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Патент USA US2403403

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July 2, 1946.
'
U. SAUER
2,403,403
MUFFLER
Filed Aug. 21, 1944
3 14/!) m
Uriah Samar
Patented July 2, 1946
2,403,403
UNITED STATES PATENT orrics
2,403,403
MUFFLER
Urban Sauer, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor of two
?ftlis to Harry R. Levy, Mcl‘icesport, Pa.
Application August 2 1, 3.9 44,‘ Serial N0. 559,445
8 Glaims.
(Cl. 181—58)
1
2‘
This invention relates to a muffler for the ex»
haust gases of internal combustion engines gen~
erally and other situations where an explosive e};
haust gas-must be silenced and dissipated.
From the standpoint of low back pressure and
.
v
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.
arrangement of parts, as will be more speci?cally
referred to and illustrated in the accompanying
drawing, but it is to be understood that changes,
variations, and modi?cations may be resqrllédlig
which fall within the scope- of the invention-es
motor efficiency it is generally believed that the
claimed.
.
»
i
i
1,»,
straight-through type of mu?'ler or some adapta~
In the drawing:
, >
,
: .1 '.~
tion or variation of the same, is most efficient.
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section taken sub
However, this type of construction has its draiv~
stantially through the center of a mu?ier con-,
back inthat it tends to store up pressure in the 10 structed according to an embodiment ofethisina
resonating and expansion chambers surrounding
vention.
the straight-through high pressure passageway
_
_
Figure 2 is a sectional view taken on line
thereby reducing the ei?ciency of the muiiier by
of Figure 1.
building up a back pressure when the expansion
chambers or resonating chambers become ?lled 15
up with accumulated gases, and these chambers
i
.
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3
of
Figure
1.
-.
_1.
-
i
--
.
Referring to the drawing, the numeral. Wides
ignates an outer cylindrical jacket or-shell of suit;
able length or diameter which has secured in the
intake end thereof an end ,Wall H formed with
sure
become
stream
walled
flowing
oil asthrough
against the
the central
main high
str p it»
through passageway. This necessitates inuiilers
of considerable length and material to afford 20 a cylindrical ?ange i3 telescoping theadjacent
adequate storage facilities to take off the excess
end of shell H}. The'opposite end of shell“! has
pressure varying with the degree of output of var~
secured thereto, or formed integrabtherewithr a
ious engines. In addition the storage of gases and
substantially conical member’ l2’, and a' discharge
pressure in the expansion or resonating chambers
or outlet nipple l 4 extends from the apex of coni
results in heavy condensation, which remains in 25
the muffler, causing internal corrosion and shorter
durability.
cal
member
l2.
'
‘I’
'
I
15f?
‘
An intermediate casing l?sis disposed'within
the shell H], forming an'outer chamber 16' there
In order to provide a means whereby the heavy
about, the purpose for which’ Willhe hereinafter
pressure of the gases is expanded freely without
described. The intermediate casing l5 includes'a
hindrance or drag on the free ?ow of the main 30 cylindrical rear part ll which hasv the rear end
streams, I provide a means whereby the expanded
thereof positioned in forwardly spaced relation
gases are constantly drawn into a central suction
to end wall H. A frusto-conical member’ I8 ‘ex;
zone of the main stream from the rear, thereby
tends from the forward end of the-cylindrical
iber H, the larger end of frusto~conical menu!v
preventing
bers provided
accumulation
for in the rnuiller.
in the expansion
'
35
By the means hereinafter to be described the
desired silencing quality is also obtained with
..
is being rearmost: A second frustmconic'a'l
i'nember I9 is secured to or formedintégrally with
fr1.ist-o~conical member it, having the sm'a'll’e'nd
little or no back pressure at extremely high speeds
thereof rearmost and the largegend foremost and
by a substantially less niuii‘ler length, and less
secured as at 2!! to the inner side of_ the‘forward
muffler size, thereby affording a saving of mate 40 and ofshell I0.
'
'
'
rial.
An inner casing 2| is disposed within the inter
A further object is to provide a muiiler con
mediate casing iii and includes a ‘cylindrical rear
struction that can be interchangeably used with
.
