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Патент USA US2403446

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July 9, 12946.
'
E. J. "LAMPORT
2,403,444
HEAT GENERATING APPARATUS Ami PROCESS
Original Filed July 2 ,
1935
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ENVENTQR
5 Tim/4P0 J/A/IPo/a 7
‘ATTORNEYS
ZAGBAit
Patented July 9, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFIQE
2,403,446
HEAT GENERATING APPARATUS AND
PROCESS
Edward J. Lamport, iVashington, D. 0., assignor to
Lamport Hydro-Oil Furnace Company, Incor
porated, a corporation of New York
Application my 2, 1935, Serial No. 29,499
Renewed November 10, 1938
7 Claims.
(C1. 15S--56)
2
1
Fig, 3 is a vertical section through the oil heat
er, on line 3-3 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 4 is another section of the oil heater taken
at 90° from the section of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a detail of the fuel nozzle;
Fig. 6 is a detail of the steam generator inlet
This invention relates to heat generators, and
more particularly to furnaces which utilize as a
fuel decomposition products of oil and water.
The invention has application in heat generat
ing plants for various industrial purposes such
as steam boilers, metallurgic furnaces, gas gen
erators, domestic furnaces, and other plants re
connection and nozzle; and
quiring high and uniformyheat.
It is an object of the invention to produce an
e?icient and durable heating unit which gives a 10
uniform heat output and is subject to effective
control of fuel input and mixtures of the fuel.
Another object of the invention is to provide
apparatus for efficiently consuming hydrocarbon
fuels in conjunction with the disintegration prod
Fig. 7 is a cross section of the steam generator
coil.
As an embodiment of my invention which may
be preferred I have shown my invention in Figs.
1 and 2 as applied to a steam boiler Ill which is
supported on the furnace wall by the brick wall
H. The fire box I 2 is lined by ?re brick I3 on
15 the sides and base, M, the base supporting an up
per base 15 checkered to form inlet openings It
ucts- of water. (An object, also, is to provide im
for air from the arched air channel ll. Supply
proved means for carbureting fuel oils and water
of air is provided by the inlet duct is controlled
decomposition products to. obtain practically com
by damper I9.
,
plete mixture of these fuels. A further object is
The furnace box rear consists of the ?re bridge
20
to provide a combination of structure wherein
20 over which heated gases of combustion pass
both water and oil are decomposed separately
to the boiler tubes or other apparatus to be heated.
and reunited in a common hot combustion cham
Mounted on the upper base It? by means of
ber in such manner as to secure practically com
welded attachment to the four standards 2| is
plete combustion of the fuel.)
25 the steam heater coil 22 of steel tubing. In the
Other objects of the invention contemplate the
embodiment shown I employ 1" pipe having a
employment of improved means for generating
length of 200 feet ‘or over and I utilize a 5 foot
and decomposing steam, for making possible the
inlet pipe 23 between thevcoil 22 and ?re brick
use of extremely high heats in the combustion
wall I3 as a preheater for the water supply.
chamber and steam generator, and for maintain 30 The coil 22 is enclosed by a C-shaped checker
ing the steam generator at a uniform high tem
work wal1 24 of ?re brick, the wall opening 25
perature.
being toward the furnace front 26 and opposite
Additional objects consist in the provision of
to the ?re bridge 20 so as to permit ready en
an oil-gas furnace which operates at relatively
trance of burning fuel, as will appear hereinafter.
low pressures; which secures a thorough cracking 35 Within the steam coil 22 is a second checkerwork
of the oils; which assures a high temperature of
structure 21 of ?re brick substantially ?lling the
the nozzle gases; and which secures combustion
coil interior. Between the coil 22 and furnace
of heavy or light oils, such as crude oil, sludge,
box front 26 on the base l5 there is a refractory
or alcohol without formation of asphaltum or
area 28 formed of ?re brick andsand which assists
40 in directing the burning gases into the base of
other residues.
