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Патент USA US2138164

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Nov. 29, -1938.
`
c, DQ HAVEN
2,138,154
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING GLAZING' UNITS
Original Filed Oct. l2, 1954
5 Sheets-Sheet l
CH/M’z. E: D. H4 VEN.
Cltforneg
Nov.29,193s. i
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C_DHAVEN'
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PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING GLAZING UNITS
v original Filed Oct. 12, 1954
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Gttorneg
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c. D. HAVEN
2,138,164
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING GLAZING ÚNITS
Original Filed Oct. l2, 1934 -
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(Ittorneg
Patented Nov. 29,
’ 12,138,164
>UNITED STATES P-ATaN'r- orp'lc'g'.
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PMDUCING
’
-
GLAZING- UNITS
to Ther
Charles D. Haven, Toledo, Ohio, asslgnor
a ¿corporation
mopane Company, Toledo, Ohio,
of Ohio
Original application October l2, 1934, Serial No.
Divided and this application Decem
ber i, 1935, ‘serial No. 53,401
s claims. v(ci. 154-28)
Y 'I'he present invention relates to a single unit, the marginal portions of the assembly so that
the‘pressure is, inV effect; edge pressure and not
multiple «glass sheet "glazing construction con
sisting of two or more sheets o! glass spaced _ pressure applied o_ver`the entire- area of the
apart by separating means cemented- between glass sheets. The assembly is subjected to this
the sheets entirely around their edges with the compensating pressure -for a periodof time, and 5
space between the sheets being preferably iilled y simultaneously ‘with the heat and pressure treat
ment, dehydrated air is passed through the space
with dehydrated air atv4 normal atmospheric pres
. 748,109.
' between th'e glass sheets' tó insure removal pf yall
-SuIeS.
_
`moisture and other volatile’ matter ,from the
Such a’product has been manufactured and
assignee of the present application,- under the
space and separator strips whereby to prevent 10
condensation withinthe Thermopane unit when
trade name of “Thermopane'”, and- throughout
the same is in use.
10 sold commercially by the Therxriopane- Company,
¿
-
'
lQther objects and advantages of the invention
understood to designate broadly a >single unit, will become more apparent during the course oi, 15
‘15 multiple glass sheet glazing 'construction >of -this ‘ the following description when taken in connec
tion with thé-accompanying drawings.
the'application the word “Thermopane” ~will be
character.l
j
`
-
_
_
» In the drawings whereinr like numerals 'are
‘ The instant application is adivisional of my
employed to designate like parts throughout the
îggìication Serial No. 748,109, ñled October 12,
'
Same,
'
The present divisional application is directed . Fig. 1 is a perspective view or a. nnláned sheet 20
primarily to 'the process and apparatus used in _of Thermopane;
xFig. 2 is a vertical transverse Ísection through ’
the bonding` o! `the glass sheets and separator
A
- I
.
together and the process and apparatus used in a sheet of Thermopane,
Fig. 3 is an elevation show-lng a Thermopane»
the dehydrating ofthe air contained inthe space assembly
with pressing means arranged around 25
25 between the glass sheets and the separator~strip
4the
marginal
portions thereof, as well ’as the'adhesive.
«
‘
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional detail view'
As i_s pointed out in the parent application
f
v
y
f
.
-and in other divisional applications thereof, the thereof,
Fig. 5> is an elevation, partly in section, of a
broad idea of making a‘double sash glazing unit
may be used and showing 30
30r by cementing a spacer orv separator strip about> _'.heating chamber that glass assembliesbeing -sub
the perimeter of two sheets o1 glass to create an a group of fabricated
internal air space has been disclosed in a num- jected to pressure and dehydrating treatment;
Fig. 6 isan end elevation ,of a platen press
ber of different prior art patents, some ofÍ which
have already expired. However, so far as I am
35 aware, none of these prior art suggestions have
- been commercially practical ~and my pwn at
tempts to produce satisfactory glass in accord
ance with _the’teachings of thesel prior art sug
' gestions have resulted in utter failures.
