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Патент USA US2403445

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July 9,‘ 1946.
J. P. LAICO
'
2,403,445
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed May 51‘, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet
FIG. 3
INVENTOR
J P LA/CO
ATTORNEY
July 9, 1946.
v ,1. P. LAICO
2,403,445
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed May 31, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR
J. RLA/CO
0mm (5. M
ATTORNEY
Patented July 9, 1946
2,403,445
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,403,445
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Joseph P. Laico, Brooklyn, N. Y., assignor to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application May 31, 1941, Serial No. 396,002
13 Claims.
(Cl. 250-275)
1
2
This invention relates to electron discharge
tion, the control electrode or grid is mounted in
an elongated slot in the head of, a mushroom
shaped support the shank of which is secured to
a wall of the enclosing vessel whereby the control
devices and more particularly to such devices
operable at ultra-high frequencies, for example
frequencies corresponding to wave-lengths_in the
centimeter range.
electrode or grid is securely mounted, may be
_
In electron discharge devices intended for oper
ation at ultraéhigh frequencies, the interelectrode
spacings, in general, are extremely small and,
because of the expansion and contraction of the
electrodes with temperature variations thereof
during operation, there is danger of contact be
tween two electrodes with consequent failure of
handled readily and may be accurately positioned
in a desired position with respect to other ele
19
the devices. Furthermore, in such devices, due
to the necessity of maintaining the interelectrode
capacitances small, the electrodes themselves are ,
ments of the device. The support serves as the
leading-in conductor for the control electrode or
grid and also provides a large heat radiating sur
face so that during operation of the device the
control electrode or grid is maintained at asafe
temperature.
In‘ accordance with another feature of this
invention, the anode comprises an intermediate
usually of small dimensions and, hence, are diffi
portion in juxtaposition to and alignment with
cult to handle and to mount in such manner that
the control electrode or grid and a pair of similar,
the requisite interelectrode spacings will be main
tained with reasonable accuracy and constancy
laterally extending, flexible outer portions secured
at their outer ends to leading-in conductors, the
during the operation and life of the device. Also,
the interelectrode impedances are largely capaci
laterally extending portions serving to maintain
the intermediate portion in alignment with the
control electrode or grid while allowing expansion
and contraction of the vanode with temperature
variations therein during operation of the device.
tive in character so that when the electrodes are >
associated with distributed constant external cir
cuits, such as coaxial lines, discontinuities exist
between such external circuits and the internal
circuits, that is, the electrodes and their leading
In accordance with a further feature of this
invention, the laterally extending portions of the
in conductors associated with the external cir
cuits. Such discontinuities may be substantially
anode extend adjacent the surface of the head
of the mushroom-shaped support for the control
reduced by matching the characteristic imped
electrode or grid whereby the characteristic im
ances of the internal and external portions of the 30 pedance of the line section de?ned by these por
several circuits, as described in the application
tions and surface may be matched with that of
Serial No. 395,948, ?led May 31, 1941, of Paul L.
an external line associated therewith.
Hartman.
In accordance with still another feature of this
One object of this invention is to facilitate the
invention, the leading-in system for the cathode
attainment of accurate small interelectrode spac- ' ‘
includes strip conductive members secured to the
ings in ultra-high frequency electron discharge
ends of the cathode and extending in proximity
devices and the maintenance, of such spacings
to the surface of the head of the control electrode
during the operation of such devices.
or grid support whereby the characteristic im
Another object of this invention is to enable
pedance
of the internal portion of the cathode
the ready handling and mounting of small elec
grid circuit may be made substantially the same
trodes in electron discharge devices and thus to
as that of the external portion of this circuit.
expedite the realization of accurate close spacing
The invention and the above-noted and other
of electrodes in such devices.
features thereof will‘be understood more clearly
A further object of this invention is to sim
plify the construction of electron discharge de 45 and fully from the following detailed description
vices wherein internal elements are of such con-J
?guration and so related that the characteristic
with reference to the accompanying drawings in ‘
which:
,Fig. 1 is an elevational View of an electron dis
impedance of the circuit section de?ned thereby "
charge device illustrative of one embodiment of
is substantially the same as that of an external
distributed constant system associated with the 50 this invention, portions of the enclosing vessel
and of the control electrode structure being
internal elements.
broken away to show details of construction more
In one illustrative embodiment of this inven
clearly;
tion, an electron discharge device comprises an
Fig. 2 is a side view partly in section of the base
enclosing vessel housing a linear cathode, a con
trol electrode or grid encompassing and uni 55 and electrode assembly included in the device
shown in Fig. 1;
>
formly spaced from the cathode and an anode
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the electron discharge
in proximity to and uniformly spaced from the
device illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, the enclosing
control electrode or grid, and leading-in systems
Vessel being broken away;
_
for the several electrodes.
