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Патент USA US2403429

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July 9, 1946.
Filed Nov. 2, 1942
JUUL 54w
3 Sheets-Sheet 2,
Cad/V753 /
GENE/P147018 /
lynx. .
$2 .
Earl Z?mkmm
6&2. M
Patented July 9, 1946
asmo BEACON srs'ram
Earl-I. Anderson, Manhasset, N. Y., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
’ Delaware
' Application November 2, 1942, Serial No. scam
7 Claims-
(Cl. 250-—11)
This invention relates to a course and position
Figs. 8 and 8-11 show a modi?cation oi? the
determining system employing radio beacons, and
system of Fig. 5,
Figs. 9, 10, 11 and 12 show various types of
receiving apparatus carried by a. mobile craft or
vehicle whose position is to be ascertained.
indications which may be produced by the sysm
Radiogoniometric systems, in which bearings
of two or more ?xed stations with respect to a
tem of Fig.8,
Fig. 13 illustrates another modi?cation of the
craft are used to determine its position by tri_
angulation, are subject to various well known
sources of error. Under certain conditions of
‘system of Fig. 5 ; and
occur at a time when it is impossible to obtain a
low a course along the line AB, perpendicular to
?x by astronomical or other means and depend~
~able radio location is most required.
and biseoting the linebetween thev transmitters
- Figs. 14, 15, 16, 1'7 and 18 ‘show typical indi~
cations obtainedwith the system of Fig. .13.
abnormal-wave polarization and high noise level 10 Referring to Fig. 1, assume that transmitters
are located ‘at X and Y, and it is desired to 201- '
such systems are useless. These di?lculties often
X and Y. Discrete pulses of high frequency en»
It is proposed to use two or more fixed trans 15 ergy are periodically emitted simultaneously by
transmitters X and Y. These pulses are trans
mitt'ers sending timed impulses to, determine the
mitted on different frequencies and picked up by
relative time required for a' pulse from each of
separate receivers at the mobile station. The
the transmitters to travel between theilxed sta
tions and the position to be determined. Since ‘ outputs of the two receivers-are applied. to a
the velocity of propagation of radio waves is in 20 multigrid tube arranged to produce output cur~
rent only when the input pulses coincide. This
variable, the time is in each case an accurate
measure of the distance.
Although re?ections ' ' output current is applied to a peak indicating
and deviations of the wave may occur, as long as
any component of the radio energy travels over
As long as the mobile‘ station follows the course
the direct path, it will arrive ?rst at the receiver. 25 AB the arrival of the pulses from the two stations
will coincide, producing an output pulse lilsethat 3
The position may be ascertained in terms of the
shown in Fig. 2. When the mobile station is oil
relative time of arrival of pulses from the fixed
s a ons.
It is an object of this invention to provide
the course AB, theoutput pulse will decrease in I
' ' amplitude, reaching zero when the di?erence in
improved method of and means for determining 30 time 01’ arrival exceeds the duration time of one."
This is illustrated. in Fig. 3.
Another object is to provide a system for as
In order’ to indicate the arrival at a destinae
certaining the position of a receiver station in
ticn, a third transmitter Z, may be ‘provided any
where along the course AB and arranged to send
terms of the times of arrival of pulses transmit
ted from stations of known positions.
35 out pulses like those from x and Y, but with I
A further object is to provide an improved
a slight delay, so that when all ‘three pulses coin
method of and means‘for indicating automatical- ' cide at the receivers, the craft is at its destina~
tion, indicated by the point P in Fig. l. I
ly the position of a mobile. craft with reference
~ Referring to Fig. d, an indicator system is
to a given course and destination.
Other and incidental objects will become ap 40 shown, com-prisms receivers‘ X’, Y’, and Z’ an
parent to those skilled in the art upon considera
ranged to respond to transmitters K, Y and 2;
tion of the following description, with reference
respectively. Receivers X and ‘if are connected
to the accompanying drawings, of which Fig. 1
.to two control grids oi’ a multigrld tube 6. The
represents the course and destination of an air
control grids are both normally biased to cut oil?
plane, for example, with reference to ?xed ground 45 by means of a voltage from e110. source (not
shown) applied between the cathode of the tube
Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate pulses received from
I and the grid leaks 3 and 5.
the ground stations at a receiver on the airplane.
The plate circuitof the tube l includes a load
resistor 'l coupled through a blocking condenser
tem for providing indication of the position of a 60 8- to' a peak indicator comprising ameter ii
receiver with respect to three transmitters,
shunted by a recti?er it.
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of a modified
A second multigrid tube l5, biased like the tube
' Fig. 4 is a, schematic circuit diagram of a sys
1, has. one control grid connected through a
Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate typical indications pro
phase inverter it to the plate circuit of the tube
vided by the system of Fig. 5,
55 I and the other connected to the receiver Z’. A
indicator system,
peak indicator including a meter l7 and recti?er
l9 is'connected to the plate circuit of the tube in.