40
In addition -to proper cleaning of the glass
prior to fabrication and selection of >'satisfactory
adhesive strips and adhesives for use between
type pressing means;
,
'
`
-
Fig. 7 is> a-section taken on line
Fig. 8 is" a diagrammatic --view showing the
pressing compartment and dehydrating equip
ment;_and
'
ì
,
_
-
_
Fig'. 9 is a detail eview showing plugging of the ,
openings provided -in lthe separator4 strips _.to 40
permit passage of ,dehydrated air through the"
space between the‘glass sheets duringl the heat
_
.
f
Vthe glass and strips, it is highly important that ing and pressing treatment.
In Fig. 1 is shown a iinished sheet of Thermo
the glass and separator strips be kproperly pressed
45 together andthat the air space`be thoroughly pane comprising two sheets of glass I0l held in i5’
dehydratedV and the separator strips super-dried i, spaced relation by the.l separator strips il ar
so that they will not throw oiî volatilel matter ranged entirely about the marginal portions of
into the space permitting condensation upon the the glass sheets.- The lengthbf the separator
`glass .and other objectionable results.
’
strips isA such that when properly positioned b'e- '
Broadly. speaking, the process and lapparatus tween the glass', aislight channel is created adapt- 50
50
>used for applying pressure, which is preferably ed to receive a. seal l2 composed preferably> of a
accompanied by heat, embodies the clamping of , number of coatings or layers of material designed
the assembled glass and separator strips under to eiïectively protect thev spacer strips and bond
spring tensionto provide a flexible, constant. and ' between the spacer strips and glass from the at
55 substantially evenly distributed pressure about mosphere and other elements,- to‘which the glass 55
2,138,164 `
may be subjected when in use, for preserving the
tory. After the adhesive has been applied to the
predetermined conditions~ established' within the
structure at time of manufacture.
separators, the separators and glass sheets may
be assembled as disclosed in my parent appli
As-is shown more clearly in Fig. 2, the sheets of
.
glass and spacer strips create the space I3 which , preferably contains dehydrated air at substantial
ly normal atmospheric pressure.
cation.
Y
After the elements have been placed in proper
-superimposed relationship, the assembly is sub
jected to a heating and pressing treatment to
effect bonding of the glass and separator strips
together. -Simultaneously with the heat `and pres
Obviously, for '
special installations, the pressure ofthe dehy
di ated air within the space I3 may be varied one
10 way or the other 'to meet particular conditions.
' sure treatment to effect bonding, dehydrated air 10
As is pointed out in the parent application, it
is highly important that prior to fabrication of
the glass into Thermopane, it be thoroughly
is passed through the space between the glass
sheets. In Figs. 3 and 4 is shown one form of
pressing means which can be used to subject the
cleaned, not only from the appearance standpoint
15 but from the standpoint of durability of Thermo
marginal portions of the assembly to an evenly
distributed pressure. The clamping devices, des 15
ignated in their entirety by the numeral I4, are
pane when in use.. Briefly stated, cleaning of the
glass is accomplished by ñrst subjecting it to a
Water soaking treatment to remove water soluble
and water removable substances‘that may be on
20 the surfaces of the glass and to also remove water
suitable for pressing one assembly at a time
.and comprise the multiplicity of spring-pressed
devices I5 including the jaws I6 for engaging
opposite sides Aof the Thermopane assembly near 20
the edges thereof as is clearly shown in Fig. 4.
' soluble alkalies present at the surfaces of the
glass sheets. Sodium and calcium hydroxides are
A number of the spring-pressed devices I5 are
mentioned as being probably the main soluble al
kalies washed from the surface'of the glass, and
25 it is my opinion that removalof these alkalies
from the’surfaces of the glass plays an important _
carried by the plates I‘I through which extend
the adjustable bolts- I8; In view of the position
of the spring member I9, the jaws I6 are normal 25
ly urged 'toward one another, thus exerting pres
' part in holding down or entirely preventing del
sure upon the Thermopane assembly, and' to
eterious staining or eiiiorescence of the glass . spread the jaws I6 apart the plates I1 may be
sheets when subsequently fabricated into Thermo
moved toward’ one another as will readily be
30 pane.
understood.
