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Патент USA US2403399

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July 2, 1946-
F. c. REGGIO
2,403,399
POWERPLANT
Filed March 29, 1941
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
A26
iii
48;
'INVENTOR
July 2, 1946.
2,403,399
F. C. REGGIO
POWERPLANT
Filed March 29 ,‘ 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
85 '
87
62
861,-.
,40
INVENTOR
July 2, 1946.
F. C. REGGIO
2,403,399
POWERPLANT
Filed March 29, 1941 '
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOR
2,403,399
Patented July 2, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,403,399
POWER PLANT
Ferdlnando Carlo Reggie, Detroit, Mich.
Application March 29, 1941, Serial No. 385,806
1s Claims. (Cl. 110-1354;)
1
This invention relates to supercharged power
plants for aircraft and more particularly to
means for driving and for controlling supercharg
ing units, or for regulating the air induction pres
sure. of aircraft engines. This invention relates
to powerplants, and more particularly to means
for regulating the air induction pressure, the com
bustible fuel supply or the torque of said power
2
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a multlenglne
supercharged powerplant for aircraft including
a supercharglng unit driven through a variable
speed transmission from one of the engines of the
powerplant. and regulating devices therefor.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary diagrammatic view of a
modi?ed arrangement of supercharged power
plant.
Flg. 3 is a fragmentary section showing another
plants. The invention is particularly useful in
connection with multiengine aircraft powerplants 10 modi?ed form of the powerplant of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 to 6 diagrammatically indicate various
designed for large take-oil‘ power output and high
embodiments of the invention in connection with
altitude ceiling.
various multiengine airplanes.
One of the objects of the invention is to pro
In the following description and in the claims
vide means for economically adjusting the air
supply of supercharged powerplants to suit the 15 various details will be identified by speci?c names
for convenience, but they are intended to be as
various operating requirements thereof.
generic in the application as the art will permit.
Another object is to eliminate or substantially
The power output of conventional spark igni
reduce the large waste of power which occurs in
tion internal combustion engines is dependent on
conventional supercharged engines designed for
20 the intake manifold pressure, which is controlled
high altitude when operating at part throttle.
by a throttle valve. When aircraft engines hav
A further object is to provide a supercharging
ing a supercharger designed for high altitude are
unit adapted to be driven from an aircraft pow~
operated at part throttle, an important fraction
erplant at variable speed for supplying com
of the power required to drive the supercharger
pressed air thereto, and means for adjusting the
speed of said unit to control the powerplant air 25 is wasted by throttling, thus decreasing the power
supply.
available to drive the propeller and causing an
Another object is to provide in an aircraft pow
erplant having two or more engines a single throt
perature.
objectionable rise in the engine manifold tem
A supercharging unit for aircraft powerplant
tle valve for controlling said engines uniformly
30 in which a blower is driven at variable speed by
and simultaneously,
Still another object is to provide an aircraft
powerplant including two or more engines and a
common supercharger delivering air to said en
an auxiliary motor is described in my copending
U. S. patent application Serial Number 188,960
filed Feb. 5, 1938. Such a unit connected with a
large powerplant, however, absorbs a considerable
A further object is to provide a single regulat 35 amount of power at high altitude and necessi
tates a rather large and heavy driving motor
ing device for the automatic control of two or
which would operate under full load at the high
more engines.
est altitude and at part or no load at interme
Stll1 another object is to provide, in a power
diate and low altitudes. According to one of the
plant for aircraft, one or more supercharging
units adapted to be driven at variable speed from 40 preferred embodiments of the present invention,
a motor is provided, together with means for con
said powerplant to supply air thereto, and means
necting said motor with a propeller and, by way
for varying the number of said units which are
of a variable speed transmission, with a super
in operation as well as the speed thereof in de
charging unit, whereby the maximum motor
pendence on the altitude and powerplant oper
power output may be employed during the take
ating conditions.
off, mostly or entirely for driving said propeller,
A still further object is to provide means for
gines.
automatically regulating the aircraft powerplant,
or a preselected operative condition thereof, in
dependence upon the adjustment of a control or
regulating member.
Further and other objects and advantages will
be apparent from the following description in con
nectlon with which several embodiments of the
invention have been illustrated in the accom
panying drawings, in which:
while at high altitude a. considerable portion or
the totality of said power output may be absorbed
by said supercharging unit to increase the altitude
ceiling of the aircraft.
