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July 9, 1946- HElNZ-HORST E. VON K. zu KORNL-‘IGG 2,4943?
-
NOW BY JUDICIAL CHANGE 0F NAME
H. VON KOHORN
_
‘
PROCESS FOR MAKING ARTIFICIAL WOOL IMITATION
FILAMENTS AND ARTIFICIAL WOOL FILAMENTS
Filed Feb. .25, 1939
2 Sheets-‘Sheet 1
#151
a
WHEEL
a"
111 ‘R
THREAD GUIDES
SPINNERE?
. ATTORNEY$
july 9, 1946.
v
HElNZ-HORST E. VON K. ZU KORNEGG
2,403,437 _.
W‘
NOW BY JUDICIAL CHANGE OF NAME
H. VON KOHORN
PROCESS FOR MAKING ARTIFICIAL WOOL IMITATION
FILAMENTS AND ARTIFICIAL WOOL FILAMENTS
Filed Feb. 25-, 1939
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Hg,
5.
INVENTOR.
14 FOP/VIEW" -
Patented July 9, 1946
UNITED _'STATES PATENT?
2,403,437
_
,
'
PROCESS FOR MAKING ARTIFICIAL WOOL
IMITATION FILAMENTS AND ARTIFICIAL
WOOL FILAMENTS
Heinz-Horst E. Von Kohorn Zu Kornegg, New
York, N. Y., now by judicial change oi’ name
Henry Von Kohorn, assignor, by mesne assign
ments, to Asher Blum, New York, N. Y.
Application February 25, 1939, Serial No. 258,498
15 Claims.
1
-
(Cl. 18-54)
,
‘This invention relates to the manufacture of
?laments, threads, yarns, ribbons, staple, or sim
ilar ?bres and the products made therefrom, hav
ing the characteristics of natural wool in respect
. to appearance, feel, serimetric and physical prop
mm. column of viscose between the upper and
the lower mark, is measured. The number oi
seconds required by the steel ball to drop said
> 200 mm., is the viscosity of the viscose.
When
spinning
ordinary viscose
rayon or I
erties. I produce such wool imitation ?laments,
etc., from cellulose containing vegetable sources
staple ?bre, the viscose is spun at a usual ripe=
ness of ,7 to 13 and a viscosity of 25 to 50. tape
according to the viscose method.
proximately the same ?gures are meant when re-
'
ferring hereinafter to “ordinary or usual ripe
can be obtained when producing ?laments from 10 ness” and "ordinary or usual viscosity.”
‘viscose by spinning the viscose at a ripeness
According to my invention, I obtain ?laments,
greatly deviating from the customary-one. But
etc., with permanent wool characteristics by pre
vsuch. wool characteristics produced by extraordi- , paring a viscose of high viscosity and by spin~
ning this viscose into a bath containing a com
nary ripeness conditions are not permanent and
disappear during the subsequent treatment of 15 paratively large quantity of certain salts. A salt
the ?laments and/or their fabrics such as boil
content of {i% zinc sulphate or more, besides
ing, ironing, etc.
'
the normal sodium sulphate content, was found
very satisfactory for this purpose. But under
When hereinafter referring to ripeness degrees,
the so-called . ,Hottenroth-ripeness is meant,
certain circumstances aluminum sulphate, mag
which is determined according to the following 20 nesium sulphate, ammonium sulphate, nickel
It is known that a temporary wool character
sulphate and cobalt sulphate were also found
suitable. It is also possible to use a combine
tion of twoor more of the above described salts,
monium chloride (NH4C1) solution is slowly add
always over and above the normal sodium sul
ed until the viscose reaches the coagulation point.
The number of cubic centimeters of NHlCl so 25 phate content. The reason I provide for these
method: 20 grams of viscose are diluted and
mixed with 30 com. of water. Then a 10% am
lution necessary to reach this coagulation point
is the ripeness or ripeness degree of the viscose.
In the drawings:
' ,
'
‘
salts in my spinning bath is, thatvthese salts
not only improve the wool-like feel of the ?la
ments produced according to this process, but
I also find, that the presence of these salts at
Fig. 1_ is a diagrammatic view of the stretch
ing portion of a spinning machine upon which 30 the given high percentages counteract the draw
the improved ?laments are spun and stretched.
backs of spinning a highly viscous viscose. On
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the improved
the other hand, the high viscosity of the viscose
counteracts the objectionable. e?ects of the high
?laments produced by the invention.
'
Fig. 3 is a side view of a portion of theme.
percentage of zinc and other sulphates men»
ments showing the ?ssures or cracks occurring
tioned in the spinning bath, which occur, when
using such high percentages in spinning a vis
along the lengths of the said ?laments.
cose of normal viscosity. 1
‘Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the improved
?laments made by the invention and having
When referring in this specificationto the“high
somewhat different cross-section characteristics
salt conten ," a salt content of 4% zinc sulphate
than that of the ?laments shown in Fig. 2.
,Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic view showing the
?oating, the drying and the opening apparatus
preferably employed for the manufacture of the
40 or more, over and above the normal sodium
- improved staple ?bers.
The viscosity referred to hereinafter is deter
mined according to the ball-fall method, car
ried out-gin the following manner: The‘ viscose
under examination is poured into a vertical glass
_ tube of 300 mm. length and 25 mm. diameter.‘
sulphate content of about 23%, or a combina
tion of any two or more of the above mentioned
I-salts, and having a similar e?ect as 4% or more
zinc sulphate, is meant. The above mentioned
"similar e?'ect” is intended to refer to the wool
characteristics of the ?laments only.
As mentioned above, various attempts have
been made to produce wool-like ?laments by
spinning a viscose with abnormal ripeness, both 7
The viscose should have a temperature of about
18 degrees C. On the glass tube are provided
two markings, 200 mm. apart. A steel ball of
Very high and very low. It is, however, known
to people skilled in the art that it is very dim
cult to control the ripeness of viscose in either a
3 mm. diameter and weighing 1.28 grams is
very fresh (unripened) or in a very ripe condi
tion. I' have discovered the new and desirable
dropped into the glass tube, and the time re
quired by the steel ball to drop through the 200 55 effect of spinning a viscose with a high viscosity
|
- '
acceptor .
..
a
3
but at normal ripeness into a spinning bath con
taining a high percentage of zinc or similarly act~
ing sulphates, in order to obtain ?laments, etc.,
usual concentration at a temperature of over 22 .
with a wool characteristic.
I have alsodiscov~ ‘
‘soda. solution, the time‘ and the temperature at
ered that the disadvantage of spinning a viscose '
whichmthe cellulose is steeped in this solution
degrees 0., which has an ageing e?ect on the
cellulose. The exact concentration oi! the caustic
with a very high viscosity into a normal spinning
bath, and the disadvantages of spinning a vis= '
‘depend upon the type of cellulose used and the
"degree of ageing desired.
cose of normal viscosity into a spinning bath con- '
Some examples of carrying out my process are
taining a high percentage of zinc sulphate,‘ can
described in my earlier application Serial No.
be avoided by spinning viscose with a high'vis 10 191,420, ?led February 19, 1938. If the cellulose
cosity into a spinning bath containing a high
is- to be aged at all, it is obvious that by ageing
percentage of zinc or similarly acting sulphates. ' it during the steeping operation considerable
- In this speci?cation the term “spinning viscosity”
space and‘ time can be saved as against the ordi
is intended torefer to the viscosity of the vis
nary method of ageing cellulose after the shred- cose at the time of spinning.
15 ding in separate containers; using a caustic soda
Example 1.-Cel1ulose is treated in an 18%
solution of 18% concentration and a steeping
caustic soda solution at 20 degrees C. for about
time of about one hour, about the following tem
one hour and then pressed to retain caustic soda
peratures would have to be used in order to ob
solution amounting to twice the quantity of cellu
tain the same degree of ageing as described in lose used. This cellulose is then shredded into 20 Examples 2 to 5 of this speci?cation.
-. line crumbs at a temperature of 22 degrees C.
(a) 23 degrees C. to obtain the same ageing
The shredded alkali cellulose is then immediately
e?ect as in Example 2.
sulphidized with 33% carbonbisulphide at a tem
(b) 23 to 30 degrees C, to obtain the same age
perature of 22 to 25 degrees C. for about 90 min
ing effect as in Example 3.
_
'
The xanthate obtained is dissolved in a 26
(c) 30 to 44 degrees C. to obtain the same age
dilute caustic soda solution, so as to form a vis
ing effect as in Example 4.
' cose containing 7% alkali arid 7% alpha-cellu- (d) 22 to 36 degrees C. to obtain the same age- I
. . lose, and is stored in tanks. At this point the
ing effect as in Example 5.
' - viscose has a viscosity of 900 and a ripeness of 13.
In order to keep ‘a constant temperature of the
The viscose is then illtrated and evacuated im- 1
caustic soda solution during the process of mer
'mediately, within‘ about 6 hours. _During this
cerizing, I can circulate this solution through
time the viscosity drops to about 850 and the
the mercerizing vessel either by means of a pump
ripeness to 12.6. (According to the old method,
or automatically by the thermo-syphon principle.
viscose is stored for about 90 hours.)