’ 66, and the vcathode is coupled vto the grid of
In operation, the plate current. pulses of the
tube l are‘ directly related in magnitude to the
coupled to the grid of a tube 14, andthe cathode
of, the tube is is coupled to the cathode of the
time of overlapping ofthe pulses received by the
tube M.
receivers X’ and Y,'. Thus the meter II will show
The tube 36 provides a, duplicate of the wave
35 (Fig. 8) in its cathode circuit, and a similar
another tube 42.
a maximum de?ection when the craft is on
The plate of the tube 42 is
but inverted wave _ in its plate circuit.
course, and a decrease upondeparture from the
course. Similarly the de?ection of the meter ll
tubes 68 and 412‘ are arranged to operate as peak
will increase as the destination is approached, 10 "ampli?ers, “clipping” the highest step of ‘the
stepped wave in each case. Thus the output
at the cathode of the tube 40 is the wave 43 of
and dropping 01! again if it is passed.
Fig. 5 shows a system for producing course
Fig. 8 and that at the cathode of the tube 42
is the wave 39. The outputs at the plates of these
and destination .indications on the screen of a
tubes are similar to, but inverted with respect to
cathode ray tube. A saw-tooth generator 2!,
the cathode outputs. The wave II is provided by
which may be a blocking oscillator, for example,
applying both of the waves 39 ad 43 to the tube '
of the type described in U. S.\Pat. 2,101,520 to
as so as to provide cuto? bias. Thus the tube
Tolson et al., is synchronized with alternate ‘
pulses in the output of the receiver x'. The
will conduct when both voltages 39 and. ' “t
attaining a maximum value when it is reached
output of the generator II is applied-to the hori
zontal de?ection circuit of a cathode ray tube
are oil’.
,_ The ampli?ers as, 61 and 49 may comprise
multigrid' tubes and circuits like those shown in
23, and the outputs of the three receivers X’,
Fig. 4. or may be any other type'of amplifier
Y’, and Z’ are applied together to the vertical
arranged to be normally cut oil and made oper
de?ection circuit of the cathode ray tube.
Alternate pulses in the output of the receiver 25 ative by arrival of a keying impulse. Receivers
X, Y’ and Z’ are connected to the inputs of ampli
X’ will produce a de?ection 25 at the center of
flex-s d5, 657 and lit respectively. The ampli?er
the cathode ray trace 21 (Fig. 6). The pulses
outputs are applied to the vertical de?ecting
from receivers X’ and Z’ will produce de?ections
29 and 3| which are displaced from, the center
circuit of the tube 215.
of time. ' When the
de?ection 80 ' The operation ‘oi.’ the system is as follows:
caused by the receiver Y’ coincides with the
central de?ection 25, the receiver station is on
course. when all th ee de?ections coincide, the
destination has been reached. In this applica~
tion the shape of the pulses is not critical except,
Each alternate pulse from the receiver X’ causes
the cathode ray to trace one horizontabsweep.
with its center coinciding in time. with thein
termediate pulse from recevier X’. The coun
ter lit is operated by each saw-tooth wavaso
that they should be as short as possible tot‘
that each step in its output has a duration equal
maximum accuracy. Fig. '7 shows a portion of
to twice the pulse repetition time. The keying
pulse generator 3? produces a square wave at
the trace on the cathode ray tube when the re‘
each of its output circuits corresponding in time
ceiver station is slightly oi! course and near the
destination. There is no easy way to distinguish 40 to one level of the stepped wave 35. Thus the
ampli?ers Alli, ti and [.59 are sequentially keyed to .
which de?ection corresponds to the course indi
operate successively, each for a period equal to
cation and which to the destination indication.
This information must be determined by going
twice the pulse repetition time. The wave-1'"
first one way and then the other, long enough to
may be applied to the vertical de?ection circuit,
move the de?ections a perceptible distance along 45 as shown, to cause successivé horizontal traces
the trace. If all three pulses arrive at the same
to appear at different levels. During successive
traces the impulses from receivers 'X', Y’ and
time it is impossible to tellif one, two. or three
pulses are present, even if the amplitudes are
Z’ are successively indicated on the screen, re
di?’erent, since only one composite pulse results.
sulting in an indication like that shown in Fig.
Fig. 8 shows a system for displaying the re 50 10. If the voltage 85 is not used, ‘the patterns
ceived pulses during separate scans of the cath~
will he like that shown in Fig. 9, or if the out
ode ray beam, retaining the form of each pulse,
even though they arrive coincidentally. The
receiver x’ synchronizes a saw-tooth generator
puts of the different channels are unequal, like
Fig. 11. An indication like that shown in Fig.