Fig. 4 is an exploded perspective view of the
In accordance with one feature of this inyen 60
2,403,445
3
4
electrode structure included in the device shown
in Fig. 1; and
shaped terminal 13. The relatively large head
and shank portions of the grid support, it will be
apparent, provide large heat radiating surfaces
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of an electron dis
charge device illustrative of another embodiment
of this invention, portions of the enclosing vessel
being broken away to show the internal structure
more clearly.
Referring now to the drawings, the electron
discharge device illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4 com
whereby the grid is maintained at a safe tempera
ture during operation of the device.
t will be appreciated also that the anode con
struction assures the maintenance of alignment
.of the channel portion 29 thereof with the grid
and cathode during operation of the device, ex
prises an evacuated enclosing vessel, for example 10 pansion and contraction of the anode with tem
of glass, having a generally cup-shaped base por
perature variations being allowed by uniform
?exing of the two arcuate portions Bil of the
tion l0 and a substantially hemispherical portion
ii, the two portions l9 and II being joined her
anode so that any movement of the channel por
metically at their edges. The base portion it‘!
tion is is substantially rectilinear and in the
is .provided with a central tubulature l2 to which 15 direction of a line extending through the cathode
and the longitudinal axis of the grid.
there is sealed hermetically a cup-shaped metal
lic terminal I3, for example of copper.
. The device may be mounted on a metallic base
or support '35‘, only a portion of which is shown
Mounted within the enclosing vessel are a reo
tilinear ?lamentary cathode M, an anode desig
in Fig. 1, having a plurality of tubular extensions
nated generally as I5, and a control electrode or 20 35, one for each of the leading-in ‘conductors 24,
25 and 3d, each tubular extensionbeing coaxial
grid structure. The latter includes a generally
mushroom-shaped metallic, e. g. copper, support
with the corresponding leading-in conductor.
having a smoothly rounded, dome-shaped, axially
The base or support 35 may be connected to the
control electrode or grid structure and main
symmetrical surface it and a shank ll V?tted in
the terminal [3 and secured thereto, as by a 25 tained at ground potential. Suitable tunable co
suitable silver solder. The support is provided
axial lines may be associated with each leading
with a diametrically extending slot 18 in the
in conductor and the corresponding tubular ex
intermediate portion of which there is ?tted the
tension 35. Because of the form and relation of
channel-shaped section [9 of a formed metallic,
the portions 36 of the anode and the surface [6
e. g. molybdenum, insert, the insert having ?anges 30 it will be appreciated that the characteristic im- 29 conforming to the surface l6 and being af
pedance of the portions of the anode-grid circuits
fixed to the support by a plurality of screws 2i
within the enclosing vessel H), II may be made
threaded into the support and are welded to the
substantially the same as that of the coaxial lines
?anges. The control electrode or grid 22 is a
associated with the grid and anode through the
wire helix, oval in section, carried ‘by a metallic, 35 conductors es and the corresponding extensions
e. g. nickel, mandrel element 23 which is ?tted
36, as described fully in the aforementioned ap
and secured in the slot l8 and the channeled sec
plication of Paul L. Hartman. Likewise, because
tion I9 of the insert. As shown clearly in Fig.
of the form and relation of the strips 26 and
2, the outer surface of the end portions of the
the surface 56, the characteristic impedance of
mandrel element 23 conforms to the surface it‘. 4.0 the portion of the cathode-grid circuit within the
The cathode l4 extends through and is uni
enclosing vessel Ni, ii may be made substantially
formly spaced from the grid 22 and is supported
the same as that of the coaxial lines associated
from a pair of rigid leading-in conductors 24 and
with the leading-in conductors 2:3 and Z5 and
25 ‘by thin metallic strips 26 which, as shown
the corresponding tubular extensions 36.
