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July 2, 1946- F. c. REGGIO 2,403,399 POWERPLANT Filed March 29, 1941 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 A26 iii 48; 'INVENTOR July 2, 1946. 2,403,399 F. C. REGGIO POWERPLANT Filed March 29 ,‘ 1941 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 85 ' 87 62 861,-. ,40 INVENTOR July 2, 1946. F. C. REGGIO 2,403,399 POWERPLANT Filed March 29, 1941 ' 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR 2,403,399 Patented July 2, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,403,399 POWER PLANT Ferdlnando Carlo Reggie, Detroit, Mich. Application March 29, 1941, Serial No. 385,806 1s Claims. (Cl. 110-1354;) 1 This invention relates to supercharged power plants for aircraft and more particularly to means for driving and for controlling supercharg ing units, or for regulating the air induction pres sure. of aircraft engines. This invention relates to powerplants, and more particularly to means for regulating the air induction pressure, the com bustible fuel supply or the torque of said power 2 Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a multlenglne supercharged powerplant for aircraft including a supercharglng unit driven through a variable speed transmission from one of the engines of the powerplant. and regulating devices therefor. Fig. 2 is a fragmentary diagrammatic view of a modi?ed arrangement of supercharged power plant. Flg. 3 is a fragmentary section showing another plants. The invention is particularly useful in connection with multiengine aircraft powerplants 10 modi?ed form of the powerplant of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 to 6 diagrammatically indicate various designed for large take-oil‘ power output and high embodiments of the invention in connection with altitude ceiling. various multiengine airplanes. One of the objects of the invention is to pro In the following description and in the claims vide means for economically adjusting the air supply of supercharged powerplants to suit the 15 various details will be identified by speci?c names for convenience, but they are intended to be as various operating requirements thereof. generic in the application as the art will permit. Another object is to eliminate or substantially The power output of conventional spark igni reduce the large waste of power which occurs in tion internal combustion engines is dependent on conventional supercharged engines designed for 20 the intake manifold pressure, which is controlled high altitude when operating at part throttle. by a throttle valve. When aircraft engines hav A further object is to provide a supercharging ing a supercharger designed for high altitude are unit adapted to be driven from an aircraft pow~ operated at part throttle, an important fraction erplant at variable speed for supplying com of the power required to drive the supercharger pressed air thereto, and means for adjusting the speed of said unit to control the powerplant air 25 is wasted by throttling, thus decreasing the power supply. available to drive the propeller and causing an Another object is to provide in an aircraft pow erplant having two or more engines a single throt perature. objectionable rise in the engine manifold tem A supercharging unit for aircraft powerplant tle valve for controlling said engines uniformly 30 in which a blower is driven at variable speed by and simultaneously, Still another object is to provide an aircraft powerplant including two or more engines and a common supercharger delivering air to said en an auxiliary motor is described in my copending U. S. patent application Serial Number 188,960 filed Feb. 5, 1938. Such a unit connected with a large powerplant, however, absorbs a considerable A further object is to provide a single regulat 35 amount of power at high altitude and necessi tates a rather large and heavy driving motor ing device for the automatic control of two or which would operate under full load at the high more engines. est altitude and at part or no load at interme Stll1 another object is to provide, in a power diate and low altitudes. According to one of the plant for aircraft, one or more supercharging units adapted to be driven at variable speed from 40 preferred embodiments of the present invention, a motor is provided, together with means for con said powerplant to supply air thereto, and means necting said motor with a propeller and, by way for varying the number of said units which are of a variable speed transmission, with a super in operation as well as the speed thereof in de charging unit, whereby the maximum motor pendence on the altitude and powerplant oper power output may be employed during the take ating conditions. off, mostly or entirely for driving said propeller, A still further object is to provide means for gines. automatically regulating the aircraft powerplant, or a preselected operative condition thereof, in dependence upon the adjustment of a control or regulating member. Further and other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following