The powerplant shown in Fig. 1 includes three
engines, indicated by numerals 8, 8a and 8b, each
having a carburetor i0, Illa. and Nb, provided with
a throttle control I2, I20 and IR), respectively,
and connected with a variable pitch propeller H,
2,403,399
3
I40 and Nb, adjustable to automatically main
tain the engine speed at a constant value deter
mined by the adjustment of the speed control It,
15a and lib, respectively, this being a known ar
4
and the scoop tube 84 will be in its extended po
sition, maintaining all of the operating oil in the
working circuit of the hydraulic coupling, where
The elements Ill: and lBb are not
by the speed ratio thereof attains its maximum
value.
shown in Fig. 1.
A driven shaft ll of engine 8 carries, rotatable
Assuming the individual carburetor controls l2,
rangement.
Ho and I2!) to be all in fully open position, the
therewith, a driving impeller 20, an inner cas
supercharging unit will discharge the maximum
ing 22 having leak-oi! nozzles 23 and a rotating
amount of air into conduits 48, 45a and 44b, and
reservoir 24 of a variable speed h draulic cou 10 the three engines wiil therefore develop the max
pling 25 of the scoop-tube type, w ich is well
imum power output corresponding to the actual
known in the art and will be accordingly brie?y
values of altitude, engine speed and fuel/air ratio
described. The driven shaft 25 thereof, coaxial
adjustment. Assuming the speed controls l8, Ila
with shaft i8, carries the driven impeller or run‘
and I6!) of the engines to be adjusted for the same
net 28. Lubricating oil, or other suitable fiuid, 15 value of speed, the three engines will develop the
is contained in coupling 25. The rotating reser
same power output, but the propeller M of engine
voir 24 has a capacity su?icient to hold the con
8 will operate with smaller pitch than those of
tent of the working circuit between impeller 20
engines 8a and 8b, as it absorbs the power output
and runner 28, with which it communicates
of its engine minus the power required to drive
through leak-on’ nozzles 23.
20 the supercharging unit.
At a given speed of the engine 8, the speed of
It now the rod 52 is displaced downwardly,
driven shaft 25 is dependent on the amount of
while owing to the action of spring 52 and stop 54
oil contained in the working circuit. With this
the inlet pressure regulating valve 42 remains
circuit ?lled up, the speed of shaft 25 assumes
in open position, the scoop tube 30 is caused to
its maximum value, while with no oil in the work
radially retract, correspondingly reducing the
ing circuit the shaft 26 remains idle. An ad
amount of oil in the working circuit of the hy
justable scoop tube 30, extending into the rotat
draulic coupling and decreasing the supercharger
ing reservoir 24 and controlled by an external
speed and the air supply of the engines. Con
lever 3! connected with rod 32 is rotatably mount
tinued downward displacement of rod 52 will
ed on the stationary housing 34 of coupling 25. 30 cause the scoop tube 34 to reach a. stop, not
Oil passes from the working circuit through noz
shown, corresponding to its fully retracted posi
zles 23 and collects in the rotating reservoir 24.
tion,
in which the coupling becomes inoperative,
from where it is picked up by the scoop tube 30
and no more power is absorbed by the supercharg
and returned to the working circuit. The scoop
ing unit from engine I. Thereafter, upon continued
tube 25 is rotatable about an axis parallel to downward displacement of rod 52, as the left hand
shafts l8 and 25 so that rotation thereof varies
end of the ?oating lever 50 is prevented from
the radial adjustment of the open extremity of
further downward displacement, the ?oating
scoop tube 30. In the fully radially extended po
lever 50 will operate to progressively close the
sition of the latter, substantially all of the oil is
returned through conduits 35 and 36 to the work 40 valve 42 and thereby reduce the pressure in con
duits 48, 48a and 48b to any value below the sur
ing circuit, and maximum output speed is ob
rounding atmospheric pressure. Obviously, when
tained. By lowering rod 32, the scoop tube 30 may
the rod 52 is displaced in the opposite direction
be brought into a fully retracted position, so that
back to its initially mentioned position, ?rst the
all of the oil drains into the reservoir 24 and the
valve 42 will open while the hydraulic coupling
coupling is completely disconnected. By placing
is disconnected, and thereafter the supercharger
the control rod 32 in any intermediate position,
speed will be increased to its maximum value cor
varying quantities of oil are delivered to the work
responding again to the maximum pressure in
ing circuit and any desired output speed may be
conduits 48. The waste of power that would re
obtained.
