddle frame 5 which, as shown in Fig.l, is the on the guide bar 28. The arm or lever |02 is provided with adjustable weights |05 by which ñrst of the heddle frames and is disposed im the braking effort applied to the tension roll 32 55 mediately behind the lay 2, when said lay is in its 55 may be regulated at will. ‘ back-center position above noted. One end of the brake band 53 is permanently The heddle frame 5 is controlled by one of the cams on the common shaft by which the frames B to I0 inclusive are controlled, said frame being 60 movable from a high to a low position and vice versa to carry the movable sections 55 of the fabric-spacing blades 50 up and down between the full and dotted line position shown in Fig. 1 as the warp sheds are formed for the introduc tion of the weft threads dl---bl respectively. As previously noted, whenA the lay moves to its front-center position to beat up a newly _inserted weft thread and the pin roll I6 advances to take up the fabric to the desired extent, the blades 50, being interwoven with the double pile fabric be tween the two base fabrics A and B, advance a corresponding distance with the fabric and in order to strip the fabric off the ends 60 _of the blades 50, these blades are moved rearwardly, 75 after each beat up movement of the lay, a dis attached to the guide bar 29 over which the pile warps c pass. The opposite end of the braise band 93 is pivotally connected at |05 to one end 60 of a lever |01. The lever |01 is pivotally mounted at |08 to a bracket |09 which is adjustably mounted on the guide bar 29. The lever |01 is provided vwith a single weight ||0 adjustable longitudinally of the arm i01 for regulating the 65 braking effort applied to the tensioning roll 33. In order to prevent wrinkling of the under fabric A which apparently is caused by reason of »this fabric assuming an arc of smaller radius than that assumed by the fabric B in passing 70 around the breast beam roller I3, it has been found necessary'to apply a greater tension to the warp threads a, of which the groundwork of the fabric A is composed, than is necessary to be applied >to the warp threads b, forming the 4 2,138,155 ground fabric B, and in order to apply the de 15 20 25 30 tothe fabric and breast plate and point toward sired amount of tension to the warps a it has the opposite selvage so that the two series are been found necessary to increase the diameter of in opposed relation to each other with the planes the tensioning roll 3|, around which the threads a of the two series of wheels in divergent relation pass, over the diameter of the roll 32 for the to the longitudinal center line of the fabric and threads b, in order to grip each thread a to a vertical plane coincident with the longi throughout a greater portion of its length than tudinal center line of the fabric, i. e. a line sub is required in the case of the threads b, in order stantially equidistant from the oppositely dis-A to withstand the increased tension without slip~ posed selvages of the fabric. ping on the roll 3|. A relatively different form A valuable advantage of the above resides in 10 of braking mechanism has also been employed in the fact that in addition to keeping the >fabric connection with the tensioning `of the threads a, from wrinkling it permits the use of a lesser num said braking mechanism comprising, as shown ber of warp ends across the fabric to maintain particularly in Figs. 4, 5 and 6, a lever I I | having a predetermined width to the fabric than can a depending transversely elongated lug H2 ar normally be used to produce a fabric of equal ranged to rock in a cradle surface H3 formed in width, with a resulting saving in the cost of ma the upper edge of a bracket H4 carried by the terial to the manufacturer. ‘ side frame |08 of the tensioning device. The 'I'he double pile fabric is woven in a continuous lever |I| is provided with a pair of laterally strip which is made possible by the warp threads spaced depending lugs H5 between which ex being drawn from individual packages, making it tends a rod HS to which one end of the brake possible to replenish the Warp'threads at any band 9| is secured. The opposite end of the time and _in any numbers so that the knots made brake band 9| is provided with a threaded shackle in tying the threads of new packages to the bolt Hl which passes through a slot H8 formed threads of depleted packages are distributed in one end of the lever |H. At the opposite throughout the length of the continuous strip 25 sides of the slot H8, the end H9 of the lever ||| of fabric. ' . is provided with a series of teeth |20. The teeth In order to remove the fabric from Ythe loom l2@ are adapted to receive a tooth |2| formed the strip is cut transversely when the roll on the on each side of