An object of importance, also, in the treatment
the checkerwork and coil unit.
of steel pipe to make possible its use at tem
The inlet section 23 of the steam coil 22, as
peratures exceeding 2,000° F. and approaching
shown in Fig. 2, is connected. externally of the
the melting point of steel while maintaining in
front furnace wall 26 to the water inlet pipe 30
ternal pressures exceeding 15 pounds per square 45 andair inlet pipe 3|. These two inlet pipes are
inch.
each provided with appropriate control Valves 32
Further objects will become apparent on con
sideration of the'following description of an em
bodiment of my invention and of the accompany
ing' drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a view partly in vertical section of a
and strainers 33.
The valves are shown as man
ual but it is understood that automatic valves
controlled‘, for example, by the pressure of the
50 generated steam or by the temperature of the
?re box, could be substituted.
As shown in Fig. 6, the inlet section 23 of the
steam coil 22 is provided with a small jet 34 about
11/2” in length having a ?ared inner end 35 con
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the ?re box showing the
55 nected to a constricted outer opening. 35 having
heat generating unit;
furnace ?re box, boiler, and associated heat gen-,
erating unit;
2,403,446
3
an approximate diameter of 51s".
4
This jet has
screw threaded engagement with the interior of
the monel metal jet pipe 37 which is of sufficient
length to permit substantial pre-heating of the
to the outer nozzle pipe 50 by means of the pin
65, as shown in Fig. 5. The terminal tube 55 ex
tends to a point behind the end of the copper
tubing 58.
incoming water before reaching the jet 34 but not
I also provide a steel pipe enclosure 67 for the
so long as to change the Water to steam. At the
jet the water temperature may be around 208° F.
copper tubing 58, which enclosure extends from a
In the embodiment shown the jet pipe length is.
point adjacent the end of the terminal tube 65
. and the end of the copper tubing to a point ad
about ?ve feet. It is observed that a space 38 is
jacent the heater coil 54, the purpose of this en
provided on the outer end of the jet for particles 10 closing pipe being to strengthen the copper and
of extraneous solid matter. The jet pipe 37 is
to assist in the conduction of heat away from the
threaded into the external coupler 39, as shown
copper tubing and thus prevent melting of the
in Fig. 6.
>
same due to extremely high temperatures of the
decomposition gases passing through the nozzle.
The outlet section 40 at the top of the steam
coil 22 is led through the front wall 25 of the ?re 15
In the operation of the heat generator the
box and connected to the oil heater 4 l.
valves 5| are manipulated to permit oil to enter
The oil heater 4| is mounted externally to the
the oil heater pipe 54, and simultaneously air
?re box before the front wall 26 and at sufficient
from the air pipe 3| is forced through the steam
elevation to permit the use of a downwardly in
coil 22 into the gas distributor 48 and into the
clined straight fuel nozzle. The heater consists 20 nozzle. The action of the compressed air is to
of a spherical shell divided into half sections 42
and 43 provided with annular ?anges 44 for at
tachment by means of the bolts 45. A pressure
gauge 9 communicates with the heater interior
through the pipe 1.
As shown in Fig. 4, through the boss 45 an
opening in the section 43 permits entry of the
steam pipe 40 which connects through an L
atomize the fuel and permit the initial com
bustion in the ?re box to bring about a heating
of the checker work and steam generator pipe
coil 22. When the temperature of the steam coil
26 22 and checkerwork Within the ?re box has been
elevated by this means to a temperature of ap
proximately 2,000° F. the air is turned oil" and
water which may be at approximately 50° F. is
connector 4'! to a hollow spherical gas distributor
let into the steam generator system through the
head 48.. As shown, the distributor head 48 is 30 preheating pipe section 23 where it is quickly
provided with a plurality of apertures 49 all
raised by the ?re box heat to a temperature below
around the central zone of the sphere so that
boiling point or approximately 208° F. at the jet
the highly heated gases from the steam generator
of the water nozzle. The action of the jet is to
22 are forced outwardly in an approximately
convert the water into a mist which is immedi
horizontal direction all around the sphere, these
ately vaporized as steam, and the steam passing
gases contacting with the surrounding oil pip
upwardly through the coil 22 absorbing heat from
coil and its support.
