Патент USA US2403463код для вставки
July 9, 1946. c. R. sELlGER 2,403,463 ART OF REDUCING METALS Filed June l2, 1942 f7@ WW2 ¿la? @ENEL/aß SEZ @65€ Patented July 9, 1_946 )2,403,463¥ UNITED ¿ STATES PATENT oFFicE » 2,403,463 ART oF REDUCING METALS Cornelia R. Seliger, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Henry Blech, Chicago, Ill. ì Application June 12, 1942, Serial No. 446,789 15 Claims. l 2 The: invention relatesto the art of reducing metals to granular form and particularly to gran ules having internal lubrication- - tin, and zinc. » The lubricant whichl is added to the molten> metal is employed in quantities from three to six parts by weight of lubricant for each one hundred parts by weight of metal. ‘\ It is an object of the invention to produce in an efficient and inexpensive way metal granules which have a porous structure. . A further object of the invention constitutes the provision of metal -granules capable of re taining a lubricant both externally and inter nally, so that when a mass of such granules is compressed into solid form, the product is per meated with- a lubricant and has external lubri-=Y cation. which is retained in the molten metal because oxygen is excluded. I 'I'he invention concerns metals such as alumi num, antimony, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, (Cl. 83-91) . f‘ A further object 'constitutes the steps of melt - The moltenmetal, while cooling off slowly, is subjected to stirring whereby all of thelayers of the molten mass are repeatedly brought to the top and exposed to surface oxidation. l' Cooling of the molten vmass is permitted to a/ temperature below the melting point of the metal.'at which stage the metal assumes semi-fluid or »doughy consistency. Any impurities appearing on the surface are removed before the stirring l is carried out. A heated foraminous plate having openings ranging vfrom 2 to 6 mm. is utilized to force the 'cants,\ and subsequently reducing the metal .to doughy mass therethrough, und r continuous im crystalline particles with irregular surfaces and 20 pacts whereby crystalline partie' es of scoriace'ous . ing the metal, mixing it with a lubricant or lubri - cellular structure, so that the lubricant is oc-- cluded' inthe particles and the irregular surface cause eil'c-ctive adherence of lubrication exter 4rlally applied thereto. . I have found that such impacts may be effected by the use of a sledge hammer of about 20 lbs. of ’ It is a still further object to melt metal and subject the molten metal to a mechanical reduc tion, so as to produce particles of scoriaceous structure, whereby material applied thereto be comes firmly adherent thereto. structure result. weight which is held by the operator and brought >down on the doughy mass spread on the' heated foraminous plate and is then reciprocated under g pressure sumcient to disintegrate the mass. ' through the openings in the plate. 'This pro ' cedure is repeated until all of the mass has been ' With these and other Objects in view which will 30 forced through the plate. 'I'he best results are becomev apparent from a perusal of theinvention, . obtained when the hammer engages the doughy the latter> comprises the novel steps of a method » mass with an edge to obtain a sharp impact. described in the following specification, particu In commercial application, the apparatus more larly pointed out in the claims forming a part or less diagrammatically shown in the accomhereof a d illustrated in the accompanying panying drawing' is utilized, in which I0 desig drawing n which nates a support on which an electric furnace is Fig. 1 is a side view rof an apparatus adapted to v _ placed. The support I0 rests on a platform Il carry out the method. y placed on I-beams I2. An electricheating fur Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section through _a por nace I4 is placed on the support I 0 and is pro tion of the apparatus, A » 40 vided with a. top I5. having openings for the ad Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3_3 loi’ Fig. 2, and ~ mission of air and for affording access to the top Fig. 4 is a section on the line 4-4 oi' Fig. 1.> ' surface of the molten metal in said furnace, to In carrying out my invention, I first melt the remove impurities. ' A. metal and then permit it to cool slowly. >A solid The top II is provided with a'pair of bearings lubricant, such as graphitemica, talc, chalk, or 45 I6 in which a shaft I1 is iournaled having at one oxide of zinc or stearic acid is added to the metal end 'a pulley I0 and provided at the other end while- in molten 'condition and having doughy with a bevel gear I9 in mesh with a mating gear 20 on a vertical shaft 2l .iournaled in the top IB. It is understood that the particular lubricant The shaft 2| extends to a point short of the selected varies with particular requirements. If 50 bottom of the furnace and has a plurality of preferred, colloidal graphite or lubricating oils blades _22 which stir the molten metalupon rota consistency. ' ‘ ' may be used, depending upon the melting point of the particular metal and the use to'which it is put. , For iron andcopper colloidal graphite is used tion of the shaft. , . . . . The furnace is provided with an outlet 23 nor mally closed by a gate valve 24 having a rack 2i in mesh with a pinion A28. 