description in con nectlon with which several embodiments of the invention have been illustrated in the accom panying drawings, in which: while at high altitude a. considerable portion or the totality of said power output may be absorbed by said supercharging unit to increase the altitude ceiling of the aircraft. The powerplant shown in Fig. 1 includes three engines, indicated by numerals 8, 8a and 8b, each having a carburetor i0, Illa. and Nb, provided with a throttle control I2, I20 and IR), respectively, and connected with a variable pitch propeller H, 2,403,399 3 I40 and Nb, adjustable to automatically main tain the engine speed at a constant value deter mined by the adjustment of the speed control It, 15a and lib, respectively, this being a known ar 4 and the scoop tube 84 will be in its extended po sition, maintaining all of the operating oil in the working circuit of the hydraulic coupling, where The elements Ill: and lBb are not by the speed ratio thereof attains its maximum value. shown in Fig. 1. A driven shaft ll of engine 8 carries, rotatable Assuming the individual carburetor controls l2, rangement. Ho and I2!) to be all in fully open position, the therewith, a driving impeller 20, an inner cas supercharging unit will discharge the maximum ing 22 having leak-oi! nozzles 23 and a rotating amount of air into conduits 48, 45a and 44b, and reservoir 24 of a variable speed h draulic cou 10 the three engines wiil therefore develop the max pling 25 of the scoop-tube type, w ich is well imum power output corresponding to the actual known in the art and will be accordingly brie?y values of altitude, engine speed and fuel/air ratio described. The driven shaft 25 thereof, coaxial adjustment. Assuming the speed controls l8, Ila with shaft i8, carries the driven impeller or run‘ and I6!) of the engines to be adjusted for the same net 28. Lubricating oil, or other suitable fiuid, 15 value of speed, the three engines will develop the is contained in coupling 25. The rotating reser same power output, but the propeller M of engine voir 24 has a capacity su?icient to hold the con 8 will operate with smaller pitch than those of tent of the working circuit between impeller 20 engines 8a and 8b, as it absorbs the power output and runner 28, with which it communicates of its engine minus the power required to drive through leak-on’ nozzles 23. 20 the supercharging unit. At a given speed of the engine 8, the speed of It now the rod 52 is displaced downwardly, driven shaft 25 is dependent on the amount of while owing to the action of spring 52 and stop 54 oil contained in the working circuit. With this the inlet pressure regulating valve 42 remains circuit ?lled up, the speed of shaft 25 assumes in open position, the scoop tube 30 is caused to its maximum value, while with no oil in the work radially retract, correspondingly reducing the ing circuit the shaft 26 remains idle. An ad amount of oil in the working circuit of the hy justable scoop tube 30, extending into the rotat draulic coupling and decreasing the supercharger ing reservoir 24 and controlled by an external speed and the air supply of the engines. Con lever 3! connected with rod 32 is rotatably mount tinued downward displacement of rod 52 will ed on the stationary housing 34 of coupling 25. 30 cause the scoop tube 34 to reach a. stop, not Oil passes from the working circuit through noz shown, corresponding to its fully retracted posi zles 23 and collects in the rotating reservoir 24. tion, in which the coupling becomes inoperative, from where it is picked up by the scoop tube 30 and no more power is absorbed by the supercharg and returned to the working circuit. The scoop ing unit from engine I. Thereafter, upon continued tube 25 is rotatable about an axis parallel to downward displacement of rod 52, as the left hand shafts l8 and 25 so that rotation thereof varies end of the ?oating lever 50 is prevented from the radial adjustment of the open extremity of further downward displacement, the ?oating scoop tube 30. In the fully radially extended po lever 50 will operate to progressively close the sition of the latter, substantially all of the oil is returned through conduits 35 and 36 to the work 40 valve 42 and thereby reduce the pressure in con duits 48, 48a and 48b to any value below the sur ing circuit, and maximum output speed is ob rounding atmospheric pressure. Obviously, when tained. By lowering rod 32, the scoop tube 30 may the rod 52 is displaced in the opposite direction be brought into a fully retracted position, so that back to its initially mentioned position, ?rst the all of the oil drains into the reservoir 24 and the valve 42 will open while the hydraulic coupling coupling is completely disconnected. By placing is disconnected, and thereafter the supercharger the control rod 32 in any intermediate position, speed will be increased to its maximum value cor varying quantities of oil are delivered to the work responding again to the maximum pressure in ing circuit and any desired output speed may be conduits 