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Патент USA US2403472

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July 9, 1946,
J. N._ ANDERSON
2,403,472 _
APPARATUS FOR RECORDING ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
Filed Oct. 2, 1942
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July 9, 1946.
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J. N. ANDERSON -
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2,403,472
APPARATUS FOR RECORDING ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
Filed Oct. 2, 1942 -
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3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
J. N. ANDERSON
ATTORNEY
July 9, 1946.
J. N. ANDERSON
2,403,472
APPARATUS FOR RECORDING ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
Filed Oct. 2, 1942
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
INVENTOR
J. MANDERSON
ÄTTORN EY
y Patented July 9, 1946
` 2,403,472
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
James N. Anderson, North Plainfield, N. J., as
signor to The Western Union Telegraph Com
pany, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New
York
1
Application October 2, 1942, Serial No. 460,530
7 Claims. (Cl. 23d-#70)l
2
This invention relates generally to an improved l
apparatus for recording electrical signals, and
more particularly to the recordation and repro
duction of pictures, drawings, writing and other
subject matter, in facsimile or otherwise, by
means of a stylus which causes marking impacts
to be applied to a record receiving medium to
delineate a record thereon in accordance with re
it has been found diillcult to control the degree of
pressure with which the stylus engages’or im
pacts the record sheet, the pressure exerted by
the stylus often varying in accordance with vari
ations in the signal strength oi.' the received
marking currents. Moreover, in- prior devices it
has been diillcult to obtain the desired power nec
essary for cutting stencils or producing multiple
ceived electrical signals. The invention is par
copies without undesirably increasing the levels
ticularly adapted, although not limited, to the 10 of the signal currents transmitted, and also diiii
facsimile production of a master copy of an origi
nal from which numerous other copies may be
cult to provide a desired uniform power level of
the currents which actuate the recording devices,
and the amplitude of the stylus swing and the
frequency respcnse characteristic of the units
made by the mimeograph, hectograph and other
printing processes.
In accordance with the present invention the
subject matter may be transmitted by facsimile
or other signals generated in accordance with the
subject matter to be recorded or reproduced, and
were not uniform, particularly when producing
stencils or multiple copies of the received sub
ject matter.
_
One of the objects of the present invention is
in the case of subject matter appearing on an
to provide a suitable recording unit in which the
original sheet or blank, this'may be reproduced in 20 force of the impacts imparted by the stylus to the
facsimile upon a record receiving blank. The
record receiving sheet is maintained constant,
record receiving blank may, if desired, comprise
irrespective of variations in the signal level or
a stencil or other master blank from which a
amplitude of the received marking currents,
thereby to produce uniform density and sharp
large number of copies may be made by various
known printing or other duplicating processes, or 25 definition of the recorded subject matter.
the recording may be eil‘ected upon a single blank
Another object of the invention is percussion
or simultaneously upon a number of blanks by
_ recording apparatus of the character disclosed in
means of carbon paper or other transfer media,
which highly satisfactory recording is obtainable
thereby to produce multiple copies.
with low levels of the signal currents, and in
receiving blanks usually are carried by copyhold
the frequency of its vibration are independent of
the amplitude and frequency of the received
marking currents.
In the production of facsimile >copies the record 30 which the amplitude oi' swing of the stylus and
ers such as rotatable cylinders or drums or other
forms of platens that are scanned by the record
ing apparatus during the reproducing operation,
A further object is .a recording unit in which
and these copyholders may be interchangeable 35 the power for driving the stylus is not derived
in the apparatus so that they can readily be
from the received signals, and in which the
placed into` operative position in the recording
amount of power applied to the vibrating stylus
apparatus and can readily be removed therefrom
may be maintained as high as desired and kept
constant at all times during recording' operations.
either manually or automatically. The record
A further object is a percussion type recording
ing operation is effected by means of a recording 40
stylus which is continuously vibrated at a high
apparatus in which the movement of the stylus
speed and intermittently contacts, or causes
toward and from the record ysheet is positively
marking impacts to be applied to, the record re
controlled and limited at all times and in which
ceiving sheet at intervals in accordance- with the
the limits of this movement may accurately be
transmitted subject matter, thereby to change or 45 adjusted and maintained.
mark the surface of the sheet to record the sub
Still another object is a percussion recording
unit which may easily be adjusted with respect
ject matter thereon in facsimile or otherwise.
In recorders of the character heretofore ern
to the record blank upon which it operates, and
in which high »stability of adjustment of the
ployed for producing records or facsimile stencils
by means of a percussion recording stylus, the 50 recording unit and greater uniformity in results
stylus generally has been energized or driven by
are obtained.
an electromagnet, the incoming electrical signals
A still further object is a recording unit of the
being applied to the magnet winding, the magnet
character described which permits of greater tol
being energized by the direct current components
erances in the manufacture of the recording
of the received signals. In such devices, however, 55 drums or other platens employed, and in which
r
2,403,472
3
4
variation in uniformity of thickness of the stencils
members have rollers 40, one of which is shown
or other record receiving blanks. or irregularities
in the stencil or other blank surfaces, do not dele~
in Fig. 6, that cooperate with the rear guide rail
23 to facilitate travel of the units 25 and 26 along
teriously affect the record.