22 positioned interiorly of cylindrical
engines of various degrees of pressure and volume
45 member ll, thereby forming an intake chamber
of exhaust output, with slight adjustments in
23 therebetween. An annular end wall 24 is'seI-J
spacing and sizing of the various parts and
cured between the adjacent rear ends of cylindri-r
courses.
cal members i‘! and 22. closing the rear end‘of in
Another object is to obtain reduced condensa
take chamber 23.
'
V
' ‘
tion, resulting in longer durability due to less 50
The cylindrical member 21 has secured there
tendency to corrode.
to, or formed integrally therewith, a frusto-i
Another object is to obtain a mu?lcr that will
conical member 25, which is disposed in inwardly
afford quicker acceleration of the engine. more
spaced relation with. respec'?to'frusto-conical
power,
carbon
from a
tion of
less fuel consumption and reduction of
deposits, all of which advantages result :
great reduction in, if not entire elimina
back pressure, under high speed, as well
as normal driving conditions.
,
i
To the foregoing objects, and others which may
hereinafter more fully appear, the invention con
sists of the novel construction, combination and
60
member !8.
A second or forward frusto-conical
member 26, having theismall end thereof rear~
most, is secured to or formed integrally with
frustowconical member 25 andis disposed in. in-v
wardly spaced relation with respect to frusto
conical member is. A velocity increasing cham‘-.
ber 21 is formed between frusto-conical members:
[8 and 25, and in order to provide for not only
2,403,403
3
4
increasing the velocity of the forwardly moving
back pressure which may occur in expansion
chamber 29 will be relieved by the gases discharg
gases in chamber 21, but to also provide for spiral
movement of the gases and breaking up of the
gases into a plurality of streams or courses, I
have provided a plurality of spirally arranged CH
blades 28 which are secured between frusto
conical members l3 and 25. Frusto-conical mem
bers I3 and 26 form an expansion chamber 29
therebetween which progressively increases in
diameter toward the forward end of the mu?ier.
As the gases move forwardly in the high pres—
sure expansion chamber 29 under the increased
ing from chamber 29 through opening 33 into
chamber IS. The gases may expand in chamber
l6 moving rearwardly and entering rear cham
ber 3|, from this chamber the gases will then
expand additionally as they are discharged into
the inner rear chamber 41 disposed within cylin
drical member 22.
The gases in chamber 41
moving forwardly in the inner casing 2| will be
increased in velocity by the frusto-conical cham
ber 48 within frusto-conical member 25. The
gases discharging at the small forward end of
chamber 48 will expand in low pressure expansion
there may be come accumulation or backing up
of gases in chamber 23. In order to provide for 15 chamber 46. The gases leaving chamber 46 will
pass between rrusto-conical members 34, 33, 40
relief of any back pressure in chamber 29, a pin»
and 42 and will be given a spiral movement there
rality or series of openings 30 are formed in
by increasing the velocity thereof as these gases
frusto-conical member l9, each series including
move forwardly. The high pressure gases dis
a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart
charging from the forward end of chamber 29
openings and one series being spaced from an
will pass between conical members |2 and 24 and
other a desired distance and with the openings of
velocity thereof will be increased by the reducing
one series of a different size than the openings of
of the chamber formed between these conical
another series. Openings 30 provide communica~
members, while at the same time the gases are
tion between chamber 29 and chamber l6, so that
the gases may move rearwardly in chamber I6 25 given a spiral movement. These spirally moving
gases entering vortex chamber 31 will then pass
and engage in chamber 3|, which is an end
forwardly into discharge nipple 34. Due to the
chamber and which communicates with the open
creation of the vortex in chamber 31, a low pres
rear end of inner casing 2|. A pair of tubes 32
sure central area will be formed which will cause
which are disposed in rearwardly convergent
velocity provided by the tapered chamber 21,
relation are connected together at their conver
gent ends and then connected to an intake nipple
33 which extends through rear wall I |. The tubes
32 are connected to cylindrical member 22 of in
ner casing 2| so as to discharge the exhaust gases
into intake or rear chamber 23.
a suction of the low pressure gases from the open
apices 36, 44 and 45, thereby pulling the low
pressure gases forwardly from chamber 45. The
mixing of the low and high pressure gases in
vortex chamber 31 has the effect of further re»
ducing the pulsations in the gases so that when
these gases are ?nally discharged into the atmos
The forward end of inner casing 2| has secured
phere they will be silently discharged and the
thereto a conical member 34 and a plurality of
pulsations will be substantially entirely elimi
spirally arranged blades 35 are secured between
nated.