'
the ?re box and checkerwork becomes highly
The fuel oil, which may be of any desired
heated, the temperature rising to values in excess
hydrocarbon, is led from the oil reservoir by the
of 1600” F. and approaching 2400° F., these values,
40
pipe line 50, there being provided also the valves
of course, being approximate. At these high tem
5| and oil strainer 52. The pipe enters the oil
peratures some of the steam is decomposed into
heating drum 4| through a boss formed in the
its constituent elementary parts forming hydro
drum section 42. As shown in Fig. 3, an appro
gen and oxygen gas and is thus transmitted to
priate detachable coupler 53 is inserted within the
the gas distributor head 48 at pressures varying
heater wall to connect the copper oil heater tube
from 2 to 60 pounds per square inch or higher.
54. This oil tube is formed into a long coil adja
The gases are forced into the interior of the‘ oil
cent to but not contacting with the inner drum
heater 4| from the gas distributor head, bringing
surface and supported and closely wound about
about an intense heating of the coil of oil pipe 54
a convex spool 55. This spool 55 is provided with
and thus causing a cracking and decomposition
end ?anges 56 which are adapted to retain the 50 of the oil to form combustible gases. These com
coil 54 in position; it is provided also with lugs
bustible and highly heated gases together with
8 which support the spool against the heater
the steam and/or its decomposition products are
interior.
led through the fuel nozzle 70 and into the open
The lower end of the oil pipe coil 54 terminates
area of the ?re box, where they are intimately
in a straight nozzle tube 58 Which passes through 55 mixed and consumed.
the boss 59 formed in the section 43 ‘of the oil
The thorough inter-mixing of the gases (in the
heater 4|. This tube 58 is led from the oil heater
?re box) is an important feature of my inven
through the front furnace Wall 26 and ?re box
tion and is due largely to the fact that the oil gas
lining l3 into the ?re box interior, the inclination
emerges in a turbulent cloud followed by imme
being such as to direct the heater gases toward
diate expansion of the same in the combustion
the base of the ?re box adjacent the bottom of
chamber. The ‘constricted opening of the Steel
the checkerwork 21 and the steam coil 22. Sur
pipe 60 limits the rate of movement of the steam
rounding the nozzle section 58 and attached to
gases and also causes a rolling action at the
the boss 59 is a second nozzle pipe 60 formed of
nozzle end tending to bring about a close inter
steel tubing and spaced from the oil tube 58 by
action of the oil and steam gases at the nozzle
means of spaced washers 5| apertured to permit
end. This inter-mixing of these gases, however,
free passage of gas. The enclosing pipe 60 is at
as clearly shown in Fig. 5, occurs only after the
tached in the ?re box to a nozzle tip 52 formed
gases have completely left the nozzle end, thus
of a short cylindrical pipe section having the outer
distinguishing over types of nozzles wherein the
edge turned down as at B3 to form a constricted
mixing occurs before egress of the mixed gases
opening 64 about the oil tube 58, as shown in
from the terminal of the nozzle. These highly
Fig. 5 of the drawings. This nozzle tip is attached
heated gases which enter the ?re box at tem
on the inner side of one end of a short length of
peratures in excess of 1600° F., i. e. at a tempera
pipe 65 by the annular ?ange or other appro
ture approaching ?re box temperatures, burn
priate means, and the pipe 65 in turn is secured 75 with a colourless ?ame, and due to the pressure,
2,403,446
5
are carried out in a downwardly descending arc
which penetrates the spaces about the base of the
coil 22 and the checkerwork adjacent and passes
upwardly through the generator system and out
of the ?re box.