the plate |22 through which the mandrel 20 is of 'a predetermined size containing shackle bolt Hl passes. Threaded onto the a predetermined number of yards. In order to shackle bolt Hl' is a nut |23'which is arranged provide for such cutting and in order to facili’ to be screwed down against the plate |22 for tate the splitting operation, wherein the two effecting minute adjustment of the brake band strips of double woven fabric are split apart ina 9|. The opposite end |24 of the lever Hí sup plane intermediate the planes of the two base 35 ports suitable weight |25 which in rocking the lever ||| about its pivot H2 applies the neces sary retarding force to the rotation of the tensioning roll 3|. At times, during the weaving of double pile 40 fabric or, and especially, during the weaving of a heading between the ends of two lengths or strips of the fabric, wherein the pile-forming warps are floated beneath the lowermost of the two superposed base fabrics which at that time are being woven more or less as separate fabrics connected together only at the selvage edges thereof by the weft or filling thread woven first into one and then into the other of the base fabrics at alternate picks respectively, the fabric 50 tends to wrinkle in the direction of the warps, i. e. the selvage edges tend to move inwardly toward each other and cause the fabric to become wrinkled therebetween. These wrinkles extend longitudinally of the fabric through the heading and, in some cases, for some distance into the pile section which is woven subsequent to the heading. In order to overcome the above noted longi tudinal wrinkling of the fabric, the loom is pro vided, between the guide bar 52 for the base fabric spacers 59 and the guide roll I3 over which the composite fabric C passes after weav ing, with a spreading device |30. rI‘he spreading device |352 comprises a plurality of peripherally toothed wheels which are spaced apart across the breast beam and disposed in positions to contact with the fabric. The spreader wheels are arranged in two series. The wheels of each series are disposed in substan 70 tially parallel planes with the planes of the wheels of the one series arranged at acute angles 'to the plane of the fabric and breast plate | and pointing toward one edge of the fabric, while the planes of the wheels of the other series are arranged at reversely corresponding acute angles fabrics, non-pile headings are made periodically in the continuous strip by dropping the pile warps below the lower base fabric and not weaving these threads into either of the base fabrics. The dropping of the pile warps to non-weaving position during the weaving of a heading is ac afb complished by rendering inoperative the means by which the heddle frame which 'controls the pile warps is raised and lowered. In different looms this would be accomplished in different ways. In looms of the type to which the pres ent case is directed rendering of the pile-lifting means ineffective is accomplished merely by hold ing a cam follower out of contact with a cam by which the pile warps are normally raised. I claim: ~ 1. In a loom of the kind described employing a group of warp threads for each of the upper and lower base fabrics of a double pile fabric and a group of pile warps for connecting said base fabrics, the combination of a tension roll for ,ì each group of warp threads, with the tension roll for the warps of the lower base fabric of relatively greater diameter than the rolls for the other groups of said warp threads as and for the purpose described. 60 2. In a loom‘of the kind described employing a group of warp threads for each of the upper and lower base fabrics of a double pile fabric and a group of pile warps for connecting said base fabrics, the combination of a tension roll for each group of warp'threads, with the tension roll for the warps of the lower base fabric of relatively greater diameter than the rolls for the other groups of said warp threads, and guides for said' threads disposed adjacent said rolls and arranged 70 to guide said threads around substantially the full circumference of each roll to increase the grip areas ofthe rolls on the threads of each group respectively. ~ 3. In a loom of the kind described employingI 2,138,155 5 a group of Warp threads for each of the upper and lower base fabrics of a double pile fabric and a group of pile Warps for connecting said base fabrics, the combination of a tension roll for atively greater diameter than the rolls for the other groups of said warp threads, and abrasive each group of warps threads, with the tension respectively. roll for the warps of the lower base fabric of re1 tape spirally Wound on each roll with the abra sive Íace thereof outwardly to engage said threads - WILLIAM H. HALL, JR.