48. The waste of power that would re obtained. A two stage supercharger. driven from shaft 60 sult from driving the supercharging unit, at un necessarily high speed while inlet valve 42 is par 25 through suitable gearing 38, not shown in de tially closed is therefore avoided. tail, is provided, including a low pressure centrif It is to be noted that in the foregoing the su ugal blower 45 having an air inlet 4| and an inlet percharging unit is assumed to be of the two pressure regulating valve 42 therein, and an stage centrifugal type. Although the above men air outlet communicating by way of an intercooier tioned type appears to be particularly advan 44 with the inlet of a high pressure centrifugal tageous, it is to be understood that the inven blower 45. Compressed air is discharged from tion is not limited thereto, but that various other the outlet of the latter blower through a second types of supercharger may be employed. If a intercooier 41 into conduits 48, 48a and 45b con blower of the positive displacement type be used, nected with the carburetors N, Na and I 0b of 60 the pressure in conduits 48 corresponding to the the engines. idling speed of the engines 5 is obviously obtained The inlet pressure regulating valve 42 is con for a positive value of the blower speed, the nected by means of suitable lever and linkages blower inlet being unrestricted, whereby the valve with the right hand end of a ?oating lever 50, the other end of which actuates the upper end 65 42 and the ?oating lever 58 becomes unneces sary and the rod 52 may be linked directly to the of the control rod 32 of the variable speed cou scoop lever 22. pling 25. The median point of lever 50 is mount A pressure regulator, indicated generally at 55, ed on a pivot carried by rod 52. A spring 53, at is provided to automatically operate the rod 52. tached to lever 55 and cooperating with a stop The pressure regulator may be any device adapt 54, tends to keep valve 42 in open position. In 70 ed to displace rod 52 in response to a change of the operation of the above described mechanism pressure in conduits 48 or in response to other the pressure in conduits 44, 45a and 48b is con suitable engine operating condition. In the ar trolled by the axial adjustment of rod 52. As rangement shown in Fig. i the regulator includes suming said rod to be initially in its extreme up a metallic bellows 54 sealed under vacuum and per position, the throttle valve 42 will be open 75 provided with a spring 52 for expanding said bel 5 2,403,899 lows. The latter acts directly against a similar bellows 60, the inside of which communicates by 6 gines I is automatically controlled by the regu lator 56 in dependence on the adjustment or way of duct 82 with the outlet of intercooler 41 control member 80. For a "cruising” adjustment where the pressure is substantially the same as of the latter, at low altitude the air pressure in in conduits 48. These two bellows act on the conduits 48 may be lower than the surrounding median point of a lever 83 to operate pistons 64 pressure, in which case the valve 42 is partly and 65 controlling the admission of a ?uid under closed and the hydraulic coupling is inoperative. pressure. usually lubricating oil from an engine Assuming the speed controls i8 to be adjusted for driven pump, to opposite sides of piston 68 at equal engine speeds, the propellers I4, I40 and tached to rod 52. The oil under pressure is ad 10 I4?) absorb equal engine torques and have equal mitted to the pressure regulator through pipe pitch. As the altitude increases, ?rst the valve 61 and discharged at lower pressure by way 01’ 42 is completely opened, and thereafter the pres pipes ill and 69. sure regulator 56 acts to render the hydraulic If bellows 58 and 60 have equal sections, the coupling 25 operative and drive the supercharg surrounding atmospheric pressure acts on the two ing unit at correspondingly increasing speed bellows in opposite directions and with equal thereby absorbing increasing torque from engine magnitude so that any change of pressure in con 8 and causing the speed regulator thereof to de duits 48 operates bellows 6i] and in turn the pis crease the pitch of the propeller H in order to ton B8 and returns the pressure in said conduits maintain the engine speed constant. Such speed to the predetermined absolute value, independ 20 regulator, not shown in the drawings, is connected ently of any variation in altitude. There is pro with speed control 18 and consists of a well known vided a control member 80 which may be manu hydraulically or electrically actuated device con ally operable, connected with the outer end of trolled by an engine driven ?yball mechanism lever 63, for setting the resiilent load of the spring for varying the propeller pitch to automatically 59 contained in bellows 58 corresponding to the 25 maintain the engine speed at a value determined neutral position of pistons 64 and 65 and thereby by the adjustment of speed control It. It is to the value of the pressure which will be automat be noted that ,while