'
I
A novel feature of my invention. resides in the
employment of improved means for bringing
about the decomposition of the steam‘ at lower
6
placed. by new parts. Similarly, the nozzle parts
62' and 65 of the fuel nozzle, as well as the jet 34
or jet pipe 31, are subject to easy removal and
replacement. Due to the extremely high tem
peratures involved, as wellas the complete gase
‘ous nature'of the decomposition products of the
water and oil, a smokeless flame is produced
which consumes all of the fuel substance.
Fur
ther, the decomposition products of the oil are
than normal decomposition temperatures.
Steam, under ordinary conditions, decomposes 10 such that suf?cient oxygen is supplied to form
at a temperature-of approximately 2500° C. In
my steam decomposition system, however, I am
able to bring about practically complete decom
position of the steam at temperatures materially
below this value. I
utilizing an excessive
generator combined
deposit layer on the
accomplish. this result by I
length of pipe in my steam
with the formation of a
interior of the pipe which
seems to have an action similar to that‘ of a
catalyst in inducing a breakdown of the water
combustion products with the hydrogen of the
water, so that a minimum amount of air is neces
sary to support complete combustion within the
?re box. With proper balancing of fuels it is
possible to completely or almost completely eli
minate the air intake.
In order to' secure a
proper balancing of the oil and water decomposi
tion products the ratio may be maintained either
mechanically or automatically in accordance
with the output requirement of the generator.
A feature of the invention is the employment
of relatively low pressures to produce the e?icient
results noted, pressures of from 2 to 40 pounds
erator pipe as soon as the steam begins to iiow
being within ordinary working ranges, although
and increases in thickness with time until after
a period of about 100 hours it reaches its maxi 25 much higher pressures are possible. An average
working pressure of 15 pounds is found to give
mum thickness, after which the size slightly de
excellent results.
creases with time until it acquires a final thick
The length of the pipe of the steam generator,
ness permanently retained. For a 3/4" pipe the
as previously mentioned, is of importance inas
layer may be as thick as %.”.
The substance of the layer appears to be in the 30 much as unless the length is adequate it is im
possible to get satisfactory results. It appears
form of an oxide containing iron and possibly
that the length of the pipe necessary for e?icient
carbon or other impurities from the steel. This
results varies directly with the inner diameter of
viewpoint is supported by the fact that the thickthe pipe.
ness of the layer varies directly as the thickness
I have found that any type of fuel may be used
of the pipe wall and consequently as the amount
in this generator, even including such fuels as
of impurities in the steel. Further, for the same
alcohol, various types of crude oil, or even crude
thickness of pipe the thickness of the layer is
oil mixed with salt water. This is made possible
greater for wrought iron pipe than for steel pipe,
by the complete decomposition of the substances
due, apparently, to the greater amount of im
purities in the wrought iron. The fact that the 40 employed arising from the high temperatures and
the cumulative e?ect of the pipe length.
layer increases in thickness to a limiting value
Modi?cations of the apparatus and process
also suggests derivation of constituents from the
other than that shown and described in this ap
pipe body. Also, an analysis of the decomposi
plication may, of course, be made and therefore
tion gases from the steam pipe while the layer is
I do not desire to be limited except as is required
in process of formation shows ever 99% hydro
by the claims hereto appended.
gen, indicating absorption of oxygen in the layer
What I claim is:
formation. The layer material is highly refrac
1. A heat generator comprising a combustion
tory, being unaffected by heat at temperatures
chamber, a nozzle for directing combustible fuel
exceeding 2900° F. The layer material. is also
into said chamber, a fuel oil supply line con
harder than ordinary cutting steels. The use of
nected to said nozzle, a cracking coil inserted in
this iron oxide lining makes possible the use of
said oil supply line, a water supply, a steam gen
unusually high temperatures in the steam gener
erator within said chamber, a gas dispersion de
ator without any detrimental results, and this,
vice within the cracking coil supplying heated
coupled with the greatly increased length of pipe,
gases directly to said coil, connecting conduits
which in the case of a 2" pipe having an approx
, between the water supply, steam generator and
imate inner diameter of 1" amounts to 200 feet
gas dispersion device, and an enclosing imperfo
or over, produces a cumulative effect which in
rate casing without the coil, said device compris
sures an almost complete decomposition of the
ing a perforated casing within said coil.
steam.