A two stage supercharger. driven from shaft 60 sult from driving the supercharging unit, at un
necessarily high speed while inlet valve 42 is par
25 through suitable gearing 38, not shown in de
tially closed is therefore avoided.
tail, is provided, including a low pressure centrif
It is to be noted that in the foregoing the su
ugal blower 45 having an air inlet 4| and an inlet
percharging unit is assumed to be of the two
pressure regulating valve 42 therein, and an
stage centrifugal type. Although the above men
air outlet communicating by way of an intercooier
tioned type appears to be particularly advan
44 with the inlet of a high pressure centrifugal
tageous, it is to be understood that the inven
blower 45. Compressed air is discharged from
tion is not limited thereto, but that various other
the outlet of the latter blower through a second
types of supercharger may be employed. If a
intercooier 41 into conduits 48, 48a and 45b con
blower
of the positive displacement type be used,
nected with the carburetors N, Na and I 0b of 60
the pressure in conduits 48 corresponding to the
the engines.
idling speed of the engines 5 is obviously obtained
The inlet pressure regulating valve 42 is con
for a positive value of the blower speed, the
nected by means of suitable lever and linkages
blower inlet being unrestricted, whereby the valve
with the right hand end of a ?oating lever 50,
the other end of which actuates the upper end 65 42 and the ?oating lever 58 becomes unneces
sary and the rod 52 may be linked directly to the
of the control rod 32 of the variable speed cou
scoop lever 22.
pling 25. The median point of lever 50 is mount
A pressure regulator, indicated generally at 55,
ed on a pivot carried by rod 52. A spring 53, at
is provided to automatically operate the rod 52.
tached to lever 55 and cooperating with a stop
The pressure regulator may be any device adapt
54, tends to keep valve 42 in open position. In 70 ed to displace rod 52 in response to a change of
the operation of the above described mechanism
pressure in conduits 48 or in response to other
the pressure in conduits 44, 45a and 48b is con
suitable engine operating condition. In the ar
trolled by the axial adjustment of rod 52. As
rangement shown in Fig. i the regulator includes
suming said rod to be initially in its extreme up
a metallic bellows 54 sealed under vacuum and
per position, the throttle valve 42 will be open 75 provided with a spring 52 for expanding said bel
5
2,403,899
lows. The latter acts directly against a similar
bellows 60, the inside of which communicates by
6
gines I is automatically controlled by the regu
lator 56 in dependence on the adjustment or
way of duct 82 with the outlet of intercooler 41
control member 80. For a "cruising” adjustment
where the pressure is substantially the same as
of
the latter, at low altitude the air pressure in
in conduits 48. These two bellows act on the
conduits 48 may be lower than the surrounding
median point of a lever 83 to operate pistons 64
pressure, in which case the valve 42 is partly
and 65 controlling the admission of a ?uid under
closed
and the hydraulic coupling is inoperative.
pressure. usually lubricating oil from an engine
Assuming
the speed controls i8 to be adjusted for
driven pump, to opposite sides of piston 68 at
equal engine speeds, the propellers I4, I40 and
tached to rod 52. The oil under pressure is ad 10
I4?) absorb equal engine torques and have equal
mitted to the pressure regulator through pipe
pitch.
As the altitude increases, ?rst the valve
61 and discharged at lower pressure by way 01’
42 is completely opened, and thereafter the pres
pipes ill and 69.
sure regulator 56 acts to render the hydraulic
If bellows 58 and 60 have equal sections, the
coupling 25 operative and drive the supercharg
surrounding atmospheric pressure acts on the two
ing unit at correspondingly increasing speed
bellows in opposite directions and with equal
thereby absorbing increasing torque from engine
magnitude so that any change of pressure in con
8 and causing the speed regulator thereof to de
duits 48 operates bellows 6i] and in turn the pis
crease the pitch of the propeller H in order to
ton B8 and returns the pressure in said conduits
maintain the engine speed constant. Such speed
to the predetermined absolute value, independ 20 regulator,
not shown in the drawings, is connected
ently of any variation in altitude. There is pro
with speed control 18 and consists of a well known
vided a control member 80 which may be manu
hydraulically or electrically actuated device con
ally operable, connected with the outer end of
trolled by an engine driven ?yball mechanism
lever 63, for setting the resiilent load of the spring
for varying the propeller pitch to automatically
59 contained in bellows 58 corresponding to the 25 maintain the engine speed at a value determined
neutral position of pistons 64 and 65 and thereby
by the adjustment of speed control It. It is to
the value of the pressure which will be automat
be noted that ,while at low altitude and part
ically maintained in conduits 48 by the pressure
throttle the power output of engine 8 is transmit
regulator 56. It is to be noted that with bellows
ted to the propeller i4, at increasing altitude a
5B and iii of equal eifective sections, for a given 30 correspondingly increasing portion of said power
adjustment of control member 80 the absolute
is automatically withdrawn from the propeller
pressure in conduits II will have a constant value
and applied to drive the supercharging unit.