2,403,463 4 3 Upon rotation of the pinion 26 the gate valve may be raised to permit vthe discharge of the doughy metal by a spout 21 to a screen 28 shaped like a trough, , . While the invention is described in its preferred embodiment, numerous changes and modifica tions may be made without'detracting from the spirit of the invention. I, therefore, do not limit myself to the nett-nis- , The screen is mounted in a box frame having or the particular sequence of steps enumerated, side walls 29 and end walls 38 and placed on sup but claim my invention as broadly as the state of the art permits. A plurality of screens 32, 33 and 34 are mount ed in ,said box frame with progressively coarser 10 1. The method of reducing iron to particle mesh. Hoppers 35 depend from each screen sec form, including the steps of melting said iron, tion to discharge screenings into receptacles 38 permitting said iron to cool to a semi-liquid placed on the platform I i. doughy consistency in the~ temperature ranging A longitudinal shaft 31 is journaled in bear substantially from 50° to 100° F. from its melting ings 38 at the end walls and extends through a 15 point Whilevbeing puddled, maintaining the iron hollow shaft 39 which is provided with a screw at that range of temperature while forcing the conveyor 40. ` semi-liquid iron- by impacts through a heated The portion of the shaft 31 within the screen foraminous plate, and cooling the particle to so 28 has a plurality of hammers or strikers 4| lidi?lcation. shaped to engage the' material with a sharp edge. 2. The method of producing iron granules per The shaft 33 has a gear 42 in mesh with a. pin 2.0 meated .by a l bricant, including the steps of ion 43 on a shaft 44v to which power is imparted melting the iron, adding thereto colloidal graph from a motor 45. ite, Awhile puddling the- metal, permitting the A pinion 46 is Aspliried on the shaft 31 and metal to cool to a doughy semi-liquid consist meshes with a gear 41 on the shaft 44 ‘so that the shaft 31 rotates with greater speed than the hols 25 ency in the` temperature rangingsuhstantially from 50° to 100° F. from its melting point, main low yshaft 33. A bell crank lever '48 engages a taining the iron at that range `oi’ temperature pulley 49 fast on the shaft 31 to impart recipro while forcing the metal through a foraminous cating movement to the shaft 31. plate under impacts, and cooling the- granules ports 3|. / » - I claim: The screen 28 is heated by a plurality of gas burners 50. In use the metal is molten in the furnace and any impurities appearing- on top of the molten . , - , 30 to solidiilcation. 3.“ The method of producing iron granules per- p mass are removed through the open top I5. The - ' meated by a lubricant, including the .steps of melting the iron, adding thereto colloidal graph ite, while puddling the metal, pennitting the molten metal is stirred and permitted to cool to 35 metal to cool to a doughy semi-liquid oonsist~ a temperature from 50° to 100° below its melting ency in the temperature ranging substantially temperature to obtain doughy consistency. y from 50° to 100° F. from its melting point, main Thereupon the gate valve is opened and `the taining theiron at that range of temperature metal discharged by the spout 21 to the dougniy while` forcing the metal through a heated forami screen. 'I'he shaft 31 being rotated and recipro cated subiects'the doughy metal to impacts and 40 nous plate under impacts and friction, and cool ing the granules to solidiiication. ~ _ ‘ friction whereby the metal is formed .into gran 4. The method as set forth in claim l applied lules of cellular structure. through the screen Y -2a ' to the reduction of copper. . The fine granules pass 5. The method as set forth in claim 2 applied while the coarser granules are carried to the to the reduction of copper. right, as viewed in Fig. l. bythe screw conveyor` 6. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap and according to size, pass respectively through plied to'aluminum. ` the screens32, 33 and 34, and collect in the re ceptacle 38 placed therebeneath. . '7. The _method as set forth in claim 2 as ap Very` coarse granules reach the end spout 8| 50 plied to aluminum. 8. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap and are discharged in an end receptacle 52. plied to lead. Thereafter the granules are placed under high 9. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap pressure and thereby formed into a homogeneousl plied to magnesium. ~ mass. The pressure .iluctuates between. ten ' 10. The method as set forth in claim'l as ap thousand 4and one hundred thousand pounds of pressure per square inch, depending on the metal 55 plied to tin. 11. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap or combination of metals use . n . . In some cases the metal granules are placed plied to zinc. . _ in moldspsublectßd to high pressure, and subse quently sintered. The best results were obtained when sintering was carried out for a period of 60 - approximately twenty minutes. After sintering, ~the mass is quenched in an oil or water bath. The granules maybe mixed `with external lubrication prior to being subjected to 12. The method as set forth in claim 2 as ap plied to lead. u13. The method as set forth in claim 2- as ap plied to magnesium. 14. The method as set forth in claim 2 as ap plied to tin. compression so that a filler of lubrication is pro 65 plied to zinc. vided between the granules and due to compres sion, absorption of the lubricant by the granules iscaused. - ' ‘ - _ 'A ` ’ 15. The method as -set forth in claim 2 as ap ‘ CORNEHAR. Bauamt.