2. Apparatus for generating heat from a hydro
A feature of the invention, also, resides in an 60
carbon oil and steam, comprising means for
extended length of copper tubing for the oil
maintaining a ?owing stream of steam at least at
heater pipe 54, the length of this tubing extend
a temperature corresponding to red hot steel,
ing to or in excess of 60 feet for ordinary uses.
means for eifecting indirect thermal contact be
The application of the high temperatures in ex
cess of 1,000° E, due to the distributed gases 65 tween said so heated steam and a stream of a
hydrocarbon oil, under such conditions of indi
from the gas head 48 and perforations 43 causes
rect thermal contact, that the said hydrocarbon
a cracking or breakdown of the liquid hydro~
oil becomes heated to approximately the said tem
carbon in such form that no residues of as
perature of said steam, and means for separately
phaltum and the like form within the pipe, and
hence there is no necessity for cleaning, as is 70 conducting said steam and said oil after the said
vapor. This layer, which is indicated by the
numeral 15 in Fig. 7. begins to form in the gen
ordinarily the requirement in prior apparatus.
It is pointed out, also, that the oil heater cas~
ing 4| is subject to ready disassembling in that
a. half section may easily be removed and either
the coil 54 or the steam head 48 removed and re
thermal contact, at substantially the tempera
tures resulting from said thermal contact, into a
fire box.
3. Process for generating heat from a hydro
carbon oil and steam which comprises establish
2,403,446
7
ing a stream of steam at least at a temperature
corresponding to red hot steel, e?ecting indirect
8
and thereby, with air, maintaining combustion
in said ?re box.
6. Process for generating heat from a hydro
carbon oil and steam which comprises passing
the said hydrocarbon oil approximately to the tem
steam through a tube of ferrous metal in at least
perature of the said steam, separately introducing
a bright red hot condition to heat the said steam
the hydrocarbon and steam into a ?re box and
to a temperature at least corresponding to a red
mixing the said so heated streams of oil and steam
hot condition, bringing said so heated steam in
in the said ?re box and thereby, with air, main
indirect thermal contact with a stream of hydro
taining combustion in said ?re box.
10 carbon oil ?owing through a copper tube to heat
4. Process for generating heat from a hydro
the said oil to at least a temperature correspond
carbon oil and steam, which comprises establish
ing to red hot steel, separately delivering said
ing a stream of steam and a separate stream of
streams into a ?re box and mixing said so heated
a hydrocarbon oil, each at least at a. temperature
steam and oil in said ?re box and thereby, with
corresponding to red hot steel, and separately in 15 air, maintaining combustion in said ?re box.
troducing said streams into a ?re box and mixing
7. Process for generating heat from a hydro
said streams in said ?re box and thereby, with air,
carbon oil and steam which comprises passing
maintaining combustion in said ?re box.
steam through a pipe of ferrous metal which is
5. Process for generating heat from a hydro
heated su?iciently to raise the steam passing
carbon oil and steam which comprises passing 20 from said pipe to a temperature of at least 1,600°
steam through a tube of ferrous metal in at least a
E, bringing said so heated steam in indirect
bright red hot condition to heat the said steam
thermal contact with a stream of hydrocarbon oil
to a temperature at least corresponding to a red
?owing through a copper tube to heat the said oil
hot condition, bringing said so heated steam in
to a temperature in excess of 1,000° E, separately
indirect thermal contact with a stream of hydro
introducing said superheated steam and oil vapor
carbon oil to heat the latter to at least a tem 25 into a ?re box and mixing said so heated steam
perature corresponding to red hot steel, separately
and oil in said ?re box and thereby, with air,
introducing said streams into a ?re box and mix
maintaining combustion in said ?re box.
ing said so heated steam and oil in said ?re box
EDWARD J. LAMPORT.
thermal contact between said so heated steam
and a stream of hydrocarbon oil thereby heating
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