_
This latter arrangement consists oi’v a tank pro
The viscose is then spun (projected through
vided with a heating coil and situated under
splnnerets) into a spinning bath containing 11%
neath the mercerizing vessel. It is connected
sulphuric acid, 23% sodium sulphate and 4%
zinc sulphate at a temperature or 45 degrees C.
_
with this vessel by means of a feed pipe and a re
turn pipe. The caustic soda solution contained
The filaments obtained are either collected in '
in vthe circulation ‘tank is heated and rises
one’ oi the' known. devices and then washed. 40 through the feed pipe into the mercerlzing vessel
bleached, etc., in order to ?nish them or they can
on account of its lighter specific weight due to
be ?nished in one continuous operation whilst‘
its higher temperature. The feed pipe is con
. continuously running.
'.
nected with the mercerizing vessel at its lowest
Example ‘2.,—Mode ofoperation as in Example
point., The hot caustic soda solution rises
1 with the diflerence that between the shred 45 through the mercerizing vessel and the cellulose.
ding and xanthating operations, the alkali cela
There is an over?ow provided at the top of this
lulose is stored away or kept in suitable containers
vessel connected with the return pipe and the
for a period of up to 10 hours.
I
_
,
circulating tank located below. Thus, the com
Example 3.--Mode of operation as in Example ' paratively
cool caustic solution returns to the
1 with the di?erence that between the shred- ‘
ding and sulphidizing step the alkali cellulose
is stored away or kept in suitable containers for
' a period from 10 to 24 hours.
Example 4.-Mcde of operation as in Example
‘1 with the difference that between the shred
ding and sulphidlzing step the alkali cellulose is
stored away or kept in suitable containers for a
period from 24 to 40 hours.
Example 5.—Mode. of operation as in Examples
circulation or heating tank in order -to be re
heated.
This arrangement provides for an automatic
heat exchange without necessitating pumps or
other mechanical devices. A constant temper
ature of predetermined degree may be kept by
means of a resistance thermometer or thermo
stats, which in turn operate electric valves regu
carried out at a temperature between 20 and 30
latlng the heat supply in the circulating" tank.
All of the examples given in this speci?cation
for making viscose will result in a viscose having
degrees C.
a spinning viscosity of over 500 as claimed in
1 to 4 with the difference that the shredding is '
.
,
,
Example 6.--Mode of operation as in Examples
1 to 5 with the difference that, before spinning,
the viscose is stored up to 12 hours.
Example 7.--Mode of operation as in Examples '
l to 5 with the difference that, before spinning,
this speci?cation. 'I'here'are, of course, many
’ combinations and variations possible and I de
scribe below two examples which constitute pre
ferred embodiments of my invention, in regard to
making viscose:—
,
(A) I steep, press and shred alkali-cellulose
according to the usual method, store this alkali
1 to 5 with the difference that, before spinning, 70 cellulose for 20 hours at 17 degrees 0., sulphidize
the viscose is stored from 24 to 36 hours.
this cellulose to obtain xanthate, dissolve said
According to another modi?cation of my proc
xanthate to form viscose, and store this viscose
ess, I age the cellulose during the steeping or
for 30 hours at 19 degrees C. to give the viscose
mercerising operation. I do this by treating the
a viscosity of 500. I then spin said viscose
cellulose with a caustic soda solution or the it throughspinneretsinto a spinning bath contain
the viscose is- stored from 12 to 24 hours.
Example 8.--Mode of operation as in Examples
2,408,487
6
5
and explained in Examples 9-12'may be used.
ing sulphuric acid, sodium sulphate and at least
4% zinc sulphate.
'
~
After the viscose squirted through the spinneret
'
(B) I Steep, press, shred and sulphidize cellu
has partly been precipitated so as to form tubes
lose without ageing at normal temperatures, dis»
which still contain ?uid viscose‘on the inside,
they are given tension only sumcient to withdraw
vthe ?laments but not stretching them immedi
ately after their formation.
After the ?laments-have thus been given time
to take the required shape, they are stretched
su?iciently by various methods to obtain 'su?l
_ solve the xanthate obtained into viscose and store
said viscose for 24 hours at a temperature ofv 18
degrees C. to give the viscose a viscosity of 750.
I then spin this viscose into ?laments according '
to the methods described.
,
.
Example 9.-—Viscose prepared according to
Examples 1 to 8 is spun into ?laments on a spin
cient strength.‘
ning machine provided with the following de
guides, rollers, wheels, etc.,.as described in Ex
vices:
This can be done by thread
amples 9-12.