The foregoing and other objects and advanu
tages of the invention will be apparent from the
following ,detailed description of the illustrative
embodiments of the invention, taken in conjunc
tion with the accompanying drawings, in which:
the guide rails. The carriage member 3l of the
recording unit is connected to the carriage mem
ber 3B of the transmitting unit, as by a carriage
link 42 firmly secured to portions 36a and 31a of
these units, so that any movement of the record
Fig. 1 is a view of a combined facsimile trans
mitter and recording apparatus in which the re
ing unit 2B longitudinally along the guide rods
10 22 and 23 will impart a similar movement to the
transmitting unit 25, and vice versa. The various
cording apparatus is constructed in accordance
mechanical details for thus interconnecting the
with the present invention;
transmitting and recording units so as to cause
Fig. 2 is a perspective view showing certain
details of the recording device removed from its
the line feeds thereof are disclosed in detail in
scanning carriage;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentarysectional view taken
along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2, and including a
them to operate in synchronism with respect to
the aforesaid d’Humy et al. Patent No. 2,301,024,
and for the sake of brevity certain of these de
tails are not illustrated in the drawings herein.
Power for operating the apparatus is supplied
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view showing cer 20 by a motor contained within a casing 4D, the
motor preferably being of the synchronous alter
tain details of the electromagnetic unit of the
nating current type, although if desired may be
device of Fig. 2, with its upper protective cover
of the direct current type, it being understood
removed:
that the speed of the motor for any given opera
Fig. 5 is a detail taken along the line 5-5 of
25 tion may be adjusted and maintained constant
Fig. 3:
by any of the various suitable means known in
Fig. 6 is a view, in elevation, taken along the
the art for this purpose. The power is applied by
line l-l of Fig. 1;
Fig. 'l is a perspective view of a modified form _ the motor through the medium of reducing gear
mechanism in known manner, which gear nzech
of the recording device; and
Fig. 8 illustrates diagrammatically a circuit ar 30 anism is also contained within the casing 40, the
motor and gear mechanism causing rotation of a
rangement which may be employed with the
recording drum for the device;
transmitter and recording apparatus.
Referring tothe drawings, and particularly to
Fig. 1 thereof, a base 2l forms the principal sup
port for the apparatus and the driving and con
trol mechanism therefor, which base is adapted
to rest upon an apparatus table or cabinet or
driven shaft 4I which rotates the transmitting
and recording drums 30 and 34 in the direction
indicated by the arrow on drum 30 during the
scanning operations. The gear mechanism also
drives a line feed shaft 43 which has a threaded
portion 43a that directly drives the recording
unit 26, and through the medium of the carriage
linke 42 also drives the transmitting unit 25 to
other convenient support, and a cabinet prefer
ably being employed so that certain of the power
unit and amplifier devices used may be em 40 cause line feed scanning movement of the units
with respect to the transmitting and recording
bodied therein.
drums 30 and 34.
Secured to platesA 29a and 20h on the base 2l
Preferably, and as disclosed in the aforesaid
are brackets 2l in which are mounted a front
d’Humy et al. patent, the apparatus is arranged
track or guide rail 22 and a rear track or guide
to accommodate transmitting and record receiv
rail 23 which slidably support the longitudinally
movable transmitting scanning assembly 25 and
ing drums of different diameters in order to ac
the recording scanning assembly 25. Preferably,
commodate transmitting and recording blanks of
the transmitting scanning -unit V2li comprises an
different sizes, and for this reason the gear mech
anism within the casing 40 is adapted to be
shifted, as by the gear shift lever 42, in order to
provide different driving speeds for the drums
optical pickup system for deriving facsimile
signals from an original blank 23 which carries
the subject matter to be reproduced or duplicated.
and therefore change at will the peripheral speed
the blank being secured upon a cylindrical drum
portion III of a copyholder which is indicated in
of rotation of the drums 30 and 34. With the
drum speed shift arrangement the linear scan
its entirety by the reference numeral 3i. The
copyholder 3| includes a cylindrical drum por 55 ning speed for the drums 3|! and 34 may be
tion 34 adapted to support a record receiving
changed if desired, or when drums of different
blank 35 which is acted upon by the percussion
diameters are used in place of the drums shown
stylus 33 of the recording unit 2l.
the number of revolutions per minute of the
In general, any suitable means for scanning
drums may be either reduced or increased to an
the transmitting and record receiving blanks 60 extent such that the peripheral speed of rotation
may be employed, for example, as disclosed in
and hence the linear scanning speed will remain
approximately the same irrespective of the size
4Patent No. 2,301,024, issued November 3, 1942, or
of drums employed. Also, the driving ratio of
in Patent No. 2,260,862, issued October 28, 1941.
Also, any suitable type of transmitter may be em
the gears which cause rotation of the line feed
ployed for generating the facsimile signals sup 65 shaft 43 may be changed, as by a shift lever 45,
plied to the recording unit, such of example as
so that the speed of rotation of the feed screw
illustrated in the foregoing patents and in Patent
43a and hence the number of scanning lines per
inch may be varied. For example, when the shift
No. 2,158,391, issued May 16, 1939, and Patent No.
lever 45 is in its right hand position, as shown
2,176,442, issued October 17, 1939.
