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Патент USA US2403463

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July 9, 1946.
c. R. sELlGER
Filed June l2, 1942
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@ENEL/aß SEZ @65€
Patented July 9, 1_946
Cornelia R. Seliger, Chicago, Ill., assignor to
Henry Blech, Chicago, Ill.
ì Application June 12, 1942, Serial No. 446,789
15 Claims.
The: invention relatesto the art of reducing
metals to granular form and particularly to gran
ules having internal lubrication-
tin, and zinc.
The lubricant whichl is added to the molten>
metal is employed in quantities from three to six
parts by weight of lubricant for each one hundred
parts by weight of metal. ‘\
It is an object of the invention to produce in
an efficient and inexpensive way metal granules
which have a porous structure.
A further object of the invention constitutes
the provision of metal -granules capable of re
taining a lubricant both externally and inter
nally, so that when a mass of such granules is
compressed into solid form, the product is per
meated with- a lubricant and has external lubri-=Y
which is retained in the molten metal because
oxygen is excluded.
'I'he invention concerns metals such as alumi
num, antimony, copper, iron, lead, magnesium,
(Cl. 83-91)
A further object 'constitutes the steps of melt
The moltenmetal, while cooling off slowly, is
subjected to stirring whereby all of thelayers of
the molten mass are repeatedly brought to the
top and exposed to surface oxidation. l'
Cooling of the molten vmass is permitted to a/
temperature below the melting point of the metal.'at which stage the metal assumes semi-fluid or
»doughy consistency. Any impurities appearing
on the surface are removed before the stirring
l is carried out.
A heated foraminous plate having openings
ranging vfrom 2 to 6 mm. is utilized to force the
'cants,\ and subsequently reducing the metal .to
doughy mass therethrough, und r continuous im
crystalline particles with irregular surfaces and 20 pacts whereby crystalline partie' es of scoriace'ous
. ing the metal, mixing it with a lubricant or lubri
- cellular structure, so that the lubricant is oc--
cluded' inthe particles and the irregular surface
cause eil'c-ctive adherence of lubrication exter
4rlally applied thereto.
I have found that such impacts may be effected
by the use of a sledge hammer of about 20 lbs. of
It is a still further object to melt metal and
subject the molten metal to a mechanical reduc
tion, so as to produce particles of scoriaceous
structure, whereby material applied thereto be
comes firmly adherent thereto.
structure result.
weight which is held by the operator and brought
>down on the doughy mass spread on the' heated
foraminous plate and is then reciprocated under g
the mass. '
through the openings in the plate. 'This pro
cedure is repeated until all of the mass has been '
With these and other Objects in view which will 30 forced through the plate. 'I'he best results are
becomev apparent from a perusal of theinvention, . obtained when the hammer engages the doughy
the latter> comprises the novel steps of a method » mass with an edge to obtain a sharp impact.
described in the following specification, particu
In commercial application, the apparatus more
larly pointed out in the claims forming a part
or less diagrammatically shown in the accomhereof a d illustrated in the accompanying
panying drawing' is utilized, in which I0 desig
drawing n which
nates a support on which an electric furnace is
Fig. 1 is a side view rof an apparatus adapted to v _ placed. The support I0 rests on a platform Il
carry out the method.
placed on I-beams I2. An electricheating fur
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section through _a por
nace I4 is placed on the support I 0 and is pro
tion of the apparatus,
40 vided with a. top I5. having openings for the ad
Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3_3 loi’ Fig. 2, and ~ mission of air and for affording access to the top
Fig. 4 is a section on the line 4-4 oi' Fig. 1.> '
surface of the molten metal in said furnace, to
In carrying out my invention, I first melt the
remove impurities.
metal and then permit it to cool slowly. >A solid
The top II is provided with a'pair of bearings
lubricant, such as graphitemica, talc, chalk, or 45 I6 in which a shaft I1 is iournaled having at one
oxide of zinc or stearic acid is added to the metal
end 'a pulley I0 and provided at the other end
while- in molten 'condition and having doughy
with a bevel gear I9 in mesh with a mating gear
20 on a vertical shaft 2l .iournaled in the top IB.
It is understood that the particular lubricant
The shaft 2| extends to a point short of the
selected varies with particular requirements. If 50 bottom of the furnace and has a plurality of
preferred, colloidal graphite or lubricating oils
blades _22 which stir the molten metalupon rota
may be used, depending upon the melting point
of the particular metal and the use to'which it is
For iron andcopper colloidal graphite is used
tion of the shaft.
. The furnace is provided with an outlet 23 nor
mally closed by a gate valve 24 having a rack 2i
in mesh with a pinion A28.
Upon rotation of the pinion 26 the gate valve
may be raised to permit vthe discharge of the
doughy metal by a spout 21 to a screen 28 shaped
like a trough,
While the invention is described in its preferred
embodiment, numerous changes and modifica
tions may be made without'detracting from the
spirit of the invention.