>
The composition of the viscose and of the spin
The viscose pump forces the viscose through
the spinneret which contains the number of holes 15 ning bath cause the ?laments produced to have
a rough or cracked surface, similar to the scales
required for the purpose the ?laments are pro
vided i'or. , There is, further, .a glass wheel pro
of natural wool. Furthermore, the ?laments
twist in such a manner as to have a cross sec
vided at a distance from the spinneret. The
tionsimilar to a horse shoe, the ends of which
wheel is driven and runs outside the spinning
bath. There is a second glass wheel provided 20 touch or overlap, as illustrated in Fig. 2 and Fig. i.
I have found that ?laments, etc., obtain good
above the ?rst glass wheel.‘
wool-like qualities by spinning viscose as de
The viscose projected through the spinneret
scribed under the following conditions:
'
forms ?laments by coagulation and is withdrawn
I spin (project through a spinneret) viscose
from the spinneret by the ?rst glass wheel around.
' which the ?laments take up to one complete 25 into a spinning bath of the composition as out
turn. From here, the thread passes on to and
around the second glass wheel which is-driven
at a peripherical speed greater than that of the
?rst wheel. The number of turns taken by the
?laments around this second wheel depends on 80
the position of the eventual collecting device.
lined. The distance between the spinneret and
the (?rst) drawing-off mechanism is between lb
and 30 inches, all of which, or a portion. of which
The ?laments may be taken up by
nisms provided anterior to the eventual collected
'
'
'
There may be one or two drawing-oil mecha
device.
(a) Bobbins, reels or any other winding-up
mechanism,
may be the actual immersionlength in the spin
ning bath,
According to the present invention, I
_ withdraw the ?laments formed from the spin-r ‘
.
neret under as little tension as possible so that
(b) Pots or buckets,
the initial formation of the ?laments which con
(c)' Rollers or other guiding or feeding devices
sists of the formation of a cellulose tube, ‘which
on which the ?laments, whilst continuously
is comparatively rigid, but which still contains
running, are subjected to washing and bleaching
?uid viscose on the inside.) takes place in loose
or that feed the ?laments .to a cutting device.
The immersion length of the ?laments in the 40 condition. After the ?laments have thus been
formed, under conditions which allow them to
spinning bath, the position of the glass wheels
assume the required shape and structure caused
and the angles in the direction of the ?laments
by the e?ects of the viscose and the spinning bath
or threads formed by these wheels must be de
upon each other, I apply tension or stretch the
termined according to the ‘desired results and
?laments by increasing the drawing-off speed.
will vary with the typesof viscose (Examples
This increase in the drawing-off speed is such as
1-8) and spinning bath (Example 13) used.
to cause a cracking or breaking of the rigid outer
Example 10.--Mode of operation as in Exam
ple 9 with the di?erence that there may be “ cellulose layer‘of the ?laments formed, which is
not plastic enough to follow the stretch applied
thread guides provided between the spinneret
and the ?rst glass wheel, between the ?rst glass
50 to the ?laments while the more plastic or ?uid
wheel and the second and between the second
innerpart of the ?laments will be able to do so,
glass wheel and the take-up arrangement, in
as illustrated in Fig. 3.
order to increase the tension and stretch on the
I found that it is also possible to apply sul?
cient tension to the filaments to obtain the above
described results by conducting ?laments around
thread guides instead of rollers, etc.
The cracked or ruptured surface of the ?la
?laments.
Example 11.-—Mode of operation as in Example
9 with the difference that one of the glass wheels
is omitted and that tension is applied to the ?la
ments thus formed eventually, improves their '
ments between the remaining glass wheel and the
spinneret or the take-up arrangement. There
wool feel and under proper conditions even re_
may be additional thread guides Provided.
60 sembles the scales of the natural wool ?bre. An
Example 12.--Mode of operation is in Example .
9 with the difference that both glass wheels are
omitted and that tension isapplied to the ?la
ments solely by means of thread guides between
the spinneret and the collecting device. >
-
In order to obtain a more wool-like feel and
appearance of the ?laments produced from vis
cose prepared according to above mentioned ex
' amples, it has been found advisable to coagulate
other consequence of this method of spinning is
that the ?laments take the shape of a horse-shoe
(Fig. 2), the two ends of which almost touch or
sometimes overlap, the ?laments thus having an
air-enclosing space in the center which increases -
the insulationpower and thus’ the warmth oi’.
the ?laments or yarn, ‘fabrics, etc, made frond
them.
" In order to be able to treat the ?laments in the '
these ?laments in'loose condition and to apply 70 above described manner, it is important that the
coagulation of the ViSCOSe and the complete re
the necessary tension after the ?laments have
generation of the cellulose does not take place
been formed but while they still partly are in a
too quickly. It is known to persons skilled in
plastic condition.
the art that‘ Zinc sulphate retards the complete
To this end and as one embodiment of my in
vention, a spinning device as shown on Fig. l 76 regeneration of the cellulose by quickly forming
2,408,487
-
a cellulose ?lm or tube on the outside of the '
8
old method, the viscose prepared by my method
changes its ripeness during the course of 2 hours,
tiny stream of viscose projected through the spin
neret. The still ?uid viscose on the inside of the
?lament must then be coagulated by- means of
dialysis through this ?lm membrane, thus retard
ing the complete regeneration of the cellulose.