The transmitting scanning assembly 25 and 70 in Fig. 1, the gear ratio may be such that the
the recording assembly 2l are respectively
transmitting and recording units scan at the rate
mounted on traveling bases or carriage members
of 100 lines per inch, and if the lever 45 is shifted
to the left the gear ratio may be such that the
`3l and 31, which latter members are each pro
vided with guide blocks 38 and 33 slidably
number of scanning lines may be increased to 120
mounted on a front guide rail 22. . 'I'he carriage
lines per inch, the arrangement enabling the
5
number ci
such as 'te „
aiming Eines per inch to be made
he mest desirable results depend
arcuate supports or saddles, the inner pair of
these saddles preventing the cylinder 3| from
dropping when it is released from the bearings
48 and .49 and the outer pair of saddles providing
ing upon 'the subjectmatter and the kind of
service for which it is used.
If desired, and as described in detail in the
a convenient rest for the cylinder 3| to enable
aforesaid d‘Hurny et ai. patent, two line feed shaft
the blanks to be applied to and removed >from
the drums 30 and 34 at the beginning and termi
members similar to vthe member 43, and which
nation of a reproducing operation.
may be caused to operate at different speeds re
spectively, may be employed, one of which shafts
As hereinbefore stated, any suitable transmit
produces the line feed scanning movement of the 10 ting unit may be employed. In general, in an
optical pickup system such a transmitting unit
transmitter unit and the other of which produces
the line feed scanning movement of the recorder
employs a lens tube 66 containing lenses and an
unit, whereby when transmitting and recording
apertured plate aligned in position with respect
drums of different diameters respectively are con
to each other so that light from an exciter lamp
is concentrated on a minute spot on the periph
ery of the drum 30 and consequently on elemental
currently employed, the reproduced record may
be enlarged or reduced with respect to the subject
matter _on the transmitting blank without caus
'areas successively of the subject matter sheet 29
ing distortion of the recorded subject matter.
thereon during scanning. Another lens tube 61
The foregoing various features of variable speed
contains lenses for directing the beam `of light
of the transmitting and recording cylinders and 20 reflected from the elemental area of the record
their respective line feed scanning means com
prise subject matter claimed in the aforesaid
d’Humy et al. patent, and for the sake of sim
plicity such arrangements are not disclosed here
sheet 29 at the time being scanned onto an aper-'
ture and thence to a photocell, a light chopper in
the form of a perforated disc being interposed
between the photocell and the aperture in known
in in detail.
’
25 manner, the number of perforations or notches
The cylinder 3| has reduced ends 46 and 41
in the disc and the speed `of rotation thereof de
formed with internal tapered surfaces which re
pending upon the desired rate of scanning, the
frequency of the signal carrier current employed,
ceive complementary bearing members 48 and 49.
The bearing member 48 is secured to and driven
and other factors. Preferably, and as disclosed
by the shaft 4| hereinbefore referred to, and 30 in said Patents 2,158,391 and 2,176,442, the trans
serves to drive the cylinder 3|. The member 49
mitter employs two light sensitive cells associated
is secured to a shaft 5| journaled in ñxed upright
with the light chopper disc or discs in such man
bearing members 52 and 53 s0 as to be freely
ner that the signals produced by the transmitter
rotatable and also slidably movable longitudi
need not be inverted before application to the
nally within the bearings to permit entry and 35 recorder in order to provide a positive record
withdrawal of the member 49 from the recessed
from a positive original blank or a negative record
portion of the end 41 of the cylinder 3|, and
from a negative original blank, although if de
thereby permit ready insertion and removal of
sired one light sensitive cell may be employed and
the cylinder 3|. and drums 30 and 34. ‘
.
the signals inverted either in the transmitting or
To facilitate the insertion and withdrawal of 40 recording circuits by means of a reversing switch
the member 49, preferably there is provided a
such as hereinafter described or by other suitable
tapered cam member 55 ñxedly secured to the
signal inverters of a type well known in the com
bearing support 52, and coacting with this cam
munication art.
member is a second tapered cam member 56
which is secured, as by a set screw, to the shaft
5|. Secured to the cam member 56 is a handle
The recording stylus actuating device, which is
embodied within the recording assembly 26, is
shown in detaily in Figs. 2 to 6 of the drawings,
51, and when the handle is raised upwardly as
and is indicated in lts entirety by reference nu
viewed in Fig. 1, this causes rotation of the cam
meral 16. Referring particularly to Figs. 2 and
56 relative to the fixed cam 55, the adjacent .
3, the device comprises a circular ripple or flutter
tapered camming surfaces of these members co
cam 1| which during recording operations" is
acting to cause the member 56 to .be shifted to
continuously rotated at a constant speed by
the right as viewed in the figure and thereby
means of a motor 12, the cam being secured to
cause longitudinal movement of the shaft _5| and
the motor driving shaft by means 0f a collar 13
withdrawal of the bearing member 49 from the
which is secured directly to the shaft in suitable
recessed end 41 of the cylinder 3|, after which the
manner, vas by a .set screw 14, the collar also
cylinder may be slid to the right a distance suffi
being secured to a plate 15 which in turn is
cient to release the opposite end 46 from its asso
secured to the ripple cam 1| in suitable manner,
ciated drive member 48, A compression spring
as by rivets or machine screws 16. When the
58 which loosely surrounds the outer end of the
cam 1| is revolved by the motor 12 at a suitable
shaft 5|, causes the member 56 to return to the 60 speed, a cam follower 1§ which has two camming
working position when the handle is turned
portions 19 is rapidly vibrated or oscillated to
downwardly, the spring also causing the bearing
wards and from. the surface of the sheet 35, Fig.