.
Following the ‘water soaking treatment, the
It is convenient to make up the clamping de
glass sheets are subjected to the action of a sec
vices I4‘in lengths suitable for the different sizes
ond fluid capable of dissolving greases and sim ' of Thermopane units to be produced, and while
ilar matter which is not readily attacked by water, the individual clamping units can be placedoii
and a mixture of alcohol and some non-glass cut
the glass one at a time it is cheaper and general-l 35
ting abrasive such as Whiting (chalk) is satisfac
ly more satisfactory to make them up into units
tory for this step in the cleaning process.
as «shown so that a group may be placed in po- /
The glass sheets are then buffed to remove the sition at one time. Furthermore, it is not neces
cleaning materials andfforeign matter to give a sary that only one group of clamps be used on
40 satisfactorily cleaned mirror-like surface.
each side of the assembly as a number of lengths
The separator strips II, as is disclosed in the of units Vcan be placed upon the glass provided
parent application, are formed from a yiel`dable, there is a substantially uniform application of _
somewhat porous- material such as a laminated pressure about the perimeter ofthe Thermopane
rubber compound and fabric, with the outer sur- ’
assembly.
faces of the rubber laminations being faced with
the fabric. The fabric facings of the strips are
After the clamping means have been associated 45
with the assembly, it is placed into a cabinet or
heating compartment 20 on the racks 2I ar-_
ranged therein. The chamber 2U may be pro
cleaned and roughened so that an interrupted or
point contact type of adhesion can be obtained be
tweenl the separator and glass sheets.
'I'he type of material from which the spacer
elements are formed and the method of bonding
vthe same to the glass sheets are important for a
number of different reasons.v When the Ther
mopane is placed in use, it is ordinarily subjected
55 to strains from internal pressure in the air space
and from expansion and contraction of the two
'
vided with a series of the supports 2| for receiv
ing the spring-pressed 'I'hermopane assemblies, 60
and to permit access to the interior of the com
partment the vertically adjustable closure mem
bers 22 can be used. As shown, the compartment
is also provided with gas burners 23 for con
trolling the temperature of the compartment and
55
consequently the Thermopane assembly during
or more sheets of glass due to the fact »that the
the pressing treatment. Obviously, the construc
temperature of the glass sheets is constantly
'tion of the compartment can be varied tol suit
convenience and electrical as well as gaseous
fuel heating elements will be satisfactory. Re
gardless of the form of heating equipment re
changing with relation to one another. When a
60 rigid type of separator is used, this movement of
‘ the glass sheets and change in pressure often re
sults in a cracking of the .glass so that even as
sorted to, the Thermopane assemblies should be
subjected to a'temperatureof approximately 200°
suming that' it is possible to obtain an adequate
bond between a rigid type separator and the`
F. for. a period of about three hours. The heat
and pressure treatment thus applied is sufficient 65
glass, the results obtained are not satisfactory
because of breakage. In other words, if the bond
to promote an adequate and permanent bond
is sufficient to hold the glass and separator t0
between the glass sheets and separator strips as"
gether, the glass sheets will break and if the bond> well as between the separator strips at their con
is not sufficient to.hold the glass and rigid sepa~ ' tacting portions. Naturally, the temperature and
rator together, seepage is permitted -so that in ‘time cycle required will bedependent somewhat
70
either event the glass is ruined.
l upon the composition of separator material and
With the laminated rubber and fabric sepa
rator strip, shellac and alcohol in the approxi
mate proportions of one pound of shellac to four
gallons of 180 proof alcohol are entirely satisfac
~
adhesive employed.