The ?laments obtained according to this meth
only about 0.1 to 0.15 degree.
It is known that ?uctuations in the ripeness of
viscose are the cause for uneven dyeing ofv the
?laments or the fabric eventually produced.
Ordinary viscose changes its ripeness during the
two hour period, during which the contents of one
od thus have the appearance and the feel of
natural wool, and have at the same time a rough
spinning tank are being used up (which may form
surface, and a hollow, air-enclosing space or canal 10 the thread of one continuous skein of rayon) by
in the center, as shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4.
about 0.4 degree. While this ?uctuation often
According to my invention, I apply to the ?la
causes uneven dyeing, the change in ripeness of
ments such a tension by conducting them around»
'the'viscose prepared according to my invention
above mentioned thread guides or guide rollers
of about 0.15 degree is negligible.
_
placed at various distances and angles, so as to 15
When producing ?laments, etc., according to
give the ?nal ?laments the same elongation as
above described methods, the ?laments have a
that of the natural wool ?bres they ‘are intended
subdued lustre, which may range from a slight
to be blended with, or which they are to replace.
to a very distinct dullness. This property'is very
By regulating the composition of the spinning
desirable in view of the fact that natural wool
bath, especially in regard to' the quantity of sul- 20 is also dull and that arti?cial ?laments produced
phuric acid, I apply the required degree of hard
by this method can be blended with wool or used
ness or softness to the ?bres necessary in order
in the place of wool without changing the ap
to imitate the natural wool ?bre, especially in
pearance of the/product at all, compared with a
regard to their behavior when spun into yarn.
100% woolen product.
By increasing the quantity of sulphuric acid, it 25
This dullness which in contrast to other de
is, for instance, possible to increase the hardness
lustering methods‘is obtained without the use of >
of the fibres obtained up to the degree of hard
chemical additions or mechanical treatments, is
' ness which certain kinds of wool, as for instance
permanent and will not be removed by any subse
quent treatment of the product.
cross-bred, ‘have.
It is impossible. to indicate every condition so
>
As it is intended to blend ?laments produced
necessary in order to obtain the desired proper
- according to my method with wool or to use them
ties of the?laments, threads, ribbons,‘etc., pro
instead of wool, these ?laments should therefore
duced and it is to be understood that experiments
resemble natural wool as closely as possible. For
cannot be avoided to ?nd the most suitable con-'
this purpose, the ?bers, ?laments, etc., produced
ditions for each particular cellulose used or the 35 are intentionally given the same physical prop
type of wool imitation ?ber, etc., to be imitated.
erties as those of the, woolen ?bres they are to be
There are a great many different types of wool
blended with or they are to replace. Such me
ranging from Merino, which has a very soft feel, chanical and'physical properties, of course, de
to a cross-bred, which is rather hard to the touch.
pend on and vary with the different-kinds of
When using or referring in this specification 40 natural wool, and include staple length, cross
.to the term “?laments,” this term is meant to '
section, crimp, surface character, elasticity, in
include other viscose products, such as threads,
ribbons, ?bers and the like.
’ ter?bre friction, color, luster, heat conductivity,
feel and appearance.
''
Gram’ per met
Sodium
Zinc
'
sulphate sulphate
Aluminum
sulphate
Magnesium Ammonium Nickel Cobalt
sulphate
sulphate sulphate sulphate
Type of wool
obtained
crossbred.
l5 amihfuliy aware that neither a high zinc sul
phate‘eontent in the spinning bath nor an ab- '
normal viscosity of the viscose, nor a stretching
‘It is obvious that when spinning a yarn which
,is to resemble wool, the percentage of arti?cial '
?bres used in this blended yarn can correspond
of thei?laments ‘after formation are essentially on ingly be increased with an increasing wool-like
new in’ themselves, but this invention concerns
itself with their use and importance in the manu
facture of, wool imitation ?laments, etc., and the
- ness of the arti?cial ?bres.
In some cases, even 1‘
a 100% arti?cial ?bre yarn can be spun, which
>_ has all the mechanical and ‘physical properties
new and ‘desirable effect when used in combina
a purespinning
woolen yarn.
?laments according ‘to one of
tion.