member 49 to enter the end 41 of the cylinder
3, the cam follower being slidably mounted with
thereby to insure that the cylinder is-properly
in guideways in a casing 80. The casing 80 is
supported during rotation thereof and to main 65 secured to a plate member 8| which in turn is
tain a proper driving connection between the
rigidly secured to the` housing of the motor 12.
members 46 and 48. Instead of employing a cyl
The stylus 33 is pivotally connected at 82 to
inder 3| having the transmitting and recording
the -forward portion of the carn follower.18 so
drums formed or mounted thereon, separate
that oscillation of the cam follower 18 by the rip
transmitting and recording drums may be em
ple cam 1| causes the point of the stylus 33 to
ployed and maintained in proper driving relation
oscillate rapidly in a direction towards and from
in the manner disclosed in the aforesaid d’Humy
the blank 35 to apply marking impacts to the
et al. patent.
blank in selected elemental areas thereof, the
Fixed bracket members 66 and 6| are provided,
stylus pivoting about the point 84. The rate of
each of the bracket members comprising two 75 vibration or frequency. of the percussion stylus
2,403,472
7
l! may be varied within wide limits, depending
upon the type of subject matter to lbe recorded
and the degree of definition desired. When re
cording facsimile signals, the speed of the motor
12 and the number of lobes or ripples on the
ripple cam 1| preferably are su‘ch that the stylus
will oscillate at a high frequency, for example,
of the order of 1,800 cycles, thereby to produce
exceedingly fine definition of the recorded sub
ject matter.
The lower end of the stylus 33 is pivotally
serve to secure the portions 08 and B9 of the
casing together, the screws also passing through
eye portions in the phosphor-bronze spring mem
bers 81 to secure these members in place.
As seen more clearly in Fig. 2, the driving mo
tor and electromagnetic unit are mounted on a
plate 91 of non-magnetic material, for example,
brass.
The motor and electromagnetic unit are
secured to the mounting plate in any suitable
10 manner, as by the machine screws 99 shown in
Fig. 5, the mounting plate being secured to the
traveling scanning carriage of the recording ap
mounted at 3l to the upper end of an extension
or leg 85 which is integral with and `projects up
wardly from an amature 30 of the electromag
netic control unit. In the illustrative embodi
paratus, as shown in Fig. 6.
Various types of polar and non-polar electro
magnetic relay structures, different than that
shown, may be employed to control the marking
and non-marking positions of the stylus 33, which
ment shown the armature 3l is pivotally mounted
by means of two fiat, flexible, phosphor-bronze
spring members 31 each of which is received at
, relays may be controlled by received modulated
one end within a side of the armature 36, as
or varying signals applied directly thereto. in
seen more clearly in Fig. 5, and are ?rmly se 20 stead of through signal repeating relays, although
the polarized structure shown is preferred since
it is sui’ilciently sensitive and fast in its operation
to permit the faithful reproduction of facsimile
signals at a high scanning speed. For example,
with transmitting and recording drums having a
circumference of the order of eight and one-half
cured to the armature, as by brazing or in other
suitable manner, The spring members 31 are
secured at their other ends between the opposite
halves 33 and 39 of a casing which surrounds an
energizing coil 30 of a `polarized electromagnetic
relay structure. 'I'he pole pieces 9| of the elec
tromagnet preferably are composed of laminated
strips, seen more clearly in Fig. 4, the laminated
structure 3| in turn being supported between the
inches and a drum speed of the order of one
hundred eighty revolutions per minute, it is pos
sible to obtain a linear scanning speed of approxi
legs of a permanent horseshoe magnet 32. The 30 mately one thousand five hundred thirty inches
.pole pieces are so arranged and the energizing ,
per minute, and thus the transmitting and record
ing apparatus are adapted to operate at a suii‘i
winding is in a direction such. that, when the
ciently high speed as appreciably to reduce the
coil Il is energized by current of a given polarity,
time required for producing a stencil or other
electromagnetic fields will be set up which causes
wise recording a given piece of subject matter.
rotation of the armature 00 about its axis 31
Fig. 6 shows various details of. the manner in
which the recording unit 10 is mounted on the
in one direction, and when the coil 9| is ener
gized by current of opposite polarity, the arma
ture 3l is rotated in the opposite direction.
It will be noted from Fig. 3 that, when the
armature Il and its extension 35 have been at
recording scanning carriage 31, the base 31 of the
unit being secured, as by screws |05, to a block
40
tracted to the position shown in the figure, this
has moved the pivotal point 34 of the stylus to
the right, in which position the stylus 33 has
been rotated, in a counter-clockwise direction
as viewed in the figure, to a position such that
even though it is vibrated by the ripple cam 1|
it does not contact the blank 35. If, however,
the electromagnet is energized by a current of
opposite polarity to attract the armature 30 and
its extension 35 in the opposite direction, as 50
toward the left in Fig. 3, this will shift the pivotal
point 34 of the stylus 33 to the left and, conse
quently, will rotate the stylus 33 in a clockwise
direction to a .position such that when vibrating
it will engage the sheet 35 and mark the same. 55
In other words, when marking signals are re
ceived by the electromagnetic unit, the armature
36 will be moved to a position such as to cause
the stylus 33 rapidly to impact the sheet 35, and
when spacing or non-marking signals are being 60
received the armature will be moved in the oppo
site direction to shift the pivotal point Il so
that the stylus 33 will not engage the blank 3l,
thereby causing the stylus to delineate black and
|06 that is slidably mounted within guide struc
ture |01, the block |06 being internally threaded
and receiving a threaded adjusting shaft |23.