`
~
At the timethe assemblies in the pressing
means are placed in the cabinet 20, dehydrating
means are connected with the space between the 75
` 2,138,164' f
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3
.
glass sheets. ~'I‘he hypodermic needles 2I’ànd 25
' are inserted.throughtransverse openings pr vi
of >precautionî,»During_th‘e entire time that the
ï Thermopane assembly is being subjected tothe
ously formed in the separator strips. The ne e
24 is connected Aby means of a' flexible hose 23
to a lconduit ZTfurniShed-with a supply. o_f dehy
drated air, whilethe needle 25 serves as an ex
haustfor the space between the glass- sheets.
and insome cases the needle is not required
as the opening will“ be. satisfactory for exhaust
10 ing purposes. However, by providing the needle
heat and pressure treatment, a continuous stream
of dehydrated air is passed through the space
between the glass sheets.
.
5
Since all -materials contain water in some de
gree, the term dehydration »is a' relative one. As
has'been pointed out, solid separators are not'
satisfactory, and therefore a type of separator,
having a slight degree of flexibility is employed 10
and hose, there is less ’danger of clogging up of ' and in the case of the rubber fabric»u laminated
thev o ening in the separator strip uduring thè » type of separator, the separator has a certain de-`
- gree of porosity and thus capable of absorbing
dehy
t gitr‘eatment.
,
f In Figs. 6, '7 and 8 is' shown another form lof ’ and holding moistiur .
I have found that I can take advantage of this l5
pressing means designed to give a constant
and .evenly distributed compensatingpressure to property of the separator and can make it serve
the Thermopane assembly and diiïers from the a very useful function in the success of the Ther- .
mopane construction.A Durin`g the heating -and
clamping lunits of Figs'. 3 and 4 -in that a plu
rality 'of assemblies can be pressed- simultaneous . dehydrating steps, the degree of heat andlength .
of time-during‘which the treatment 'extends is 2°
ly in one pressing means.
'
hi gh enough and long enough to give what I con
'I'he -structure of Figs. 6, '7 and 8 is in >the na
ture of a compensating platen press in which the sider to be a super-drying of- the separator mate
Thermopane assemblies `28 are placed one upon rial and the adhesive.'> .That ~is,f‘the heating of the ‘
the'other between the movable platens 23. 'As assemb'y drives oiI volatile matter such as, for
shown particularly in Fig. 7„the platens are pro- ‘ example, the alcohol in the adhesive and also'
vided with'thestrips 30 slotted at spaced points moisture' present in the separator. The passage
as atl 3| ~to produce the isolated sections to act of dehydrated air through -the space formed be- l ‘
as retainers for the springs 32. `The backing tween the- glass sheets and in contact with they
members 33 receive the» other ends .of the springsL separators renders the separators hygroscopici,
’and by means_of the rods. 3_4 and wing nuts 35, and therefore they act as a -safeguard when the
the desired amount of pressure canibe applied Thermopane is in use because any slight moisture ‘ '
_ to the stack of'Thermopane assemblies through that might -possibly be> entrapped within the `\
the intermediary of the springs and compensat- _ Thermopane is taken up by\th_e super-dried sepa
ing platens. It will be noted that the springs rator and thus not permitted to condense on the
are positioned around the border portions ’of/the
. platens only so that the pressure is an edgeîirës
sure/and not applied over the entire areas of
the glass sheets to the same extent.
In Fig. 8, the platen press, designated in its
peratu'res.
'
-
l
-
.