conical member l2 and conical member 34. The
The effect of the vortex chamber 31 is that an
apex of conical member 34 is open, as indicated 40
adequate suction will be created at all speeds of
at 33, and a vortex chamber 31 is formed be
the engine, the suction produced being propor
tween the apices of the two conical members l2
tionate to the volume of gases entering chamber
and 34. A conical member 38 is disposed in
31. In the event there is no back pressure created
teriorly of the conical member 34 and a plurality
in expansion chamber 23, the amount of gases
of spirally arranged blades 39 are interposed be
discharged into outer chamber l6 will be rela—
tween conical members 34 and 38. A conical
tively small. As an example, during the opera
member 40 is disposed within conical member 33
tion of the engine at slow speed the exhaust gases
and a plurality of spiral blades 4| are interposed
will be discharged between casings l5 and 2| in
between conical members 38 and 40. A centrally
an amount such that there will not be any back
disposed conical member 42 is disposed within
pressure created in chamber 29. As the engine
conical member 40 and spiral blades 43 are se
speed is increased the back pressure may build
cured between conical members 40 and 42. Coni
up in chamber 29, and if this occurs the back
cal members 33 and 40 are formed with openings
pressure is relieved by the gases discharging from
44 and 45 respectively in the apices thereof so
chamber 29 into chamber l6 through openings 30.
that gases from forward chamber 46 positioned
With reference to the manner in which the
within frusto-conical member 26 will be dis
structure is assembled, the embodiment illus
charged spirally within vortex chamber 31.
trated by the drawing, would require construction
In the use of this muffler intake nipple 33 is
in three sections. Chamber 23 to be ?rst as
connected to the exhaust of an engine or the like.
sembled, consisting of the shell I1 and the shell
Exhaust gases from the engine passing through
2| with the end Wall 24 being either welded to
nipple 33 will be divided by the divergent tubes
32, there being two such tubes shown, but it will
be understood that two or more of these tubes
may be used. The gases entering intake cham
the side walls or pressed on in a lap ?t over the
side walls I1 and 2|. The divergent tubes 32 are
?anged on or welded on the openings in the wall
ber 23 will move forwardly into velocity cham 65 2|. The blades 28, or as many as are desired, are
welded onto wall 25 of the second section 21 or
ber 21, where the gases will be broken up into
preferably the spiral blades 28 may be pressed
spirally moving streams. The breaking up of the
out of the shell 25 by a proper die, thus With
gases into a plurality of spiral streams has the
member l8 forming the second section 21, which
effect of reducing the pulsating peaks of the
gases, and also has the effect, due to the reducing 70 is then lap ?tted over walls 2| and H of the ?rst
section 23, also the second section 21, lap ?tted
diameter of chamber 21, of increasing the velocity
over walls 2| and 23 of the ?rst section, may be
of the gases as they move forwardly. The gases
spot welded. The third section 29 is likewise tight
discharging from chamber 21 will enter expansion
?tted, by lap ?tting and spot welding over walls
chamber 29, this chamber increasing in size in
25 and I8 of section 21.
the direction of the movement of the gases. Any 75
The spiral blades shown at 35, 39, 4| and 43
5
2,403,403
between the conical members are preferably
pressed into the walls of the conical members by
6
chamber between the ends thereof for effecting
spiral movement of the gases within said high
proper dies in such a manner that the high point
pressure chamber.
of the blade on the ?rst conical member is op
6. A mu?ler comprising an outer cylindrical
posite the low point of the blade of the second
casing, a conical forward end carried by said cas
conical member. Of course, the blades can be
ing, a discharge nipple extending from said coni
also welded on the periphery of the conical mem
cal forward end, an inner casing disposed within
bers. The conical members with the blades of
said outer casing, a conical forward end carried
the periphery thereof are then moved together
by said inner casing and disposed within the for
in order, with the conical member l2 forming the 10 ward end of said outer casing, spiral blades dis
outside wall of the tapered portion of the muffler
posed between the conical forward ends of said
and the entire tapered portion being welded onto
inner and outer casings, an intermediate casing
the outer casing In at 20. The outer casing 10
disposed between said inner and outer casings
is also welded to the tapered portion of the muffler
and terminating at the forward end thereof at
at 20 with the wall H welded to the side walls of 15 the base of said ?rst conical end, means discharg
lo and also welded to the intake member 33.