12 may he obtained by reversing the polarity.‘ of
H on alternate pulses, as in the system of Fig. 65 one of the ampli?er outputs, by- means oi" a
5. The oscillator output goes to the horizontal
phase inverter stage 66, for example. The two
de?ection circuit of the cathode ray tube 23, and
lower pulses may be used to indicate course and
also to a counter circuit 83, which may be of.
the upper pulse used to show the destination.
Fig. 13 shows a system for providing indica
the type described in British Pat. 471,731, of
Dec. 4, 1935, to E. L. C. White adjusted for 3 to 630 tions like those shown in Figs.‘ 14, 15; 16,.17 and
1 frequency division to produce the stepped wave
18, which can be more readily interpreted than
35. The counter output is applied to one side , those given by the above described systems. Fig.
of the vertical de?ection circuit of the cathode
ray tube 23 and to a keying pulse generator 3?.
The keying pulse generator provides three square
wave outputs, 38, ll and 43, each corresponding
‘in time with one ,of the steps of the wave 35.
These outputs are. applied to key the amplifiers‘
45., 41 and 48 respectively. The circuit of the
keying pulse generator 31 is shown in Fig. 8A.
The stepped wave output of the counter 33 is
applied ‘to the grid circuit of a tube 34. The
tube 34 is provided with load resistors as and
38 in its plate and cathode circuits respectively.
‘ The plate circuit is coupled to the grid of a tube,
14. shows the indication when the craft'is on
course. Figs. 15 and 16 are o?-course indications.
to the right and to the left respectively. Fig.
17 indicates the mobile station is on course and
nearits destination. Fig. 18 is the indication-of
arrival at the destination. Thus the image‘on
the cathode ray screen simulates a map showing
the ‘positions of the craft and its destination.
and the course to he followed. '
The indicator system (Fig. 13) ‘comprises a saw
tooth wave generator a! synchronized on alternate -
pulses in the output of the receiver X’, as in the
systems of Figs. 5 and 8.
A pair of keying:
ampli?ers It and IS, which may be multigrid
tubes biased like the tubes i and ii of Fig. 4, are
each connected to produce output only when sig
nals are applied to both control grids. The output
of the saw-tooth generator 2| is applied to 'corre—
sponding control circuits of the ampli?ers 53 and
II and to a two to one' counter circuit 33. The
output of the counter 33 is applied directly to the
I claim as my invention:
' 1. A system for indicating a position in response “
to arrival at said position of pulses transmitted
in predetermined time relationship from a plu
rality of spaced transmitters, comprising receiver
means, a cathode ray tube, means for initiating
a sweep of- the beam 01' said cathode ray tube in
response to the arrival of each alternate pulse
other of the control inputs of the ampli?er 53 and
fromone oi’ the transmitters, and means for de
through a phase inverter ii to the corresponding‘ to ?ecting said beam transversely of said. sweep in
circuit of the ampli?er $5. . The output circuits: of
response to the arrival of pulses from each of the
the ampli?ers BI and 55 are connectedto the
vertical and horizontal de?ection circuits respec
tively of a cathode ray tube 23. " The output of
the counter II is also connected through a phase
inverter 50 to the vertical de?ection-circuit of the
tube 23, and the output of the phase inverter ii
other transmitters.
is similarly connected through a phase inverter 51
2. A system for indicating position in response
to the relative timings of‘ a plurality of trains
oi’periodic impulses comprising a radio receiver
arranged to respond to one of said trains, a saw
tooth wave generator controlled by the output of
said receiver to operate at a frequency‘ one half
to the horizontal de?ection circuit. The receivers
of the impulse repetition frequency of said train,
Y’ and z' are connected throughswitches 6i and 20 other radio receivers arranged to respond respec
II to the vertical and hprizontal de?ection circuits - .tively to others of said trains, and a cathode ray
respectively 01’ the tube '23. Switches II and 63
tube provided'with a horizontal de?ection cir- ‘
may also be operated to connect the receiver X’
cult connected to said saw-tooth wave generator
instead of receivers Y’ and Z’ to the de?ection
and a vertical de?ection circuit connected to said
other receivers.