The degree of dehydration required is high es
pecially where the 'I'hermopane is to be 'mounted
in steel sash. When installed in metal sash, the
muntins o'f the sash become very hot in summer, ¿40
so that the separator must be dry enough that
entirety by the numeral 36, is arranged within
the cabinet 31 correspondingto the cabinet 20 in
Fig. 5, the press and its contents being supported' this heat willl not drive out any moisture there
4
on themembers 38 and the temperature of the
'glass controlled by tha heating elements 33. ,
Regardless of the- type of pressing instrumen
45
» tality used, the dehydrating means are employed
-
surfaces of the _glass when'` subjected to low tem- 35
and‘the supply of dehydrated air may- be fur
nished by means ofthe compressor I0 operated by
the motorI 4I and' filling> the tank I2. In addi
5 0 tion to dehydrating the air, it is preferably fil
tered ‘so that itis thoroughlyk cleaned `when intro
duced into' >thecavity between the glass sheets..v`
The »pipe 43, Aconnected to the tank-42, likewise
»from causing condensation' to form on the glass,
surfaces. The muntins absorb the vradiant heat
from the sun while the glass transmits most of 45
the 'radiant heat. 'I‘his temperature diiïerence
will result inI condensation if. thereris enough
Amoisture present in the strip material or in the
_air trapped between the glass sheets.
Therefore, by super-drying the separator, a 50
>hygroscopic condition is produced whereby the
separator itself acts as a constant -vmeans for
. keeping the air in a dehydrated condition so thatv
-a slight seepage of moisture which might possibly
connects to a jar 4,4 which may be iilled with Va
55
dehydrating ragent such as calcium chloride“,
One or any’number of similar interconnecting f'
. jars may be used to vinsure thorough dehydration
of the ai'r. In theillustration, the `jarlii is likewise
ñlledwith calcium chloride. The remaining jars
41, shown in Fig. 8, may be‘ñlled with cotton _and
steel wool 48 so thai'l the air is then completely`
>dehydrated and ñltered. It is then passed
through the conduit 21 through the` hypodermic
» l needles Aand into the space between the `glass
65
sheets, and I prefer to use just sufficient pressure
_to insure a constant steady flow- of` air tfirough the
" space; about one pound- of pressure will do. .
pass through the sealing coatings can be tolerated. 55
The importance of this super-drying of the
separators to render them hygroscopic in nature _
cannot be over-emphasized,~ especially when it is
considered that the volume ot air in the space
is so small that only a trace of moisture can be 60
heldin the’air without reaching saturation. The `
volume of' moisture which the rubber type sepa
rator can hold when properly .dried is far greater
than the capacity of the air itself to hold moisture
so that a definite protection against freeI moisture e5
in th‘e air` is had? for a considerable'length of
' time.
At the. end of the heatingv and `dehydrating
.Becausev the assemblies are positioned-in .the
_heated-cabinet for a _period of about three hours, -l treatments, the bonded glass and separator as- '
’I have not found it necessary to heat the dehy-~ sembly are removed),v and1within a reasonably 70
drated air 'externally of the cabinet as >its tem-. short time the openings ~provided for the insertion
' perature is raised s'uñiciently passing through the of the hypodermic»- _needles jare plugged with a
conduits and while in the cavity between the glass suitable rubber, cement _l3`\by means of the tool
` lo.
rtsheets. However, the air may beheated ,exter-.n 50 as shown in Fig. 9. '.
Following this._’the marginal_\portionsv of the 75
75 nally >of _the cabinetdf preferred andas a matter "
4
i
2,138,164
'I'hermopane are sealed and preferably this is
done as disclosed inthe parent application.
I claim:
ì
'
'
1. The process of producing a.multi-ply glass
sheet glazing unit of the character described,
comprising a -plurality of glass sheets andyield
able separator strips bonded` between the glass
sheets entirely around their marginal portions,
>including the steps of applying a coating of ad
hesive to opposite surfaces of the separator strips,
sheets entirely around their perimeters forming 'a
dead air space therebetween, consisting of means
for exerting compensating pressure to the mar
ginal portions of the assembled glass sheets and
separator strips, and means for inducing a flow of 5 l
Vdehydrated air through said dead air space dur
ing the time that pressure is applied to the mar
gina] portions of the assembly.