65 of After
Eaiamp'le 13_.-—Viscose prepared according to
the, above described methods, the ?laments can
Examples 1 to 8 and spun under conditions and
either be (in the case of cut staple ?bres)
on .the devices according to Examples 9 to 11, is
precipitated in a spinning bath having one of
(a) Washed, cut and then dried;
(b) Washed, dried and?then cut;
the following compositions:
.
70
(0) Cut, washed and then dried.
The dyeing properties of fibres or ?laments ob
Without limiting myself to the below described
tained in the above described ways are excellent
method, I prefer to continuously wash, cut, and
and of great uniformity. The reason is that the
then dry the ?laments. A suitable method and
viscose prepared by my method has a very ‘slow ' apparatus for carrying out my process are de
ripening tendency. In distinct contrast to the 78 scribed in United States Patent No. 2,134,160.
'
u
r
.
"2,408,437
The term “washing” is meant to include such
treatments as de-sulphurizing, bleaching‘, etc.
In order to give the ?laments the same or bet
ter crimp than that of the natural wool ?bre,
which is very desirable to the spinner whenspin
‘ ning such-cut ?laments into yarn, I dry and
treat the ?laments as follows:
Prior to drying, I open the cut ?laments as "
well as possible by ?oating them in a large volume
10
to the consumer rather than to the producer. -
One very important factor, equally important to
both, is the elasticity, as this property affects
the spinning as well as the wearing qualities of
the ?bres to a very large extent.
It its known that the spinning properties of
?bres depend, to a large extent, on the surface
structure (smoothness or roughness) of these
?bres. It has always been considered a disad
of a suitable solution and/or mechanically by Iv vantage of ordinary ‘cut rayon staples that their
passing them through one of the known wet
openers. I do this because it is known that a
surface was too smooth and did not result in the
same good spinnability as that of cotton or of
larger part of the crimp in arti?cial ?laments
wool. As described above, I therefore, regulate
appears during the drying operation and in order A the degree of roughness I apply to the ?laments
for the ?laments to be able to follow this shrink [5 spun according to my process, by giving them a
ing tendency as much as possible, it is necessary
more or less cracked and rough surface, 'com
that the ?laments be opened up well and be in
a ?u?y condition so as not to prevent them from
parable to that of wool.
shrinking, contracting. twisting and curling by
arti?cial wool imitation ?laments the same
warmth (insulating power) as that of wool. I
inter-?ber friction.
'
g
'
‘
Through my process I am also able to give these
wet condition the ?laments are in when ?rst
accomplish this by giving the ?laments the de
scribed twisted shape resulting‘in the air-enclos
entering the dryer, it is impossible to complete
ing canal running in longitudinal direction
I have found, however, that on account of the
the drying in as loose a condition as seems de
' through the whole length of the ?laments.
' sirable for the purpose. I therefore have designed 26
I am able to blend arti?cial wool imitation ?la
and arranged the apparatus shown in Fig. 5.
The dryer is divided into two independent units
or sections 3 and 4, each of which can be worked
at different speeds, temperatures, humidities, etc.
'
ments produced according to my process, amount
ing to at least 40% with natural wool to form
either a composite yarn or a 100% arti?cial ?la
ment yarn. Such composite yarns may consist
' Intermediatethese two sections, there is provided 30 of a wool and cut staple ?bre mixture, of a doubled
a second opener 2. The ?laments passing through
wool yarn and staple ?bre yarn or of a doubled ‘
the ?rst'section 3 of the dryer lose part ‘of their
woolen yarn and continuous ?lament rayon yarn.‘
moisture content and then pass through the sec
In each case the cut ?bres, the staple ?bre yarn ~
ond opener 2. The ?laments which are now only
and’ the continuous ?lament yarn have been given
in semi-wet condition are opened much more 35 the above described wool characteristics.
readily and are not as ougged together as when
I claim:
opened in wet condition. This second opener 2
1. Process for the manufacture of arti?cial
can also perform a much more thorough opening‘
wool imitation ?laments and the like, comprising
operation because the action on the ?laments
does not have to be as gentle as when opening 40. making alkali-cellulose, ageing said alkali-cellu
lose for not more than 20 hours at a temperature
completely wet ?bers. It is known that viscose
?bers are weaker in wet condition than in dry
condition and.while the ?rst opener i is to be
designed in such a way as to avoid damage by
below 17 degrees C., xanthating and dissolving
said alkali-cellulose into viscose, storing said vis
cose at a temperature of less than 19 degrees C.,
for
less than 30 hours, to give the viscose an ordi
45
stretching or tearing of the ?laments, the second
nary
ripeness, and a viscosity of at least 500 and
opener 2 may have a much more severe action.