The recording unit is thereby made adjustable`
towards and from the blank 35 to accommodate
recording cylinders of different diameters, by
means of the rotatable shaft |23, which is ro.
tated by a knurled knob |23a to adjust the record
ing unit to the desired positions, such as indi
cated by the indicia A, B and C (Fig. 1) that
appear on a plate member |22 secured to the
carriage of the recording unit, the indicia re
spectively corresponding to three different sizes
of recording drums that may be employed. A
graduated dial or Vernier |24 secured to the rod
|23 enables a very accurate adjustment of the
recording stylus 33 relative to the stencil or other
blank. A pointer |25 carried by the plate mem
ber 93 coacts with the plate |22 bearing the in
dicia to indicate when the recording unit is ad
justed for the size of drum to be employed. The
method of thus adjusting the recording unit is
described in detail in the aforesaid d’Humy et al.
patent, „and for this reason it is not described in
greater detail here.
'I'he line feed of the transmitting and record
ing units is effected by means of a split block
white, or marked and unmarked, elemental areas 05
on the blank which correspond with similar ele
assembly comprising identical opposed split halves
mental areas on the original blank from which
|30, Fig. 6, which members are internally thread
the signals were generated by .a transmitter such
ed to receive the feed screw 43a, the members
as the transmitting unit 23 shown in Fig. _1.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 3, the limits of travel 70 being spring-pressed into engagement with the
threads of the feed screws 43a by means of four
’ of the armature 36 may accurately be determined
compression springs |3| which act between sup~
port members |32 and |33 and the upper and
lower portions of the members |30. The mem
by means of machine screws 35, Fig. 5, which also 75 bers |32 and |33 comprise the legs of a U-shaped
by means of adjustable stop members 93 which
are threaded into a U-shaped bracket member
3l secured to the upper cover Il of the unit, as
2,408,472
bracket which is secured to the recording scan
ning carriage. Interposed between the inner sur
faces of the opposite ends of members |30 are
two wedge-shaped members |35, the lower mem
ber |35 being secured to a split-nut release lever
rock shaft |30, and the upper wedge-shaped
member |35 being mounted on a rock shaft |31.
When the handle |35a, Fig. 1, of the shaft |36
is rotated so as to turn the wedge-shaped mem
bers |35 from the positions in which they are
shown in Fig. 6, the split-nut halves |30 are
10
Referring to Fig. 8, there is shown a circuit
arrangement suitable for interconnecting the
transmitting and recording apparatus in accord
ance with the present invention, although other
known electrical systems suitable for transmitting
and recording in facsimile may be employed, de
pending upon the purpose for which the appara
tus is to be used. At the transmitting end a
scanning photoelectric cell 200 and a balancing l
photoelectric cell 20| preferably are employed in
the manner set forth in the aforesaid Patents
forced to part a suiiicient distance to effect their
release from the threaded rod 43a and thus enable
both the transmitting and receiving units to be
moved longitudinally to any position, such as
their initial starting positions, after which the
Nos. 2,158,391 and 2,176,442, and controlling the
light applied to the cells is a light' chopper 202
which is rotated at alconstant predetermined
shaft |38 is turned in a direction such that the
light chopper preferably is of the order of 3300
speed by a motor in a manner well-known in the
art. In the embodiment shown the speed of the
wedge-shaped members |35 again assume their
positions shown ln Fig. 6 and make the feed screw
R.v P, M. so that the apertured portions thereof
will produce a signal frequency of the order of
43a effective.
.
20 2500 cycles. When light is falling on both photo
In order that there may be no likelihood of
cells, the signal amplitude is at a minimum due to'
injury to the stencil or other blank by the stylus
the balanced arrangement of the cells, and no sig
33 or injury to the point of the stylus when a
nal is transmitted at this time. When a black
recording operation has been completed, and par
mark appears under the scanning ray, however,
ticularly when the transmitting ‘and recording
the two photocells become unbalanced relative to
units are to be moved to their initial starting
each other, and at this time there is transmitted a
positions, a collar |4I, Fig. 6, is secured to the
carrier frequency of 2500 cycles, which carrier is
rock shaft |31, the collar carrying a pin |42 which
modulated by the appearance or non-appearance
is adapted to control a stylus retracting switch
of a mark on the original copy. This modulat
|44 that in turn controls the energizing circuit 30 ing frequency depends upon the speed at which
of a solenoid |45, as explained in detail in the
the white and black elimental areas pass by the
d’Humy et al. patent. When the solenoid |45 is
scanning light. For example, with an elemental
energized, this causes retraction of its core |41.
area of approximately eight circular mills where
and effects withdrawal of the stylus a predeter
the> scanning ray impinges on the subject matter
mined distance from the recording drum when
appearing on the transmitting blank, and a drum
the solenoid |45 is energized, the limit of this
of eight and one-half inches in circumference
retractile movement being determined by the core
and a speed of 180 R. P. M., the carrier frequency
|41 striking a stop member |52 on the frame oi'
will thus be modulated by a signal frequency of
the solenoid when the stylus is in its proper re
theforder of 1400 cycles. In the circuit of the
tracted position. A dashpot |51 having a plung 40 balancing photocell is an adjustable impedance or
er |58 received therein eases the impact of the
resistance 204 which enables the photocells to be
return of the recording unit to recording position
accurately balanced with respect to each other so
under the action of a retractile spring |0| when
that each one puts out the same amplitude of
the solenoid |45 is deenergized.
signal. It will be understood thatthe phase rela
The original copy sheet 29 is wrapped around 45 tionship between the two light beams for each of
the transmitting drum 30, Fig. 1, preferably in
these photocells will be so adjusted as to most
such manner that the top of the copy is at the
effectively balance when the scanning light is on
left hand end of the drum when facing the ma
the white background, as described in detail in
chine, the right hand edge of the copy overlap
the aforesaid patents.