within the designed altitude limit, and the power
As previously stated, the hydraulic coupling 25
output of engines 8, 8a and 8?), at a given speed
shown in Fig. 1 is no part of the present inven
thereof, will increase with the altitude owing to
tion and has been described merely as a known
the eil’ect of the corresponding decrease of ex~
example of in?nitely variable speed transmission
haust counter pressure. Instead of a constant
for driving the supercharglng unit at any speed
absolute pressure in conduits 48, a substantially
within the designed limits regardless of the speed
constant power output of the engines 8 at a given
of the driving engine 8. It is to be clearly un
speed thereof, or a power output thereof which 40 derstood, however, that according to the present
varies substantially as a predetermined function
invention any other suitable typeof variable speed
of the altitude, may however be obtained with
transmission
or coupling may be substituted for
bellows of unequal effective sections.
that shown in Fig. 1, in particular a variable
According to one of the preferred embodiments
speed electric drive, or a variable speed hydraulic
of the invention, each of the engines 8, Ba and 8!)
drive of the positive displacement type including
includes a conventional supercharger, such as
a pump of variable capacity such for example as
the supercharger 9 shown in Fig. 2, which may
described in the U. 8. Patent 2,155,455 to Hans
be designed for example for moderate altitude,
Thoma. Such variable speed drives are well
or for providing the boost required for the rated
known in the art and it is therefore regarded
maximum take-off engine power output in aver— 50 as unnecessary to describe and illustrate them in
age ground conditions. Each of said engines is
detail.
also provided with an individual air inlet 82, 82a
As shown in Fig. 1, the pressure regulator 56
or 821) having a control valve 83, 83a or 83b re
controls the air pressure in conduits 48. How
spectively, whereby each engine may be either
ever if the engines 8 have individual supercharg
connected with the conduits 48 of the super
ers, the induction pressure at the cylinder intake
charging unit, as shown in Fig. 1 wherein the air
valves thereof varies with the engine speed. The
inlets 82 are closed by the valves 83, or supplied
same pressure regulator 56 may be used to con
with air at surrounding pressure through the air
trol either the pressure in conduits 48 or the
inlets 82 when the valves 83 are rotated clock
pressure at the cylinder intake valves of the en
wise to open said air inlets and interrupt the air 60 gines by employing the arrangement of Fig. 2,
flow communication between each engine 8 and
in which the lower bellows of regulator 55 may
the corresponding conduit 48. The engines 8
be selectively connected by way of ducts B2, 85,
being provided with individual conventional speed
86, 88a and 86b and cooks 8‘! and 88 either with
and load controls It and I2, connected with the
conduits 48 or with the induction manifolds 90
well known speed actuated mechanism for ad
of any of the engines 8.
i
lusting the pitch of propeller I4, and with the
In
order
to
maintain
the
operating
speed ratio
engine throttle valve respectively, they may op
between driven and driving members of the hy
erate independently of the supercharging unit,
draulic coupling 25 within a range of satisfactory
and in case of failure occurring to the latter the
airplane may keep on ?ying with the engines 8 70 efficiency, a two-speed gearing 82, not shown in de
tail, controlled by a lever 83 may be provided.
disconnected from said unit. and decreased alti
as shown in Fig. 2, together with clutching means
tude ceiling.