ing gases into the space between said inner and
What I claim is:
intermediate casings, said intermediate casing
1. A muffler comprising an outer cylindrical
having openings forwardly of the rear end there
casing, a conical forward end carried by said
of whereby some of the gases in said space may
casing, a discharge nipple extending from said 20 enter the chamber formed between said interme
conical forward end, an inner casing disposed
diate and outer casings, said inner casing at the
within said outer casing, a conical forward end
rear thereof having communication with said
carried by said inner casing aid disposed within
chamber, a plurality of conical members within
the forward end of said outer casing, spiral blades
the conical forward end of said inner casing, and
disposed between the conical forward ends of said 25 spiral blades between adjacent pairs of said coni
inner and outer casings, an intermediate casing
cal members.
disposed between said inner and outer casings
'7. A mu?ler comprising an outer cylindrical
and terminating at the forward end thereof at
casing, a conical forward end carried by said cas
the base of said ?rst conical end, means dis
ing, a discharge nipple extending from said coni
charging gases into the space between said inner
cal forward end, an inner casing disposed with
and intermediate casings, said intermediate cas
in said outer casing, a conical forward end car
ing having openings forwardly of the rear end
ried by said inner casing and disposed within the
thereof whereby some of the gases in said space
forward end of said outer casing, spiral blades
may enter the chamber formed between said in
disposed between the conical forward ends of
termediate and outer casings, said inner casing 35 said inner and outer casings, an intermediate
being open at the rear thereof and having com
casing disposed between said inner and outer cas
munication with said chamber whereby all of the
ings and terminating at the forward end thereof
gases in said chamber will enter said inner casing
at the base of said ?rst conical end, means dis
from the rear thereof.
charging gases into the space between said in
2. A muffler comprising an outer casing, an in
ner and intermediate casings, said intermediate
ner casing in said outer casing, an intermediate
casing having openings forwardly of the rear end
casing between said inner and outer casings and
thereof whereby some of the gases in said space
forming an outer low pressure expansion cham
may enter the chamber formed between said in
ber, said intermediate casing also forming with
said inner casing a high pressure chamber there
between, means in said high pressure chamber for
increasing the velocity of the gases, said inter
mediate casing having openings communicating
termediate and outer casings, said inner casing
at the rear thereof having communication with
said chamber, and spiral blades between said in
ner and intermediate casings between the ends
thereof.
said high pressure chamber with said outer low
8. A mu?ier comprising an outer cylindrical
pressure chamber, said inner casing being open 50 casing, a conical forward end carried by said
at the rear end thereof and communicating with
casing, a discharge nipple extending from said
said low pressure chamber, said inner casing
conical forward end, an inner casing disposed
forming an inner low pressure chamber, and
within said outer casing, a conical forward end
means at the forward ends of said inner and in
carried by said inner casing and disposed within
termediate casings for increasing the velocity of
the forward end of said outer casing, spiral blades
the gases discharging from said high pressure
disposed between the conical forward ends of
chamber, said latter means being so constructed
said inner and outer casings, an intermediate
and arranged as to also produce a suction for ex
casing disposed between said inner and outer cas
hausting gases from said inner low pressure
ings and terminating at the forward end thereof
chamber.
at the base of said first conical end, means dis
3. A mu?ier as set forth in claim 2 including
charging gases into the space between said inner
means at the forward end of said inner casing
and intermediate casings, said intermediate cas~
for effecting spiral motion to the gases discharged
ing having openings forwardly of the rear end
from said inner chamber.
thereof whereby some of the gases in said space
4. A muiiier as set forth in claim 2 wherein said
may enter the chamber formed between said in
latter means includes a plurality of spirally ar
termediate and outer casings, said inner casing
ranged means at the forward end of said high
at the rear thereof having communication with
pressure chamber for effecting increased velocity
said chamber, said inner and intermediate cas
coincident with spiral motion.
ings being formed of opposed frusto-conical por
tions.
5. A muffler as set forth in claim 2 including
spirally arranged means in said high pressure 70
URBAN SAUER.
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