at low altitude and part ically maintained in conduits 48 by the pressure throttle the power output of engine 8 is transmit regulator 56. It is to be noted that with bellows ted to the propeller i4, at increasing altitude a 5B and iii of equal eifective sections, for a given 30 correspondingly increasing portion of said power adjustment of control member 80 the absolute is automatically withdrawn from the propeller pressure in conduits II will have a constant value and applied to drive the supercharging unit. within the designed altitude limit, and the power As previously stated, the hydraulic coupling 25 output of engines 8, 8a and 8?), at a given speed shown in Fig. 1 is no part of the present inven thereof, will increase with the altitude owing to tion and has been described merely as a known the eil’ect of the corresponding decrease of ex~ example of in?nitely variable speed transmission haust counter pressure. Instead of a constant for driving the supercharglng unit at any speed absolute pressure in conduits 48, a substantially within the designed limits regardless of the speed constant power output of the engines 8 at a given of the driving engine 8. It is to be clearly un speed thereof, or a power output thereof which 40 derstood, however, that according to the present varies substantially as a predetermined function invention any other suitable typeof variable speed of the altitude, may however be obtained with transmission or coupling may be substituted for bellows of unequal effective sections. that shown in Fig. 1, in particular a variable According to one of the preferred embodiments speed electric drive, or a variable speed hydraulic of the invention, each of the engines 8, Ba and 8!) drive of the positive displacement type including includes a conventional supercharger, such as a pump of variable capacity such for example as the supercharger 9 shown in Fig. 2, which may described in the U. 8. Patent 2,155,455 to Hans be designed for example for moderate altitude, Thoma. Such variable speed drives are well or for providing the boost required for the rated known in the art and it is therefore regarded maximum take-off engine power output in aver— 50 as unnecessary to describe and illustrate them in age ground conditions. Each of said engines is detail. also provided with an individual air inlet 82, 82a As shown in Fig. 1, the pressure regulator 56 or 821) having a control valve 83, 83a or 83b re controls the air pressure in conduits 48. How spectively, whereby each engine may be either ever if the engines 8 have individual supercharg connected with the conduits 48 of the super ers, the induction pressure at the cylinder intake charging unit, as shown in Fig. 1 wherein the air valves thereof varies with the engine speed. The inlets 82 are closed by the valves 83, or supplied same pressure regulator 56 may be used to con with air at surrounding pressure through the air trol either the pressure in conduits 48 or the inlets 82 when the valves 83 are rotated clock pressure at the cylinder intake valves of the en wise to open said air inlets and interrupt the air 60 gines by employing the arrangement of Fig. 2, flow communication between each engine 8 and in which the lower bellows of regulator 55 may the corresponding conduit 48. The engines 8 be selectively connected by way of ducts B2, 85, being provided with individual conventional speed 86, 88a and 86b and cooks 8‘! and 88 either with and load controls It and I2, connected with the conduits 48 or with the induction manifolds 90 well known speed actuated mechanism for ad of any of the engines 8. i lusting the pitch of propeller I4, and with the In order to maintain the operating speed ratio engine throttle valve respectively, they may op between driven and driving members of the hy erate independently of the supercharging unit, draulic coupling 25 within a range of satisfactory and in case of failure occurring to the latter the airplane may keep on ?ying with the engines 8 70 efficiency, a two-speed gearing 82, not shown in de tail, controlled by a lever 83 may be provided. disconnected from said unit. and decreased alti as shown in Fig. 2, together with clutching means tude ceiling. 94 having a. control lever 95, between the two With individual air inlets B2 closed by valves stages of the supercharging unit 25, whereby the 83 and individual throttle controls II in fully open position, the induction pressure of the en 75 impeller of the low pressure blower Nmaybeeither connected with or disconnected from the impel 7 ler of blower 46 rotatable with the driven shaft of coupling 25. Both levers 02 and 05 may be actu 8 matically maintain the propeller torque of the engine connected with bellows H0 constant at a value determined by the adjustment 0! control ated by way of suitable linkages from a control member 00. Preferably bellows III will be con member 96 shown in position for the highest alti nected, by way of ducts I24, I241: and I2lb and tude, in which both impellers are rotating and cook I22, with an engine not driving the super the gearing 92 is in “high" ratio. Upon decrease charging u'nit. All of the engines connected with of altitude, or reduction of engine load obtained the same system of supercharging conduits 40, by varying the adjustment, of control member if similar and adjusted for the same speed, will 80, or both, the speed ratio between driven and obviously transmit to the cooperating propeller driving members of coupling 25 may drop to a 10 equal torques, with exception of the engine driv value corresponding to low e?iciency of coupling ing the supercharging unit; Pressure gages I25. 