94 having a. control lever 95, between the two
With individual air inlets B2 closed by valves
stages of the supercharging unit 25, whereby the
83 and individual throttle controls II in fully
open position, the induction pressure of the en 75 impeller of the low pressure blower Nmaybeeither
connected with or disconnected from the impel
7
ler of blower 46 rotatable with the driven shaft
of coupling 25. Both levers 02 and 05 may be actu
8
matically maintain the propeller torque of the
engine connected with bellows H0 constant at
a value determined by the adjustment 0! control
ated by way of suitable linkages from a control
member 00. Preferably bellows III will be con
member 96 shown in position for the highest alti
nected, by way of ducts I24, I241: and I2lb and
tude, in which both impellers are rotating and
cook I22, with an engine not driving the super
the gearing 92 is in “high" ratio. Upon decrease
charging u'nit. All of the engines connected with
of altitude, or reduction of engine load obtained
the same system of supercharging conduits 40,
by varying the adjustment, of control member
if similar and adjusted for the same speed, will
80, or both, the speed ratio between driven and
obviously transmit to the cooperating propeller
driving members of coupling 25 may drop to a 10 equal torques, with exception of the engine driv
value corresponding to low e?iciency of coupling
ing the supercharging unit; Pressure gages I25.
25. It may thus be convenient to shift control
l25a and I25b connected with the pressure cham
member 96 into the position indicated by numeral
bers N2 of the reduction gear of the various en
91, corresponding to the "low" ratio of gearing 92,
gines will Indicate the propeller torques thereof.
or disconnect the impeller of blower l0 and adjust 15 The difference in torque between the engine driv
gearing 02 in "high" or “low” ratio by shifting
ing the supercharglng unit and the other engine
member 96 into positions 08 or 99 respectively,
or engines indicates the torque absorbed by said
whereupon the pressure regulator 50 will auto
supercharging unit.
matically react and bring up the speed of the
The torque regulator may be arranged in such
driven shaft of coupling 25 thereby returning the
a manner that the oil pressure in the low pres
speed ratio thereof to a value corresponding to a
sure chamber I13 is kept substantially constant.
higher coupling e?'lclency. .
independently of changes of altitude. This may
The intercoolers 40 and ll may include tem
be obtained for example by using a conventional
perature regulators cooperating with by-pass
spring-loaded check valve in the oil return line
means, not shown, for keeping the air tempera 25 between chamber H3 and the engine oil sump.
ture at the carburetors I0 or in the induction
If at the same time the pressure surrounding bel
manifold 90 of engines I at suitable value.
lows IIB varies with changes of surrounding at
Instead of being actuated in response to
mospheric pressure, then the engine torque cor
changes of air pressure, the pressure regulator
responding to a given adjustment of control mem
66 may be made responsive to an operative con 30 ber 80 automatically decreases with an increase
dition dependent upon the degree of engine super
of altitude. Conversely. the regulator may be so
charglng, or engine manifold air pressure, such
constructed that the bellows H0 thereof con
as an engine mean effective pressure, or to the
tained in housing 56 is surrounded by a ?uid, for
engine torque, as shown for example in Fig. 3.
instance lubricating oil, maintained at substan
The latter includes a diagrammatic section
tially constant pressure, while the pressure in
through the nose of one of the engines 8 per
chamber II3 varies directly with the surround
pendicular to the crankshaft thereof, wherein
ing pressure. In the latter case the engine torque
I00 indicates the engine‘ nose housing contain
is caused automatically to increase with an in
ing a reduction gear of the planetary type hav
crease of altitude. It is therefore apparent that
ing planet pinions I0l carried by journals I02 40 the torque regulator 58 of Fig. 3 may be so con
supported by an annular member, not shown.
structed as to cause the engine torque either to
rotatable with the propeller shaft l0! and en
increase, or decrease, or remain constant, upon
gaged between a sun gear I05 secured to the
an increase of altitude. the result being similar
crankshaft I00 and an outer ring gear I01. The 45 to that already pointed out in connection with the
latter is prevented from rotating relatively to
manifold pressure regulator of Fig. 1 in which
bellows i8 and 60 may have unequal or equal
sion I08 of a pressure loaded piston I00 for pro
effective diameters.
viding a hydraulic torque meter, this being a
The total number of engines connected with
known device. An engine driven pump IIO dis 60 a supercharging unit may obviously vary to suit
charges oil under pressure into chamber H2 at
the airplane requirements. Fig. 4, for example,
one side of piston I00 for acting against the
shows an airplane having three engines 0, 0a
the engine nose I00 by means of an axial exten
tangential load, proportional to the propeller
torque, transmitted thereto by the outer ring gear
I01. Oil escapes from chamber "2 to the low
pressure chamber H3 by way of a restricted pas
sage H5, defined by a stationary dowel IIS and
the slidable piston I09, whereby the effective area
and 0b, connected by way of conduits l0, Illa
and 48b with a supercharging unit indicated dia
grammatically in ISI and including the variable
speed drive, the supercharger proper and the
'controls and regulating means therefor. Said
unit is driven from the central engine I. As
already stated, each of the three engines is pro
of said passage is dependent on the distance be
tween piston I09 and cover H0, and duct H8.