The ampli?ers .53 and 85 are keyed alternately
by the output currents 85 and 81 of the counter
33 and phase inverterv 5i, respectively to produce
~ to the relative timings of a plurality of impulse
alternate horizontal and vertical sweeps of the
respond to one of said trains, a‘ saw-tooth wave
3. A system for indicating position in response
trains comprising a radio receiver arranged'to
cathode-ray beam of the tube 23. The outputs so generator controlled by the output of said re
It and ‘H oi’ the ampli?ers 53 and 55, if applied
alone to the respective de?ection circuits of the
ceiver and arranged to synchronize with alter
nate impulses of said-train, a frequency divider
tube 23, would produce alternate vertical and ' ' connected to said saw-tooth wave generator and
horizontal sweeps from the unde?ected spot posi
arranged to produce in response thereto a stepped
tion, at the approximate center of the‘ screen. 35 wave; each step thereof corresponding in dura
The traces would intersect at their ends at this
tion to one cycle of operation ofsaid saw-tooth
point. The phase inverters-S1 and 59 add- square
wave generator, square wave generators arranged
wave components derived from the counter out
to operate selectively in response to the occurrence
put to the outputs II and 88 of the keying amph
of respective levels of said stepped wave, other '
?ers, providing resultant voltages ‘I3 and 15 re 40 radio receivers arrangcd'to respondirespectively -'
spectively. This is done to make the vertical and .
horizontal cathode ray traces cross at their centers
to others of said impulse trains, ampli?ers con
nected to the outputs of the-receivers and each
by shifting the axis of the sawtooth waves 68 and
' arranged to be controlled by one of said square
‘H from zero voltage to one-half the peak voltage.
wave generators, vands. cathode ray‘ tube, with
Alternate pulses, in the output 01’ the receiver
a ‘?rst de?ection circuit connected to said saw
X'_control the initiation of each sweep, which
tooth wave generator and a second de?ection cir
requires a time equal
twice the pulse repeti
cuit connected to'sald frequency divider and to
tion period. An impulsereceived on receiver Y’
allof said ampli?ers.
during the horizontal sweep period produces a
4. A system for determining position in re
vertical de?ectionf'if this coincides with an im
sponse to the relative timings of a plurality oi
pulse from receiver ‘X21 the de?ection occurs at
impulse trains comprising a plurality of radio
the center of the horizontal sweep. A pulse from. - receivers, each arranged to respond to one of
receiver Z’ during. the vertical sweep‘ produces a
said trains, a cathode ray tube, means for de
horizontal de?ection, above or below the center
?ecting the beam of said cathode ray tube in
according to whether it‘ is later or earlier than
alternate sweeps at right angles to each other,,
the pulse from x'. vWhen all three pulses coin-‘
said means being arranged to respond to the out-. '.
side in arrival, the ‘de?ections both occur at the put of one of said receivers so that each of said
intersection of the sweeps. .
sweeps has a duration of twice the pulse repe
The switches ti and $3 are provided so that
tition, period of said output,‘ and means for de->
the output of the receiver x' may be applied to
forming each of said'sweeps in response to im
either of the de?ection‘ circuits to enable observa- '
pulses in the output of a corresponding one of
tion of the amountloi square wave component
the others of said receivers.v
' ,
added to each of the de?ection saw-tooth voltages,
5. A system for indicating a position in re
for the purpose of adjustment. ~
' .
sponse to the relative timings of a plurality of ‘
Thus the inventiomhas been described as a
'trains of periodic impulses comprising a radio re-v
course and destination indication system for
ceiver arranged to respond to one of said trains,
mobile craft. Trains of suitably timed impulses
‘a saw-tooth wave generator connected to said
‘ are transmitted at equal repetitionperiods from
receiver and arranged to initiate a cycle in re
a plurality of listed stations and received at the
sponse to the arrival of each alternate impulse of
mobile station. Coincidence of two of the pulse 10 said train at receiver. a_ cathode ray- tube with
trains at the receiver station occurs when the
one de?ection circuit connected to said saw-tooth
craft is on course, and coincidence of all three v .
occurs at the destination. Several arrangements '
wave generator- whereby the beam of said cath
ode ray tube produces ‘a linear'trace on the screen
for providing visual indications in response to the
received pulses are illustrated.
' thereof, other radio receivers arranged to respond
respectively to others of said trains, and con
nections from the output circuits of all of said
other receivers and another de?ection circuit of
beam transversely of said sweep in response to
said cathode ray tube whereby said linear trace
the arrival or the pulses of each or the other or
said pulse trains.
is deformed at points along its length related in
their positions to the [relative timing of said im
cathode ray tube in response to the relative tim
pulse trains.
6. The method of indicating on a cathode ray
tube‘ the position or a station in response to ar
rival at said station of a plurality of trains of
timed pulses, comprising the steps of initiating
a sweep of the beam of said cathode ray tube in
response to the arrival of each alternate pulse
of one of said pulse trains. and de?ecting said
7. The method of indicating position on a ‘
ings of a plurality‘oi trains comprising the stem‘
of de?ecting the beam or said cathode ray tube
in alternate sweeps at right angles to each other
in response to the successive alternate pulses of
one of said trains, and deforming each of said
sweeps respectively in response to the pulses of '
corresponding other trains.
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