25. It may thus be convenient to shift control l25a and I25b connected with the pressure cham member 96 into the position indicated by numeral bers N2 of the reduction gear of the various en 91, corresponding to the "low" ratio of gearing 92, gines will Indicate the propeller torques thereof. or disconnect the impeller of blower l0 and adjust 15 The difference in torque between the engine driv gearing 02 in "high" or “low” ratio by shifting ing the supercharglng unit and the other engine member 96 into positions 08 or 99 respectively, or engines indicates the torque absorbed by said whereupon the pressure regulator 50 will auto supercharging unit. matically react and bring up the speed of the The torque regulator may be arranged in such driven shaft of coupling 25 thereby returning the a manner that the oil pressure in the low pres speed ratio thereof to a value corresponding to a sure chamber I13 is kept substantially constant. higher coupling e?'lclency. . independently of changes of altitude. This may The intercoolers 40 and ll may include tem be obtained for example by using a conventional perature regulators cooperating with by-pass spring-loaded check valve in the oil return line means, not shown, for keeping the air tempera 25 between chamber H3 and the engine oil sump. ture at the carburetors I0 or in the induction If at the same time the pressure surrounding bel manifold 90 of engines I at suitable value. lows IIB varies with changes of surrounding at Instead of being actuated in response to mospheric pressure, then the engine torque cor changes of air pressure, the pressure regulator responding to a given adjustment of control mem 66 may be made responsive to an operative con 30 ber 80 automatically decreases with an increase dition dependent upon the degree of engine super of altitude. Conversely. the regulator may be so charglng, or engine manifold air pressure, such constructed that the bellows H0 thereof con as an engine mean effective pressure, or to the tained in housing 56 is surrounded by a ?uid, for engine torque, as shown for example in Fig. 3. instance lubricating oil, maintained at substan The latter includes a diagrammatic section tially constant pressure, while the pressure in through the nose of one of the engines 8 per chamber II3 varies directly with the surround pendicular to the crankshaft thereof, wherein ing pressure. In the latter case the engine torque I00 indicates the engine‘ nose housing contain is caused automatically to increase with an in ing a reduction gear of the planetary type hav crease of altitude. It is therefore apparent that ing planet pinions I0l carried by journals I02 40 the torque regulator 58 of Fig. 3 may be so con supported by an annular member, not shown. structed as to cause the engine torque either to rotatable with the propeller shaft l0! and en increase, or decrease, or remain constant, upon gaged between a sun gear I05 secured to the an increase of altitude. the result being similar crankshaft I00 and an outer ring gear I01. The 45 to that already pointed out in connection with the latter is prevented from rotating relatively to manifold pressure regulator of Fig. 1 in which bellows i8 and 60 may have unequal or equal sion I08 of a pressure loaded piston I00 for pro effective diameters. viding a hydraulic torque meter, this being a The total number of engines connected with known device. An engine driven pump IIO dis 60 a supercharging unit may obviously vary to suit charges oil under pressure into chamber H2 at the airplane requirements. Fig. 4, for example, one side of piston I00 for acting against the shows an airplane having three engines 0, 0a the engine nose I00 by means of an axial exten tangential load, proportional to the propeller torque, transmitted thereto by the outer ring gear I01. Oil escapes from chamber "2 to the low pressure chamber H3 by way of a restricted pas sage H5, defined by a stationary dowel IIS and the slidable piston I09, whereby the effective area and 0b, connected by way of conduits l0, Illa and 48b with a supercharging unit indicated dia grammatically in ISI and including the variable speed drive, the supercharger proper and the 'controls and regulating means therefor. Said unit is driven from the central engine I. As already stated, each of the three engines is pro of said passage is dependent on the distance be tween piston I09 and cover H0, and duct H8. vided preferably with individual blower and equip Piston I0! is