vided preferably with individual blower and equip
Piston I0! is normally in equilibrium between the 00 ment enabling its operation up to moderate alti
opposite loads transmitted thereto by the propel
ler torque and the oil pressure in chamber II2.
An increase of torque causes a displacement of
piston I00 toward the left thereby reducing the
effective area of restricted passage H5 and in
creasing the oil pressure in chamber II2 until
tgde independently of the supercharging unit
I I.
Fig. 5 shows an airplane I22 having four en
gines I33 and two supercharging units Ill, each
of the latter driven from one of said engines.
Air conduits I35 are provided whereby each of
the equilibrium of piston I09 is reestablished.
A resilient bellows IIB, the inside of which
communicates with the pressure chamber “2,
said supercharging units may be connected with
each of said engines. Preferably, arrangements
ready described in detail, the rod 52 thereof and
cooperating parts, not shown in Fig. 3, and in
action.
are provided whereby the engines I33 may oper
acts against a spring H9 to operate a lever I20, 70 ate either independently of said supercharging
similar to lever 53 of Fig. 1, for actuating through
units I34, 01' with one or both of said units I34 in
the servo motor of pressure regulator 50, al
‘ Fig. 6 shows an aircraft I40 having four main
engines Ill and an auxiliary motor I42. pref
turn controlling the super-charging unit to auto 75
3,408,899
10
cated at M5, as well as the supercharging unit
I" for supplying compressed air through con
duits ill and I48 to said motor H2 and engines
torque responsive means, and an operative con
nection between said four means.
8. An engine, a supercharger, a variable speed
transmission therebetween, and engine torque re
sponsive means to control said transmission.
9. In an aircraft having engines, variable pitch
propellers driven from said engines and govern
ing means controlling the pitch thereof to keep
said engines at the same speed, one supercharger
10 supplying air to said engines, one throttle valve
H I respectively.
While most of the engines are shown in the
draulic transmission driving said supercharger
crably liquid cooled, which may be coupled by
way of a clutch diagrammatically indicated at
I" with a variable pitch propeller I“ whereby
the power output of said auxiliary engine may
be fully utilized for supplementing the take-off
power of the aircraft. Means may be provided
for driving from motor 142 auxiliary units, indi
common to said engines, a variable-speed hy
from one of said engines, transmission speed ra
tlo control means, means responsive to the in
be of any other suitable type, such as in-line, 15 duction pressure of one at least of said engines
drawings as air cooled-radial engines and are
provided with carburetors, they may obviously
for controlling said throttle valve and speed ratio
control means, and means for controlling the op
erative setting of said induction pressure respon
sive means during ?ight.
illustration and not as a limitation of the scope
10. In an aircraft having engines, a. gear-driv
of the invention. It is therefore to be expressly 20
en supercharger in each of said engines, variable
understood that the invention is not limited to
liquid cooled engines and may be provided with
fuel injection. These embodiments of the in
vention have been shown merely for purpose of
pitch propellers driven from said engines, and
the speci?c embodiments shown, but may be used
governing means controlling the pitch of said
in various other ways, and various modi?cations
propellers to keep the speed of said engines at
may be introduced to suit di?'erent requirements,
and that other changes, substitutions, additions. 25 the same value, one additional supercharger de
livering air to said engines, one throttle valve
and omissions may be made in the construction,
common to said engines, a variable-speed hy
draulic transmission driving said additional su
percharger from one of said engines, transmis
sion speed ratio control means, means responsive
to the manifold pressure of one of said engines
in my copending patent application Serial No.
for controlling said throttle valve and speed ratio
592,419, ?led May 7, 1945, for Engine regulating
control means, and means for controlling the
means.
operative setting of said manifold pressure re~
What I claim is:
1. An engine supercharger, means for driving 35 sponsive means during ?ight.
11. In an aircraft having engines, variable
the latter at any speed within limits, and means
arrangement and manner of operation of the
parts within the limits or scope of the invention
as de?ned in the following claims.