clearly 'in‘Fig. 2, conform generally to the surface 45 It will be noted that although the device is
I 6 of the grid support. The linear form of the
single-ended mechanically it is double-ended
cathode is maintained by an inverted J-shaped
electrically in that two circuits may be connect
spring 21 secured to one end of the cathode and
ed to opposite ends of the cathode and two to
to the leading-in conductor 25.
opposite ends of the anode. Also, the leading-in
The anode l5 comprises a block 23, for example 50 systems for the cathode are at right angles to
of graphite, provided with a substantially semi
the leading-in systems for the anodes so that
cylindri'cal channel 29, conforming to and uni
undesired coupling between the grid-cathode and
formly spaced from the control electrode or grid
grid-anode circuits is small.
22. The block 28 is supported by a pair of me
The electron discharge device illustrated in
tallic, e. g. molybdenum, strips each of which in 55 Fig. 5 also is of a construction suitable for
cludes a ?exible arcuate strip or vane portion
30 conforming to and uniformly spaced from the
surface I6 and a ?anged portion 3| the ?anges
grounded grid operation and comprises an en~
closing vessel including a substantially hemi
spherical vitreous portion ll hermetically sealed
of which are bent against the ends of the block 28.
to a_ ?anged, metallic annular member 3? which
The block 23 may be secured in position against 60 is joined hermetically to a metallic base 38. The
the ?anged portions 3| by metallic wires 32 ex
base 38 is provided with a plurality of cylindrical
tending therethrough and secured to the por
eyelets 39 through Which the leading-in conduc
tions 3| as by welding. The arcuate portions
tors 24, 25 and 34 extend coaxially and to which
38 taper gradually, as shown in Fig. 3, and are
provided at their outer ends with socket portions 65 these conductors are sealed hermetically by in
sulating beads, not shown. The cathode is ex
33 secured to rigid leading-in conductors 34 sealed
tends parallel to the base 38 and is supported by
to and extending from the base Ill of the enclos
the conductors 24 and 25. The anode includes
ing vessel.
two metallic members having joined ?anges ail,
It will be noted that in the construction illus
trated in Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive, and described 70 flexible tapering portions 4| secured to the lead
ing-in conductors 34, and intermediate arcuate
above the grid structure may be assembled read
portions 42 de?ning a substantially semicylindri
ily as a unit and then easily and securely mount
cal channel in alignment with the cathode I 4.
ed, and accurately positioned with respect to‘ the
The control electrode or grid comprises a ‘helix
leading-in conductors for the other electrodes,
by securing the shank I‘! in and to the cup 75 22 mounted on a mandrel element 23 which is se
2,403,445
5
cured to ?anged metallic plate members 43 se
cured to the base 38.
Although speci?c embodiments of the invention
have been shown and described, it will be under
stood that they are but illustrative and that vari
ous modi?cations may be made therein without
departing from the scope and spirit and this in
6
and having its ends connected to said ?rst pair I
of supports, and an anode opposite said grid and
having laterally extending portions connected to
said second pair of supports.
7. An electron discharge device comprising an
enclosing vessel having a base wall, a metallic
‘support including a shank joined to said base
wall and including also a head portion having
vention as de?ned in the appended claims.
a circular surface arcuate in section, a grid
What is claimed is:
mounted on said support and extending along a
10
1. An electron discharge device comprising a
diameter of and adjacent said surface, a cathode
metallic support having an extended surface ar
adjacent said grid and in alignment therewith,
cuate in section, a grid mounted on said sup
leading-in means for said cathode including a
port, a cathode and an anode in juxtaposition
pair of conductors, sealed to said wall, extending
to said grid, and leading-in means connected to
adjacent diametrically opposite points of said sur
said cathode and said anode, one of said means 15 face and metallic strip members adjacent said
including a metallic strip member in juxtaposi~~
surface and connecting said cathode to said con
tion to and substantially conforming in shape to
ductors, an anode having a portion in juxta~
”
position to and in alignment with said grid and
2. An electron discharge device comprising a
having
also portions extending laterally at sub
metallic support having a dome-shaped surface, 20 stantially right angles to said grid, and leading
an electrode mounted on said support adjacent
in conductors sealed to said base wall, extending
said surface, a second electrode in juxtaposition
adjacent diametrically opposite points of said sur- '
to said ?rst electrode, and leading~in means for
face substantially 90 degrees from said ?rst
said second electrode including a strip-like me
points, and connected to said laterally extending
tallic member extending in juxtaposition to and 25
portions of said anode.