normally in equilibrium between the 00 ment enabling its operation up to moderate alti opposite loads transmitted thereto by the propel ler torque and the oil pressure in chamber II2. An increase of torque causes a displacement of piston I00 toward the left thereby reducing the effective area of restricted passage H5 and in creasing the oil pressure in chamber II2 until tgde independently of the supercharging unit I I. Fig. 5 shows an airplane I22 having four en gines I33 and two supercharging units Ill, each of the latter driven from one of said engines. Air conduits I35 are provided whereby each of the equilibrium of piston I09 is reestablished. A resilient bellows IIB, the inside of which communicates with the pressure chamber “2, said supercharging units may be connected with each of said engines. Preferably, arrangements ready described in detail, the rod 52 thereof and cooperating parts, not shown in Fig. 3, and in action. are provided whereby the engines I33 may oper acts against a spring H9 to operate a lever I20, 70 ate either independently of said supercharging similar to lever 53 of Fig. 1, for actuating through units I34, 01' with one or both of said units I34 in the servo motor of pressure regulator 50, al ‘ Fig. 6 shows an aircraft I40 having four main engines Ill and an auxiliary motor I42. pref turn controlling the super-charging unit to auto 75 3,408,899 10 cated at M5, as well as the supercharging unit I" for supplying compressed air through con duits ill and I48 to said motor H2 and engines torque responsive means, and an operative con nection between said four means. 8. An engine, a supercharger, a variable speed transmission therebetween, and engine torque re sponsive means to control said transmission. 9. In an aircraft having engines, variable pitch propellers driven from said engines and govern ing means controlling the pitch thereof to keep said engines at the same speed, one supercharger 10 supplying air to said engines, one throttle valve H I respectively. While most of the engines are shown in the draulic transmission driving said supercharger crably liquid cooled, which may be coupled by way of a clutch diagrammatically indicated at I" with a variable pitch propeller I“ whereby the power output of said auxiliary engine may be fully utilized for supplementing the take-off power of the aircraft. Means may be provided for driving from motor 142 auxiliary units, indi common to said engines, a variable-speed hy from one of said engines, transmission speed ra tlo control means, means responsive to the in be of any other suitable type, such as in-line, 15 duction pressure of one at least of said engines drawings as air cooled-radial engines and are provided with carburetors, they may obviously for controlling said throttle valve and speed ratio control means, and means for controlling the op erative setting of said induction pressure respon sive means during ?ight. illustration and not as a limitation of the scope 10. In an aircraft having engines, a. gear-driv of the invention. It is therefore to be expressly 20 en supercharger in each of said engines, variable understood that the invention is not limited to liquid cooled engines and may be provided with fuel injection. These embodiments of the in vention have been shown merely for purpose of pitch propellers driven from said engines, and the speci?c embodiments shown, but may be used governing means controlling the pitch of said in various other ways, and various modi?cations propellers to keep the speed of said engines at may be introduced to suit di?'erent requirements, and that other changes, substitutions, additions. 25 the same value, one additional supercharger de livering air to said engines, one throttle valve and omissions may be made in the construction, common to said engines, a variable-speed hy draulic transmission driving said additional su percharger from one of said engines, transmis sion speed ratio control means, means responsive to the manifold pressure of one of said engines in my copending patent application Serial No. for controlling said throttle valve and speed ratio 592,419, ?led May 7, 1945, for Engine regulating control means, and means for controlling the means. operative setting of said manifold pressure re~ What I claim is: 1. An engine supercharger, means for driving 35 sponsive means during ?ight. 11. In an aircraft having engines, variable the latter at any speed within limits, and means arrangement and manner of operation of the parts within the limits or scope of the invention as de?ned in the following claims. Certain features disclosed herein are claimed 30 pitch propellers driven from said engines, and responsive to the engine torque and to the at means for controlling said pitch thereof to keep mospherlc pressure for controlling said speed said engines at the same speed, one supercharger thereof. 