Myths and Legends of Irelandкод для вставкиСкачать
Презентация о мифах и легендах Ирландии языческого и религиозного происхождения
Myths and Legends of Ireland Мифы и легенды Ирландии Introduction The ancient legends of all nations of the world, bear so striking a resemblance to each other that we are led to believe there was once a period when the whole human family was of one creed and one language. Dogmatic religion and science have long since killed the mytho-poetic faculty in cultured Europe. It only exists now, naturally and instinctively, in children, poets, and the childlike races, like the Irishsimple, joyous, reverent, and unlettered. Christianity was readily accepted by the Irish. The pathetic tale of the beautiful young Virgin-Mother and the Child-God, for central objects, touched all the deepest chords of feeling in the tender, loving, and sympathetic Irish heart. The legends of ancient times were not overthrown by it, however, but taken up and incorporated with the new Christian faith. The holy wells and the sacred trees remained, and were even made holier by association with a saint’s name. Irish legends Spooky myths and and legends Legends about the saints The creatures from pagan legends The banshee ( bean-sidhe, Macha, MorRioghain) Тhe bean-sidhe (woman of the fairy) may be an ancestral spirit appointed to forewarn members of certain ancient Irish families of their time of death. According to tradition, the banshee can only cry for five major Irish families: the O’Neills, the O’Briens, the O’Connors, the O’Gradys and the Kavanaghs. The banshee chiefly appears in one of three guises: a young woman, a stately matron or a raddled old hag. These represent the triple aspects of the Celtic goddess of war and death, namely Badhbh, Macha and MorRioghain. She usually wears either a grey, hooded cloak or the winding sheet or grave robe of the unshriven dead. Although not always seen, her mourning call is heard, usually at night when someone is about to die. The banshee may also appear in a variety of other forms, such as that of a hooded crow, stoat, hare and weasel — animals associated in Ireland with witchcraft. The creatures from pagan legends The Pooka(Puke,Poc) No fairy is more feared in Ireland than the pooka. It can assume a variety of terrifying forms. The guise in which it most often appears, however, is that of a sleek, dark horse with sulphurous yellow eyes and a long wild mane. It roams large areas of countryside at night, tearing down fences and gates, scattering livestock in terror, trampling crops and generally doing In some areas the pooka becomes a small, deformed .The pooka has the power of human speech, and it has been known to stop in front of certain houses and call out the names of those it wants to take upon its midnight dashes. If that person refuses, the pooka will vandalise their property because it is a very vindictive fairy. The name may come from the Scandinavian pook or puke, meaning ‘nature spirit’. Other authorities suggest that the name comes from the early Irish poc meaning either ‘a male goat’ or a ‘blow from a cudgel’. In some areas of the country, the pooka is rather more mysterious than dangerous, provided it is treated with proper respect. The pooka may even be helpful on occasion. Only one man has ever managed to ride the pooka and that was Brian Boru, the High King of Ireland. Using a special bridle containing three hairs from the pooka’s tail, Brian managed to control the magic horse and stay on its back until, exhausted, it surrendered to his will. The king extracted two promises from it; firstly, that it would no longer torment Christian people and ruin their property and secondly, that it would never again attack an Irishman (all other nationalities are exempt) except those who are drunk or abroad with an evil intent. The latter it could attack with greater ferocity than before. The pooka agreed to these conditions. However, over the intervening years, it seems to have forgotten its bargain and attacks on property and sober people on their way home continue to this day. The creatures from pagan legends The Dullahan The dullahan is one of the most spectacular creatures in the Irish fairy.Around midnight this wild and black-robed horseman may be observed riding a dark and snorting steed across the countryside. Dullahan has no head upon its shoulders,but he carries it with him, either on the saddle-brow of his horse or upraised in his right hand. A hideous, idiotic grin splits the face from ear to ear, and the eyes, which are small and black, dart about like malignant flies. Wherever the dullahan stops, a mortal dies. Those who watch from their windows to see him pass are rewarded for their pains by having a basin of blood thrown in their faces, or by being struck blind in one eye. In some parts of the country, the dullahan drives a black coach known as the coach-a-bower. This is drawn by six black horses, and travels so fast that the friction created by its movement often sets on fire the bushes along the sides of the road. The