.
substantially conforming in shape to said sur~
8. An electron discharge device comprising a
face.
cathode, a control electrode in cooperative rela
3. An electron discharge device comprising a
tion with said cathode, an anode having a cen
metallic support having a dome-shaped surface,
tral portion opposite said cathode and having also
an electrode mounted on said support adjacent 30 elongated ?exible portions extending laterally
said surface, a pair of electrodes in cooperative
from said central portion, and support members
relation with said ?rst electrode, and leading-in
secured to the outer ends of said flexible portions.
means connected to each of said pair of elec
9. An electron discharge device comprising an
trodes, each of said leading-in means including a
elongated
an anode having a central
strip-like conductor adjacent and substantially 35 channeled electrode,
portion in proximity to and in align
conforming in shape to said dome-shaped sur
ment with said electrode and having also ?exible
face.
strip portions extending laterally outwardly from
4. An electron discharge device comprising a
said channeled portion, and rigid support mem
cathode, a control electrode and an anode mount
ed in cooperative relation, a support for‘ said 40 bers secured to the outer ends of said laterally
extending portions.
control electrode comprising a metallic member
10. An electron discharge device comprising an
having an extended arcuate surface, leading-in
enclosing vessel having a base wall, a cathode, a
means connected to said anode including a me
control electrode adjacent said cathode, means
tallic element in juxtaposition to and substan
supporting
said cathode and control electrode
tially conforming in shape to said surface, and
substantially parallel to said wall, an anode hav
leading-in means connected to said cathode and
ing a central portion opposite the portion of said
including a metallic member in juxtaposition to
control electrode remote from said wall, said an
and substantially conforming in shape to said surode having also ?exible portions extending lat
face.
erally from said central portion and inclined to
5. An electron discharge device comprising a
ward said base wall, and rigid support members
metallic support having an extended, axially
extending from said wall and secured to the outer
symmetrical arcuate surface, a grid mounted on
ends of said flexible portions.
said support adjacent a central area of said sur
11. An electrode assembly for electron dis
face, a cathode in cooperative relation with said
charge devices comprising a metallic support hav
grid, leading-in means for said cathode including
said surface.
a metallic strip member connected to one end of
said cathode, extending in juxtaposition to said
surface and substantially conforming in shape
thereto, an anode having a central portion in
juxtaposition to said grid and outer vane por
tions in juxtaposition to said surface and sub
ing a shank portion and an enlarged head por
tion provided with an elongated slot in one sur
face thereof, a mandrel element secured in said
slot, and a grid mounted on said mandrel element,
12. An electrode assembly for electron dis
charge devices comprising a support having a
dome-shaped portion provided with a diametri
stantially conforming in shape thereto, and lead
cally extending slot, a channel-shaped insert se
ing-in conductors connected to the outer ends of
cured in said slot, and a grid seated in said insert.
‘said vane portions.
13. An electrode assembly for electron dis
6. An electron discharge device comprising an 65
charge
devices comprising a metallic support in
enclosing vessel having a base wall, a mushroom
cluding a shank and a dome-shaped portion, said
shaped metallic support having its head portion
dome-shaped portion having a diametral slot
within said vessel and a shank joined to said base
therein,
a channel-shaped insert secured in said
wall, a pair of metallic supports sealed to said
slot, a mandrel element, and a helical grid en
wall and positioned on opposite sides of said ?rst
compassing and mounted On said mandrel ele
support, a second pair of metallic supports on
ment, said mandrel element being seated in said
opposite sides of said ?rst support and sealed to
insert.
said wall, a grid mounted on said head portion
JOSEPH P. LAICO.
of said ?rst support, a cathode opposite Said grid
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