Certain features disclosed herein are claimed 30
pitch propellers driven from said engines, and
responsive to the engine torque and to the at
means for controlling said pitch thereof to keep
mospherlc pressure for controlling said speed
said engines at the same speed, one supercharger
thereof.
2. An aircraft power plant including engines, 40 delivering air to said engines, one throttle valve
a gear-driven blower in each of said engines, one
supercharger, conduit means connecting said su—
common to said engines, a variable-speed trans
supercharger, and means for connecting said pres
sure responsive means either with said conduit
means or with the manifold of any or said en
pheric pressure to control said speed ratio con
trol means and throttle valve, and manual, con
mission driving said supercharger from one of
said engines, transmission speed ratio control
percharger and blowers, means for driving said
supercharger at in?nitely variable speed, pres 45 means, means responsive to an operative con
dition of one of said engines and to the atmos
sure responsive means to control the speed of said
gines.
60
trol means for altering the operative adjustment
of said operative ‘condition and atmospheric
pressure responsive means during ?ight.
3. An engine having a manifold, a gear-driven
12. An engine, a supercharger therefor, a var
blower discharging air into said manifold, a var
iable-speed hydraulic transmission therebetween,
iable speed supercharger, conduit means between
transmission ratio control means, a throttle valve,
said supercharger and blower. pressure respon
sive means for controlling the speed of said super 55 and engine operative condition responsive means
actuating said valve and control means whereby
charger, and means for connecting said pressure
said supercharger is caused to rotate at effective
responsive means either with said manifold or
speed
only when said valve is in substantially
with said conduit.
fully open position.
4. An engine, a supercharger, means for driv
13. An engine, a supercharger therefor, a var
ing said ‘ supercharger at variable speed, and 60
iable speed hydraulic transmission therebetween,
torque responsive means to control the speed of
transmission ratio control means. a throttle valve.
said supercharger.
and engine operative condition and atmospheric
5. An engine, a supercharger, a. variable speed
pressure responsive means actuating said valve
drive for the latter, supercharger speed control
means, manual control means, torque responsive 65 and control means whereby said valve is kept
fully open when said supercharger revolves at
means, and an operative connection between said.
three means.
6. An engine, a supercharger, a variable speed
effective speed.
drive for the latter, supercharger speed control
iable speed hydraulic transmission therebetween,
14. An engine, a supercharger therefor, a var
means, throttle means. torque responsive means, 70 transmission ratio control means. a throttle valve,
‘atmospheric pressure and operative condition re
sponsive means actuating said valve and control
means.
means whereby said valve is kept fully open when
7. An engine, a supercharger, a variable speed
and an operative connection between said three
drive for the latter. supercharger speed control
said supercharger is revolving at effective speed,
means, throttle means, manual control means, 75 and manual control means for altering the oper
8,408,899
11
ative setting of said responsive means during
operation.
15. An engine, a gear-driven blower supplying
?uid to said engine, a supercharger deliverins
?uid to said blower, means for driving said su
percharger at in?nitely variable speed, means re
sponsive to the pressure of said fluid between said
blower and engine to control the speed of said
supercharger, control means adjustable during
operation, and an operative connection between
said control means and said pressure responsive
means whereby the operative setting of said pres
sure responsive means is determined by the ad
justment oi said control means.
12
M. In combination with an engine having fuel
supply control means, means responsive to the
surrounding atmospheric pressure and to the en
gine torque, control means, and an operative con
nection between said three means for actuating
said fuel supply control means to regulate said
engine torque as a preselected function of the
surrounding atmospheric pressure and of the ad
justment of said control means.
18. In combination with an engine having fuel
supply regulating means. ?uid containing means,
means for varying the pressure in said contain
ing means with changes in an operative condi
tion dependent upon the engine fuel supply, con
16. An engine, a gear-driven blower delivering 15 trol means, means responsive to the surrounding
fluid to said engine. a supercharger supplying
atmospheric pressure and to the pressure in said
?uid to said blower, a variable speed hydraulic
containing means, and an operative connection
transmission for driving said supercharger from
between said ?rst and said last two mentioned
said engine, a throttle, means responsive to the
means for actuating said fuel supply regulating
atmospheric pressure and to the ?uid pressure 20 means to keep said operative condition at a value
between said blower and engine to control the
determined by the surrounding atmospheric pres
speed ratio of said transmission and the adjust
sure and the adjustment of said control means.
ment of said throttle, and means operable during
?ight to alter the operative adjustment of said
FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO.
pressure responsive means.