I, therefore, do not limit myself to the nett-nis-
The screen is mounted in a box frame having
or the particular sequence of steps enumerated,
side walls 29 and end walls 38 and placed on sup
but claim my invention as broadly as the state
of the art permits.
A plurality of screens 32, 33 and 34 are mount
ed in ,said box frame with progressively coarser 10
1. The method of reducing iron to particle
mesh. Hoppers 35 depend from each screen sec
form, including the steps of melting said iron,
tion to discharge screenings into receptacles 38
permitting said iron to cool to a semi-liquid
placed on the platform I i.
doughy consistency in the~ temperature ranging
A longitudinal shaft 31 is journaled in bear
substantially from 50° to 100° F. from its melting
ings 38 at the end walls and extends through a
15 point Whilevbeing puddled, maintaining the iron
hollow shaft 39 which is provided with a screw
at that range of temperature while forcing the
conveyor 40.
iron- by impacts through a heated
The portion of the shaft 31 within the screen
and cooling the particle to so
28 has a plurality of hammers or strikers 4|
shaped to engage the' material with a sharp edge.
2. The method of producing iron granules per
The shaft 33 has a gear 42 in mesh with a. pin 2.0
meated .by a l bricant, including the steps of
ion 43 on a shaft 44v to which power is imparted
melting the iron, adding thereto colloidal graph
from a motor 45.
ite, Awhile puddling the- metal, permitting the
A pinion 46 is Aspliried on the shaft 31 and
metal to cool to a doughy semi-liquid consist
meshes with a gear 41 on the shaft 44 ‘so that the
shaft 31 rotates with greater speed than the hols 25 ency in the` temperature rangingsuhstantially
from 50° to 100° F. from its melting point, main
low yshaft 33. A bell crank lever '48 engages a
taining the iron at that range `oi’ temperature
pulley 49 fast on the shaft 31 to impart recipro
while forcing the metal through a foraminous
cating movement to the shaft 31.
plate under impacts, and cooling the- granules
ports 3|.
I claim:
The screen 28 is heated by a plurality of gas
burners 50.
In use the metal is molten in the furnace and
any impurities appearing- on top of the molten
30 to solidiilcation.
3.“ The method of producing iron granules per- p
mass are removed through the open top I5. The
meated by a lubricant, including the .steps of
melting the iron, adding thereto colloidal graph
ite, while puddling the metal, pennitting the
molten metal is stirred and permitted to cool to
metal to cool to a doughy semi-liquid oonsist~
a temperature from 50° to 100° below its melting
ency in the temperature ranging substantially
temperature to obtain doughy consistency.
from 50° to 100° F. from its melting point, main
Thereupon the gate valve is opened and `the
taining theiron at that range of temperature
while` forcing the metal through a heated forami
screen. 'I'he shaft 31 being rotated and recipro
cated subiects'the doughy metal to impacts and 40 nous plate under impacts and friction, and cool
ing the granules to solidiiication.
_ ‘
friction whereby the metal is formed .into gran
4. The method as set forth in claim l applied
lules of cellular structure. through the screen
-2a '
to the reduction of copper. .
The fine granules pass
5. The method as set forth in claim 2 applied
while the coarser granules are carried to the
to the reduction of copper.
right, as viewed in Fig. l. bythe screw conveyor`
6. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap
and according to size, pass respectively through
plied to'aluminum.
the screens32, 33 and 34, and collect in the re
ceptacle 38 placed therebeneath.
'7. The _method as set forth in claim 2 as ap
Very` coarse granules reach the end spout 8| 50 plied to aluminum.
8. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap
and are discharged in an end receptacle 52.
plied to lead.
Thereafter the granules are placed under high
9. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap
pressure and thereby formed into a homogeneousl
plied to magnesium.
mass. The pressure .iluctuates between. ten
' 10. The method as set forth in claim'l as ap
thousand 4and one hundred thousand pounds of
pressure per square inch, depending on the metal 55 plied to tin.
11. The method as set forth in claim 1 as ap
or combination of metals use .
In some cases the metal granules are placed
plied to zinc.
in moldspsublectßd to high pressure, and subse
quently sintered. The best results were obtained
when sintering was carried out for a period of 60
- approximately twenty minutes.
After sintering, ~the mass is quenched in an oil
or water bath. The granules maybe mixed `with
external lubrication prior to being subjected to
12. The method as set forth in claim 2 as ap
plied to lead.
u13. The method as set forth in claim 2- as ap
plied to magnesium.
14. The method as set forth in claim 2 as ap
plied to tin.
compression so that a filler of lubrication is pro 65 plied to zinc.
vided between the granules and due to compres
sion, absorption of the lubricant by the granules
’ 15. The method as -set forth in claim 2 as ap
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