_
ping the left hand edge by a slight margin. The 50
The signal output >from the photocells is con
copy may be held in position by any suitable
nected to a thermionic preamplifier 203 of known
means, such as elastic bands or garters |15, each
type, and the transfer of signals from this ampli
of which preferably comprises a helical spring
fier to the succeeding similar amplifier stages is
in the form »of an annulus, such as 'disclosed in
controlled by a gain control device 205. Con
Patent No. 2,255,868, or in Patent No. 2,301,024. 55 nected to the gain control device 205 is a second
As shown in the figure, the leading garter mem
amplifier 201 which preferably comprises two
.ber is advanced axially along'the drum 30 from
amplification stages. In both the preamplifier
the left to right as scanning proceedsby a garter
203 and the amplifier 201 the constants of the
pushing plate member |16 secured to the support
circuits preferably are made such that the ampli
, ing frame 36, and the trailing garter member is 60 fiers will not pass low disturbing frequencies
advanced by a second pusher plate |11 on the
caused by undesired pickup from interfering stray
transmitting unit. The two elastic bands |15 are
fields.
All stages of the amplifiers preferably _are
thus kept within a predetermined distance of
of class A amplification whereby each of the
each other and are kept immediately adjacent to
has a constant average plate current
the place where scanning is being effected, the 65 amplifiers
output regardless of the amplitude of the marking
bands rolling along on the copy sheet as the scan
signal applied.
ning proceeds and holding the copy sheet tightly
The output of amplifier 201 is applied by means
against the drum and preventing distortion in
of
a double pole switch 232 to the primary of a
the optical scanning system which otherwise
transformer
233. However, when the recorder isv
might occur if the copy was not held tightly
to be used for receiving signals from a remote
against the drum. Two similar garter members 70 point over the line L, the switch 232 will be
|15 are employed to hold the blank or stencil 35
thrown upwardly to connect the line L to the`
on the recording drum 34, and usually these
primary of the transformer 233.
members may be placed adjacent to the ends of
The secondary 234 of this transformer is con
the blank 35, as indicated in Fig. 1.
75 nected to the grids 236 of a pair of similar elec
2,403,472
11
12
tronic devices 231, and the midpoint of the sec
switch thrown to its lower position, the reverie
operation will occur, and a positive original will
ondary is `connected to a suitable source of nega
be reproduced as a negative copy, or a negative
tive biasing potential 238. The electronic tubes
281 preferably have a high amplification factor
and a large mutual conductivity. The type 48
or the type 616 tube are examples of tubes suit
able for the purpose. The anodes 238 of the tubes
are connected to a relay 24| in series with a mil
liammeter 242 and a resistance 243. The other
end of the winding of relay 24| is connected to 10
original will be reproduced as a positive C091.
’I‘his enables the recorded copy to be reproduced
in whichever form may be desirable. Other
means known in the art for producing signal in
version may, of course. be employed.
'I'he driving motor 12 for the stylus may be
controlled locally by means o! a manually oper-v
able switch 215, which either supplies or dis
connects its supply current from the source 28|,
or the recording apparatus may be operated by
a source of positive potential whereby the relay
will be energized when the tubes 231 are passing
plate current in response to received signals.
signals from a distant point transmitted over the
The series circuit which includes the resistance
243 and the relay 24| is by-passed by a condenser 16 line L, as stated hereinbefore, and when this il
done it may be desirable to also provide separate
244.
control for the energizing circuit of the motor 12.
'I'he resistance 243 and condenser 244 operate
For this purpose a distinctive signal, for example,
to limit the maximum power input from the elec
a steady tone of predetermined frequency, may
tronic tubes 231 to prevent excessive current from
be transmitted over the line L prior to a recording
being applied to relay 24|. The resistance and
operation, and this tone will be received by an
condenser coact to cause the anode voltage on
«amplifier 28| which is connected by conductors
the electronic tubes 231 to drop to a low value
282 and 283 to the line switch 232. This tone will
when a predetermined input level is reached, thus
be selected by a filter or tuner 285, which may
holding the anode current ‘constant for higher
values. The current applied to the relay 24| 25 include amplifying and detecting stages and
which causes energizing current to be applied to
is, therefore, substantially uniform for the dura
the winding 288 of a relay that controls through
tion of a marking signal regardless of the signal
its armatures 281 and 288 energizing current for
level or intensity. It is also desirable that the
the motor 12. The relay 288 upon operating also
anode current change from the full steady state
to zero be accomplished within a relatively small 30 closes a holding circuit for itself, through its
armature 288 and make contact 288, and break
input level change, The large amplification fac
contact 282 and armature 29| of a relay 283, to a
tor and the large value of mutual conductivity
source of holding current 288. Relay 288 will,
of the tubes 231 assist in obtaining this result,
therefore, remain energized so long as it is desired
the relatively high value of biasing voltage which
is applied to the tubes assisting in effecting this 35 to transmit signals to the recording unit, and the
motor 12 will be caused to run continuously dur
result.