2. An aircraft power plant including engines, 40 delivering air to said engines, one throttle valve a gear-driven blower in each of said engines, one supercharger, conduit means connecting said su— common to said engines, a variable-speed trans supercharger, and means for connecting said pres sure responsive means either with said conduit means or with the manifold of any or said en pheric pressure to control said speed ratio con trol means and throttle valve, and manual, con mission driving said supercharger from one of said engines, transmission speed ratio control percharger and blowers, means for driving said supercharger at in?nitely variable speed, pres 45 means, means responsive to an operative con dition of one of said engines and to the atmos sure responsive means to control the speed of said gines. 60 trol means for altering the operative adjustment of said operative ‘condition and atmospheric pressure responsive means during ?ight. 3. An engine having a manifold, a gear-driven 12. An engine, a supercharger therefor, a var blower discharging air into said manifold, a var iable-speed hydraulic transmission therebetween, iable speed supercharger, conduit means between transmission ratio control means, a throttle valve, said supercharger and blower. pressure respon sive means for controlling the speed of said super 55 and engine operative condition responsive means actuating said valve and control means whereby charger, and means for connecting said pressure said supercharger is caused to rotate at effective responsive means either with said manifold or speed only when said valve is in substantially with said conduit. fully open position. 4. An engine, a supercharger, means for driv 13. An engine, a supercharger therefor, a var ing said ‘ supercharger at variable speed, and 60 iable speed hydraulic transmission therebetween, torque responsive means to control the speed of transmission ratio control means. a throttle valve. said supercharger. and engine operative condition and atmospheric 5. An engine, a supercharger, a. variable speed pressure responsive means actuating said valve drive for the latter, supercharger speed control means, manual control means, torque responsive 65 and control means whereby said valve is kept fully open when said supercharger revolves at means, and an operative connection between said. three means. 6. An engine, a supercharger, a variable speed effective speed. drive for the latter, supercharger speed control iable speed hydraulic transmission therebetween, 14. An engine, a supercharger therefor, a var means, throttle means. torque responsive means, 70 transmission ratio control means. a throttle valve, ‘atmospheric pressure and operative condition re sponsive means actuating said valve and control means. means whereby said valve is kept fully open when 7. An engine, a supercharger, a variable speed and an operative connection between said three drive for the latter. supercharger speed control said supercharger is revolving at effective speed, means, throttle means, manual control means, 75 and manual control means for altering the oper 8,408,899 11 ative setting of said responsive means during operation. 15. An engine, a gear-driven blower supplying ?uid to said engine, a supercharger deliverins ?uid to said blower, means for driving said su percharger at in?nitely variable speed, means re sponsive to the pressure of said fluid between said blower and engine to control the speed of said supercharger, control means adjustable during operation, and an operative connection between said control means and said pressure responsive means whereby the operative setting of said pres sure responsive means is determined by the ad justment oi said control means. 12 M. In combination with an engine having fuel supply control means, means responsive to the surrounding atmospheric pressure and to the en gine torque, control means, and an operative con nection between said three means for actuating said fuel supply control means to regulate said engine torque as a preselected function of the surrounding atmospheric pressure and of the ad justment of said control means. 18. In combination with an engine having fuel supply regulating means. ?uid containing means, means for varying the pressure in said contain ing means with changes in an operative condi tion dependent upon the engine fuel supply, con 16. An engine, a gear-driven blower delivering 15 trol means, means responsive to the surrounding fluid to said engine. a supercharger supplying atmospheric pressure and to the pressure in said ?uid to said blower, a variable speed hydraulic containing means, and an operative connection transmission for driving said supercharger from between said ?rst and said last two mentioned said engine, a throttle, means responsive to the means for actuating said fuel supply regulating atmospheric pressure and to the ?uid pressure 20 means to keep said operative condition at a value between said blower and engine to control the determined by the surrounding atmospheric pres speed ratio of said transmission and the adjust sure and the adjustment of said control means. ment of said throttle, and means operable during ?ight to alter the operative adjustment of said FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO. pressure responsive means. Certi?cate of Correction July 2, 1946. Patent N 0. 