Certi?cate of Correction
July 2, 1946.
Patent N 0. 2,403,399.
FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO
It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the printed speci?cation of the_ above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 1, lme 1, beginmng with tbs
words “This invention” strike out all to and mcludmgthe word and penod engines.
in line 5, same column; column 8, line 48, after “d1ameters.” insert the following
paragraph—
The powerplant arrangement illustrated in Fig. 1, in particular where the engmcs_8
include a conventional gear driven supercharger, not shoum, t8 especially suttable for ll'tT
crcjt designed for operation at high alittude. When thzs owerplant ‘l8 operattng under
cruising power at moderate or low altitudes, the centrzfugal l0'l_l)61‘8 40 and 46 may become
unnecessary, in which case the regulator 56‘, ounnglo the actzon of sprzng 53, unll cause
these blowers to remain statiomry, or rotate at relatwelg low. speed, and wall auiomattcally
control or regulate the engines 8 in dependence upon the Gdj’llSt'l'M’ill of control member 80
by angularly adjusting the throttle or pressure regulattng valve 42. .
_
and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these correctlons therein that the
same may conform to the record of the case 1n the Patent O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 29th day of October, A. D. 1946.
[M]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Oonwnieciouer of Patents.
8,408,899
11
ative setting of said responsive means during
operation.
15. An engine, a gear-driven blower supplying
?uid to said engine, a supercharger deliverins
?uid to said blower, means for driving said su
percharger at in?nitely variable speed, means re
sponsive to the pressure of said fluid between said
blower and engine to control the speed of said
supercharger, control means adjustable during
operation, and an operative connection between
said control means and said pressure responsive
means whereby the operative setting of said pres
sure responsive means is determined by the ad
justment oi said control means.
12
M. In combination with an engine having fuel
supply control means, means responsive to the
surrounding atmospheric pressure and to the en
gine torque, control means, and an operative con
nection between said three means for actuating
said fuel supply control means to regulate said
engine torque as a preselected function of the
surrounding atmospheric pressure and of the ad
justment of said control means.
18. In combination with an engine having fuel
supply regulating means. ?uid containing means,
means for varying the pressure in said contain
ing means with changes in an operative condi
tion dependent upon the engine fuel supply, con
16. An engine, a gear-driven blower delivering 15 trol means, means responsive to the surrounding
fluid to said engine. a supercharger supplying
atmospheric pressure and to the pressure in said
?uid to said blower, a variable speed hydraulic
containing means, and an operative connection
transmission for driving said supercharger from
between said ?rst and said last two mentioned
said engine, a throttle, means responsive to the
means for actuating said fuel supply regulating
atmospheric pressure and to the ?uid pressure 20 means to keep said operative condition at a value
between said blower and engine to control the
determined by the surrounding atmospheric pres
speed ratio of said transmission and the adjust
sure and the adjustment of said control means.
ment of said throttle, and means operable during
?ight to alter the operative adjustment of said
FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO.
pressure responsive means.
Certi?cate of Correction
July 2, 1946.
Patent N 0. 2,403,399.
FERDINANDO CARLO REGGIO
It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the printed speci?cation of the_ above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 1, lme 1, beginmng with tbs
words “This invention” strike out all to and mcludmgthe word and penod engines.
in line 5, same column; column 8, line 48, after “d1ameters.” insert the following
paragraph—
The powerplant arrangement illustrated in Fig. 1, in particular where the engmcs_8
include a conventional gear driven supercharger, not shoum, t8 especially suttable for ll'tT
crcjt designed for operation at high alittude. When thzs owerplant ‘l8 operattng under
cruising power at moderate or low altitudes, the centrzfugal l0'l_l)61‘8 40 and 46 may become
unnecessary, in which case the regulator 56‘, ounnglo the actzon of sprzng 53, unll cause
these blowers to remain statiomry, or rotate at relatwelg low. speed, and wall auiomattcally
control or regulate the engines 8 in dependence upon the Gdj’llSt'l'M’ill of control member 80
by angularly adjusting the throttle or pressure regulattng valve 42. .
_
and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these correctlons therein that the
same may conform to the record of the case 1n the Patent O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 29th day of October, A. D. 1946.
[M]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Oonwnieciouer of Patents.
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