Dullahan will stop its snorting horse before the door of a house and shout the name of the person about to die, drawing forth the soul at the call. He may also stop at the very spot where a person will die. On nights of Irish feast days, it is advisable to stay at home with the curtains drawn; particularly around the end of August or early September when the festival of Crom Dubh reputedly took place. If you have to be abroad at this time, be sure to keep some gold object close to hand.The origins of the dullahan are not known for certain, but he is thought to be the embodiment of an ancient Celtic god, Crom Dubh. Being a fertility god, Crom Dubh demanded human lives each year, the most favoured method of sacrifice being decapitation.The worship of Crom continued in Ireland until Christian missionaries arrived from Scotland. They denounced all such worship and under their influence, the old sacrificial religions of Ireland began to lose favour. Nonetheless, Crom Dubh was not to be denied his annual quota of souls, and took on a physical form which became known as the dullahan or far dorocha (meaning dark man), the tangible embodiment of death.Unlike the banshee, the dullahan does not pursue specific families and its call is a summoning of the soul of a dying person rather than a death warning. There is no real defence against the dullahan because he is death’s herald. However, an piscopa made of gold may frighten him away, for dullahan is appear to have an irrational fear of this precious metal. The religious legends The most famous legends about the saints. Saint Patrick Saint Briget Saint Kevin • • • • • • The Well of the Book When St. Patrick was one time amongst the Pagan Irish they grew very fierce and seemed eager to kill him. Then his life being in great danger, he kneeled down before them and prayed to God for help and for the conversion of their souls. And the fervour of the prayer was so great that as the saint rose up the mark of his knees was left deep in the stone, and when the people saw the miracle they believed. Now when he came to the next village the people said if he performed some wonder for them they also would believe and pray to his God. So St. Patrick drew a great circle on the ground and bade them stand outside it; and then he prayed, and the water rushed up from the earth, and a well pure and bright as crystal filled the circle. And the people believed and were baptized. The well can be seen to this day, and is called Tober-na-Lauer (The Well of the Book), because St. Patrick placed his own prayer-book in the centre of the circle before the water rose. St. Kevin It is related of St. Kevin that after he had been seven years at Glendalough, a weariness of life came over him, and a longing to hear the voice of man once more. Then Satan came to him in the form of an angel, bright and beautiful, and persuaded him that he should quit the valley and travel abroad and see the world, while yet his youth was left to him. And St. Kevin was near yielding to the words of the tempter, when fortunately St. Munna came by that way, and he at once saw through the trick, and showed to St. Kevin that the advice was from the devil, and not from God. And St. Kevin promised St. Munna that he would never leave the valley till his death. However, God, not willing that the saint should eat his heart away in idleness, bade him build a monastery on the east of the lake, the place where the resurrection was to be; and he sent his angel to show him the exact spot. But St. Kevin, when he saw the place so wild and rude, could not help telling the friendly angel that it was very rugged and difficult to build on; and the stones were heavy and hard to be moved. Then the angel, to prevent any difficulty in the building, rendered the stones light and easy to move, and so the work of building went on to the glory of God; and St. Kevin rejoiced in the task set before him. And the monk who tells the story adds, that from that day in all the place which the angel appointed for the building, there is now no stone that cannot be lightly moved and easily worked all through the valley of Glendalough. Conclusion The folktale was used to explore answers to questions pertaining to life and death; it was used to explain tragedies that occurred, also it was used for entertainment as well as for providing solace and meaning to those things that are beyond one’s rationalization or understanding. Irish folktales are magical or historical stories that are imaginative, inspirational, and superstitious. These tales have survived centuries of retelling and interpretations by many, but they still entrance the audience and capture their imagination. There is a definitive style and tone to Irish folktales that appeals to both children and adults; folktales are an excellent instructional tool which one may use to expose children to the essential literary elements such as tone, theme, and style. The importance of the folktale within the Irish culture cannot be dismissed. Thank you very much for your attention!