2,403,399. FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the printed speci?cation of the_ above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 1, lme 1, beginmng with tbs words “This invention” strike out all to and mcludmgthe word and penod engines. in line 5, same column; column 8, line 48, after “d1ameters.” insert the following paragraph— The powerplant arrangement illustrated in Fig. 1, in particular where the engmcs_8 include a conventional gear driven supercharger, not shoum, t8 especially suttable for ll'tT crcjt designed for operation at high alittude. When thzs owerplant ‘l8 operattng under cruising power at moderate or low altitudes, the centrzfugal l0'l_l)61‘8 40 and 46 may become unnecessary, in which case the regulator 56‘, ounnglo the actzon of sprzng 53, unll cause these blowers to remain statiomry, or rotate at relatwelg low. speed, and wall auiomattcally control or regulate the engines 8 in dependence upon the Gdj’llSt'l'M’ill of control member 80 by angularly adjusting the throttle or pressure regulattng valve 42. . _ and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these correctlons therein that the same may conform to the record of the case 1n the Patent O?ice. Signed and sealed this 29th day of October, A. D. 1946. [M] LESLIE FRAZER, First Assistant Oonwnieciouer of Patents. 8,408,899 11 ative setting of said responsive means during operation. 15. An engine, a gear-driven blower supplying ?uid to said engine, a supercharger deliverins ?uid to said blower, means for driving said su percharger at in?nitely variable speed, means re sponsive to the pressure of said fluid between said blower and engine to control the speed of said supercharger, control means adjustable during operation, and an operative connection between said control means and said pressure responsive means whereby the operative setting of said pres sure responsive means is determined by the ad justment oi said control means. 12 M. In combination with an engine having fuel supply control means, means responsive to the surrounding atmospheric pressure and to the en gine torque, control means, and an operative con nection between said three means for actuating said fuel supply control means to regulate said engine torque as a preselected function of the surrounding atmospheric pressure and of the ad justment of said control means. 18. In combination with an engine having fuel supply regulating means. ?uid containing means, means for varying the pressure in said contain ing means with changes in an operative condi tion dependent upon the engine fuel supply, con 16. An engine, a gear-driven blower delivering 15 trol means, means responsive to the surrounding fluid to said engine. a supercharger supplying atmospheric pressure and to the pressure in said ?uid to said blower, a variable speed hydraulic containing means, and an operative connection transmission for driving said supercharger from between said ?rst and said last two mentioned said engine, a throttle, means responsive to the means for actuating said fuel supply regulating atmospheric pressure and to the ?uid pressure 20 means to keep said operative condition at a value between said blower and engine to control the determined by the surrounding atmospheric pres speed ratio of said transmission and the adjust sure and the adjustment of said control means. ment of said throttle, and means operable during ?ight to alter the operative adjustment of said FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO. pressure responsive means. Certi?cate of Correction July 2, 1946. Patent N 0. 2,403,399. FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the printed speci?cation of the_ above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 1, lme 1, beginmng with tbs words “This invention” strike out all to and mcludmgthe word and penod engines. in line 5, same column; column 8, line 48, after “d1ameters.” insert the following paragraph— The powerplant arrangement illustrated in Fig. 1, in particular where the engmcs_8 include a conventional gear driven supercharger, not shoum, t8 especially suttable for ll'tT crcjt designed for operation at high alittude. When thzs owerplant ‘l8 operattng under cruising power at moderate or low altitudes, the centrzfugal l0'l_l)61‘8 40 and 46 may become unnecessary, in which case the regulator 56‘, ounnglo the actzon of sprzng 53, unll cause these blowers to remain statiomry, or rotate at relatwelg low. speed, and wall auiomattcally control or regulate the engines 8 in dependence upon the Gdj’llSt'l'M’ill of control member 80 by angularly adjusting the throttle or pressure regulattng valve 42. . _ and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these correctlons therein that the same may conform to the record of the case 1n the Patent O?ice. Signed and sealed this 29th day of October, A. D. 1946. [M] LESLIE FRAZER, First Assistant Oonwnieciouer of Patents.