'
.,
5. Apparatus of the character described for use
in the manufacture of multi-ply glass sheet glaz- 10
placing the glass sheets and separator strips in - ing units, comprising a plurality of glass sheets
proper >superimposed relationship with the adhe- ~’ and separator strips -bonded between the glass
sive coated surfaces of said separator strips in
contact with the glass sheets, then subjecting the
sheets entirely around their perimeters forming a
dead air space therebetween, consisting of spring
" marginal portions of the assembly so formed to pressed members arranged to exert pressure upon 15
light pressure in presencev of heat to bond the the marginal portions of the assembly to eifect
separator strips between the glass sheets, and " bonding of the glass sheets and separator strips
passing dehydrated air through the space between together, and means for inducing a ñow of dehy
the glass sheets during the pressing treatment.
drated-air through the space ‘between the glass
20
2. The process of producing a multi-ply glass sheets for dehydrating the air left between said 20»
sheet glazing unit of the character described, 'sheets and for dehydrating the separator strips.
comprising 'a plurality of glass sheetsand yield
6. Apparatus of the character described for use
able separator strips bonded between the glass in the manufacture of multi-ply glass sheet glaz- '
sheets entirely around their marginal portions, ing units, comprising a plurality of glass sheets
25 including the steps of applying a coating of ad
and separator strips bonded between the glass 25
hesive to opposite surfaces of the separator strips, sheets entirely around their perimeters forming
placing the glass sheets and separator strips in
a. dead -air space therebetween, consisting of
spring-pressed members arranged to exert pres
sure upon the marginal portions of the assembly
toeffect bonding of the glass sheets and separator 30‘
ginal portions of the assembly-so formed to com- . strips together, means for inducing a ñow of
pensating pressure in a heated atmosphere for dehydrated air through the space between the
bonding the glas's sheets and .separator strips to
glass sheets for dehydrating the air left between
gether, and simultaneously passing a ñow of dehy
said sheets and for dehydrating the separator
drated air through the space between the sheets strips, and means for heating the assembly dur- .85
to dehydrate the air remaining between the sheets ing the pressing treatment.
,
.
and the separator strips themselves.
7. Apparatus ofthe character described for use
3. The process of producing a multi-ply glass in the manufacture of multi-ply glass‘sheet glaz
sheet glazing unit of the character described, ing units comprising a plurality of glass sheets.
comprising a plurality of glass sheets and yield
and separator strips bondedv between theglass 40
able separatorstrips bonded between the glass sheets entirely around their perimeters forming
proper superimposed relationship with the adhe
sive coated surfaces of said separator strips in
30 contact with the glass sheets, subjecting the mar
sheets entirely around their marginal portions, , a dead air space therebetween, ` consisting of
-including the steps of applying a coating of ad
hesive to opposite surfaces of the separator strips,
45 placing the glass she ts and separator strips in
proper superimposed- lationship with the adhe
sive coated surfaces of said separator strips in
contact with the glass sheets, subjecting the mar
ginal portions of the assembly so formed to corn
50 pensating pressures in the presence of heat to.'
eñ‘ect bonding between the glass sheets and sepa
rator» strips, and simultaneously passing a- con
tinuous ñow of thoroughly dehydrated air
, through the space between the glass sheets.
55
4. Apparatus of the character described for use
in the manufacture of multi-ply glass sheet glaz
ing units, comprising a plurality of glass sheets
and separator strips bonded >between the glass
means for exerting a compensating pressurel to
the marginal portions only of the assembled glass/
sheets and separator strips, and means for heat- 45.
ing the assembly during the pressing treatment.
8. Apparatus of the character described for use
in the manufacture of multi-ply glass sheet glaz
-ing units comprising a plurality of glass sheets
.and separator strips bonded between the glass 50
sheets4 entirelyv around their perimeters formingl
a dead air' space therebetween, consisting of
spring-pressed members arranged to exert pres
sure upon the marginal portions only of the as
sembly to -effect bonding of the glass sheets and 55
separator strips together, and means forl heating
the assembly during the pressing treatment. .
CHARLES D. HAVEN.l
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