The- ?bres having passed through said second _‘ spinning said viscose into a bath containing about
11% sulphuric acid, about 22% sodium sulphide,
opener 2, enter the second section 4 of the dryer
and at least 4% zinc sulphate to form ?laments.
in loose and ?uify condition and are capable of
2. Process for the manufacture of delustered
receiving a curl or crimp in the second section 50
arti?cial wool imitation ?laments and the like,
of the dryer. Anterior the ?rst opening appa
comprising making alkali-cellulose, sulphidizing
ratus I is the usual spraying device 5.
said alkali-cellulose without ageing to form
By this method it is also possible to dry the
xanthate',v dissolving said xanthate into viscose,
?laments in the ?rst section 3 of the dryer at a
storing said viscose at a temperature of less than
much higher temperatiure because the ?laments
19 degrees C. for less than 30 hours, to give the
still have a high moisture content. In the second
viscose an ordinary ripeness and a viscosity of at
section 4 of the dryer the temperature is corre
least 500, and spinning said viscose into a bath
spondingly lower.
containing about 11% sulphuric acid. about 23%
While it has been suggested to comb ?bers dur
ing the drying operation in order to simplify the 60 sodium sulphate and at least 4% zinc sulphate
to form ?laments.
,
carding operation, I believe that I have discovered
3. In the manufacture of arti?cial wool imita
the new and desirable e?ect of an opening Opera
tion ?laments, making viscose with a viscosity of
tion of semi-dry ?bers on the crimp of the ?n
at least 500 and projecting said viscose through
ished ?bers.
'
The various wool-like properties of the ?bers 65 a spinneret into a spinning bathcontaining 150
grams per liter sulphuric acid, 285 grams per liter
are important both from the standpoint of the
sodium sulphate, 50 grams per liter zinc sulphate
spinner and the eventual consumer. The follow
to form ?laments.
'
b
ing properties, for instance, affect the making,
1. e., the spinning of the yarn rather than the
4. Method for spinning arti?cial wool imita- ,
wearing or use of the fabric: staple length, cross 70 tion ?laments and the like, which comprises
section, crimp, surface character and inter-?ber
projecting viscose with a viscosity of at least 500
fri ii in, all of which have a direct bearing on the
into an acid spinning bath containing at‘ least 4%
spinnability and the cost of the yarn spun. On
zinc sulphate and approximately 23% sodium
the other hand, color, lustre, heat conductivity,
sulphate, withdrawing the ?laments under as
feel and appearance are properties of importance 76 little tension as possible and then applying stretch
2,408,487
-
.
11'
'
'
surface.
.
5. Method for spinning arti?cial wool imitation
?laments and the like, which comprises'prolect
ihg viscose with a viscosity of at least 500 into an
acid spinning bath containing at least 4%‘zinc ,
sulphate and approximately 23% sodium-sul- _
and then applying stretch to the ?laments by
' withdrawing them‘ at a greater speed by means
1
a
.
, 11. An arti?cial ?lament having a transverse
cross-section of substantially horse-shoe shape
of a second wheel having a higher peripherical
speed and thus causing the surface of the nn
ments to become roughand cracked.
_6. A method for the ‘production of arti?cial‘
" and transverse ?ssures occurring along the‘ length
oi’ said ?lament obtained by projecting-viscose
" into a spinning bath, containing 9 to,12% sui
phuric acid, 20 to 25% sodium sulphate and apr
~proximately 4% zinc sulphate, withdrawing the
?laments formed and then applying tension to
- wool imitation ?laments and the like, comprise "
ing projecting viscose with a‘viscosity of at least
500 into an acid‘ spinning bath containing at
, least 4% zinc sulphate and approximately 28%
. said ?laments, resulting in said cross-section and
so
the ?laments by means of a second godet wheel ‘
ing a surface friction coe?icient the same as
having a greater peripherical~ speed than'the?rst
natural wool.
Wheel.
,
-
_
*
y
l
.
-
,
.‘7'. 'l‘he method or producing ?laments with a
rough'suriace which comprises projecting viscose
to form on the outside of the ?laments and asto
,
,
a
the type as obtained 'by coagulating viscose with a
' viscosity of at least 500 in an acid spinning bath
" , taining sulphuric acid, sodium sulphate and at 80
least 4% zinc ‘sulphate, drawing oil under as,
little ‘tension as possible the ?laments formed 'so'
as to allow' a comparatively rigid cellulose-tube
'
12. As a new product, arti?cial woolimitation
?laments and the like with a rough surface, oi’ '
‘
~ “with a viscosity or atleast lioqthrough a spin
' ,neret'and for a certain tlmeinto a bath con-_
' ‘
?ssures, said ?lament because of said ?ssures and
the shape oi’ said cross-section having a rough
ness approaching that of natural wool and hav
?rst‘ godet wheel and then‘ applying stretch to
'
_
._4%- zinc sulphate, and approximately 23% so*
chum-sulphate to, form ?laments, and stretching
said ?laments to cause said membranes to burst
in circumferential .direction of the ?laments to
impart to the ?laments a rough surface.
as little tension aspossible by means oi a wheel,
' under as little tension asipossibie by means 0! a
.