`
ing this period. When the recording has been
'I'he repeating relay 24| selectively controls the
completed, another distinctive tone or signal may
application of energizing current from the source
be transmitted over the line L, which tone will be
248 to the coil 88 of the electromagnet unit of the
recorder. When the relay 24| is not energized, 40 selected by .a filter or tuner 294, which may in
clude amplifying and detecting stages and which
as shown in Fig. 8, current of a given character
will supply energizing current to the relay 233.
istic or polarity, for example, negative current, is
Energization of this relay attracts its armature
supplied from the source 249, through conductor
28 I , thereby breaking the holding circuit for relay
258, switch 25|, break contact 252 and armature
288 and stopping the motor 12.
253 of relay 24|, and conductor 254 to the ener 45
Various other control circuits for enabling op
gized winding 88 of the electromagnetic relay
eration of the recording unit over the line L may
structure. thereby maintaining the stylus 33 out
be employed such, for example, as various of the
of engagement with the blank 85, notwithstand
control circuits disclosed in the aforesaid Patent
ing that the stylus may be oscillating by reason of
rotation of the motor 12. In this position of the 50 2,280,862, or as disclosed in Patent 2,255,868, is
stylus, white or unmarked areas are produced on
the record blank 35.
When the tubes 231 are passing plate current,
sued September 16, 1941, and Patent 2,262,715,
issued November 11, 1941. Other remote control
circuits known in the art and suitable for con
trolling the various functions of the recording
in response to received marking signals, the relay
apparatus from a distant point may be employed.
24| is energized, and through its armature 253, 55 Also, if desired, the control of the stylus actuat
make contact 251, switch 25| and conductor 258
ing motor 12 may be associated with the control
causes current of a different characteristic or op
of the driving motor for the scanning mechanism
posite polarity, for example, positive current, to
shown in Fig. l so that, upon energization of the
be supplied from the source 248 to the electro
motor which drives the recording scanning unit.
magnet winding 98, thereby actuating the arma 60 the motor 12 will simultaneously be energized.
ture of the electromagnetic structure and rotating
Where the signals for operating the recorder
the stylus 33, in a counterclockwise direction as
are received from an incoming line which may
viewed in Fig. 8, to cause the vibrating stylus to
represent a circuit originating in another city or
impinge upon the surface of the blank 35 and
different locality from that of the recording unit,
produce black or marked elemental areas thereon. 65 it will be understood that the incoming signals
The switch 25| is a reversing switch which en
are suitably amplified prior to their application to
ables the polarity of the current applied to the
contacts 252 and 251 to be reversed, thereby pro
viding for signal inversion whenever this is de-sirable. With the switch thrown to its upper po
sition, shown in Fig. 8, a positive original copy at
the transmitter will be reproduced on the stencil
the amplifier stages shown, and that these sig
nals may be amplified either at the place of origin,
at the receiving end, or intermediate these points.
70
The photoelectric transmitter shown in Figs.
1 and 8 may be. balanced on a selected portion of
the original blank 28 by closing a. switch 248,
` or other blank as a positive, and a negative orig
Fig. 8, and manipulating the control 284 which
inal will be reproduced as a negative copyI due
is connected to the balancing photocell 28|, cor
to the balanced photcell arrangement. With the 75 rect balance being indicated by a minimum de-`
2,403,472
14
i'lection of the milliammeter 242, The switch 245
is emplo ed because the electronic devices 231 are
heavily iased negatively for class C operation,
then set the unit 303 to the corresponding scale
setting. In the event that the unit is not initially
and if this bias is not reduced in some manner
recording carriage unit will engage the carriage
limit switch 3`|0 and automatically stop the driv
ing motor and the transmitting and recording
set or is improperly set, a rod 3|3 secured to the
the small output from the photoelectric pickup
device when it is nearly balanced may not be in
dicated by the milliammeter 242. .A modification
apparatus so that no injury can occur either to
of the foregoing bala'ncing procedure is to direct
the scanning apparatus or to the sheet or stencil
the beam which isprojected into the photocell 200
by reason of overtravel of the scanning units.
upon the lightest portion of the original which is 10
In order to prevent injury or shock to the trans
to be' reproduced, Afor example, a pencil mark, and
mitting and recording units when they are moved
adjusting the amplifier control so that the stylus
to their initial starting positions, either manually
will >just mark the recording sheet 35. With this
or automatically, there is provided a buffer in the
setting anything lighter in shade than the portion
form of a dashpct 3|4, Fig. 1, mounted on the
of the original selectedfor the balancing opera
frame structure 20a, the dashpot having a plunger
tion will not cause energization of relay 24|, and
3|5 which is held in its extended position by a
hence will not cause the stylus tomark the sheet.
compression spring within the dashpot cylinder.