_ a viscosity of at least 500, quickly forming a mem
' brane around the viscose streams projected
through a spinneret by'precipitating said viscose ’
- into an acid spinning bath containing more than
phate, withdrawing the ?laments formed under
sodium-sulphate,‘ withdrawing the ?laments
12‘
tation'?laments, the steps 0! making viscose with
to the ?laments in order'to give them a rough
containing at least 4%'-zinc sulphate over and
above'the normal sodium sulphate contentoi
' 20 to 25%.
-
13. Method tor spinning arti?cial wool imitation
"?laments and‘ the like, which comprises project
ing viscose with a viscosity of at least. 500 into
ailow the ?laments to assume a horse-shoe shape 85, an acid bath containing at least 4% zinc sulphate ,
caused .by the zinc sulphate present and then
overv and above the normal sodium sulphate con
stretching ‘the ?laments'containing coagulated' ‘ tent of 20 ,to 25%, withdrawing the ?laments
under as little tension as possible and then apply
' ing stretch to the ?laments in order to give them
formed-on the outside of the ?laments to, crack 40 a. rough surface.
14. A process for the manufacture of arti?cial
and thus to form a rough surface. ,
,
.
viscose but ‘non-regenerated plastic cellulose on >
inside, so as to cause. said cellulose tubes
.
.
8.‘ A process for the manufacture of arti?cial
wool imitation ?laments comprising mercerislng,
~ wool ‘imitation ?laments comprising mercerising,
, pressingand shredding cellulose, storing said cel
pressing andishredding cellulose, ‘storing said cel
lulose at a temperature of not more than 18 de
- luloee for not more than 12 hours at a tempera 45 grees C., sulphidizing said cellulose without use
. ture of not more thania degrees 0., sulphidizing '
said cellulose without ageing it to form xanthate.
dissolving said xanthate to viscose, ?ltrating and '
Tevacuating said viscose, andspinning said/visa
>, cose at a viscosity of at least’500 into an and
spinning bath containing at least 4% zincsulv
phate and approximately 23% ‘sodium-sulphate
to form ?laments,“ withdrawing-said ?laments
under as little tension as possible by means of.
' ments
if wheel.
byand
means
thenoiapplyingstretch
-a second wheelto having,
the
a
.ing it to form xanthate, dissolving said xanthate
to viscose, ?ltrating and evacuating said viscose, '
‘and spinning said viscose at a viscosity of at least
into an acid spinning bath containing-at
least 4% zinc sulphate over and above the nor
mal sodium sulphate content of 20 to 25% to
form ?laments, withdrawing said ?laments under
as little tension as possible by means oi’ a wheel, ‘
and then applying stretch to the ?laments by
~means'oi a second wheel having. a greater periph
' oral-speed than the ?rst wheel.
greater peripherical speed than the‘?rst wheel. ' ‘ , - 15. In the manufacture of viscose for making , a. Inthe manuiactureoi viscose for making
arti?cial wool imitation ?laments, the'steps of
arti?cial wool imitation ?laments, the steps. oi
> treating cellulose in a caustic soda solution,
treating cellulose in a caustic soda solution, at a 80 shredding said aged alkali-cellulose, sulphidizing
temperature above 22-degrees C., shredding said - ‘said cellulose without further ageing to form‘ '
aged alkali-cellulose, sulphidi'zing said cellulose
without
to form xanthate, dissolvi
ing said xanthate into ‘a viscose; spinning said
xanthate, dissolving said xanthate into a viscose,
spinning saidviscose at a viscosity of not less'
. than 500 into an acid spinning bath containing
- viscose at a viscosity of not less than 500 into an 65 at least 4% zinc sulphate over and above the
acid spinninglbath containing at least 4% zinc
sulphate and approximately 23% sodium-sul
normal sodium sulphate content of 20 to 25% to
form ?laments, withdrawing these ?laments
‘ phate to iorm‘?laments, withdrawing these ?la
. under as little tension as possible by means of a
iinents under as little tension as possible by means
wheel and then applying stretch to the ?laments
01 a wheel and then applying-stretch to the ?la 70 by means of a second wheel having a greater
ments by means of a second wheel having a ,
greater Deripherical speed than the ?rst wheel.
, __ 10. In the manufacture‘)! arti?cial wool imi
peripheral speed than the ?rst wheel.
-
~' '
'
HEINz-HORST E.
VON KOHORN ZU KORNEGG.
‘
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