The adjustment of the pickup by balancing it on
When lthe transmitting and receiving carriages
a selected portion of a given shade on the original
are returned to _the left, a stop member on the
in conjunction with the resistance and condenser 20 transmitting carriage engages the end of the pis
combination illustrated provides a definite work
ton 3|5, and as this movement of the units to
ing range between light and heavy marks on the
ward the left is continued the spring within the
original which is desirable in'the case of “mark”
dashpot 3|4 is compressed so that it prevents un
and “no-mark” characteristics of a coated stencil
due shock to the units, the structure also provid
sheet on which recording may be effected, that is, 26 ing a suitable means for limiting the extent of
a minimum threshold value of stylus marking ac
movement of the umts toward the left and deter
tion at any desired density of shade on the orig
mining the desired initial starting position ofthe
inal.
units.
'
In order to save operating time and cause the
Other and additional control circuits and de
scanning operation by the transmitter of the 30 vices
for controlling the operation of the recorder,
transmitter-recorder of Fig. 1 to stop approxi
particularly whenit is connected to an incoming
mately as soon as the subject matter on the origi
line instead of to the transmitter as shown in Fig.
nal blank 29 has been scanned, irrespective of the
8, and for maintaining a distant transmitter and
length ofthe blank as measured longitudinally
the local recorder in proper phase relation, may
along the transmitting cylinder, a switch 300 is 35 of course be employed, various kinds of which
provided. which switch may be mounted on the
circuits and devices suitable for the purposeare
traveling carriage of the recording unit '|0, the
known in the facsimile recording art, for exam
switch being connected, as by a flexible cord, in
ple, as shown in Patents Nos. 2,260,862, 2,255,868,
series- with a carriage limit switch 30|. Either of
2,262,715 and 2,301,024.
'
the switches when operated tn open circuit posi 40
Fig. 7 of the drawings shows a modified form of
tion will cause the driving motor and hence the
the recording unit in which the stylus 33' is held
scanning units to stop. Coacting with the switch
against the teeth of a ripple cam 1|' by means of
300 is an actuating unit 302 therefor, which as
a taut~ wire preferably composed of steel piano
shown in Fig. 1 may `comprise a collar or.sleeve
wire, the wire 350 acting as a return spring for
member 303 that has a relatively close fit with 45 the stylus 33'. The stylus or hammer 33' is vi
the guide rod 23 on which it is mounted, the mem
brated at a high frequency by means of the cam
ber 303 being slidable longitudinally along the
'||' and a cam follower portion 35| formed on the
guide rod and thus readily settable to different
stylus. The wire 350 is maintained taut by means
machine stopping positions corresponding to var
ofv two studs 352 which are threaded into a bracket
ious positions of the transmitter at the time the 50 member 353 and maintained in their adjusted po
subject matter on the transmitting blank has
sitions by lock nuts 354, >the studs 353 being ro
been completely‘scanned. As shown, the adjust
tatably adjustable lto give the desired tension to
able unit 303 has a spring member 304 carried
the wire 350. The bracket 353 may be ñrmly
thereby, which spring member resillently engages
mounted on the unit by means of the machine
in a spline 305 in the guide rod 23, thereby to 55 screws or bolts 95’ which also serve as clamping
prevent rotation of the unit about the guide rod
members of the electromagnetic relay structure.
and also to frlctionally engage the guide rod so
that the unit will remain in any adjusted posi
tion. The portion 302 of the unit 303 carries an
The manner of controlling the marking and non
.narking positions of the stylus 33' is essentially
same as‘ that employed in connection with the
adjustable switch-actuating pin 306 which is in eo the
form shown in Figs. 2 to 5 hereinbefore referred
the path of travel ofthe switch 300 and which
,0.
operates to Open the normally closed contacts of
Marking may be effected by the recorder upon
the switch when the line feed movement of the
/arious types of stencil sheets and printing plates
transmitting carriage has caused the .latter to
known in th'e art, including mimeograph, hecto
completely scan the subject matter on the trans 65 graph and other forms of stencils, and plano
mitting blank, thereby automatica-ily stopping the
graphic aluminum or similar printing sheets. In
transmitting and recording operations.
the case of such printing plates or sheets it -will be
The unit 303 is manually set by the operator
understood that a transfer medium such as a
prior to the scanning operation of any given sub
sheet, ribbon or other carrier for a marking or
ject matter, and to determine readily the setting
image-forming substance is interposed between
to which the unit should be placed there are pro
the stylus and th'e printing sheet or plate. Also,
vided corresponding calibrated scales 3|0 and 3||
records may be made upon the surface of one or
whereby the operator may place the subject mat
more sheets of paper or other record receiving
ter sheet on the transmitting drum and visually
sheets by means of carbon paper, ribbons or other
discern the proper mark on the scales 3I0 and 75 transfer sheets in contact with the record receiv
asoasva
,
y
15
ins sheets, the uncoated side of the carbon paper
or other transfer sheet ordinarily being exposed
to the action of the stylus, although for certain
16
and cam follower to vibrate said stylus at a prede
termined rate, and means responsive to said re»
ceived signals for causing the vibrating stylus
selectively to be actuated into and out of mark
purposes the carbon or other transfer sheet may
be placed beneath the sheet or sheets on which ci ing position to produce a record corresponding
to said received signals.
the record is produced, thereby to mark the un- \
4. Apparatus for recording on a record sheet.
dei-side of the record sheets.
comprising means including a recording stylus
The invention has been illustrated and de
for causing marking impacts to' be applied to said
scribed in connection with facsimile recording
apparatus, but it is to be understood that the 10 record sheet to mark the same in accordance with
received marking and spacing signals represent
recorder may be employed to record various types
ative of the subject matter to be recorded, said
of signals other than facsimile signals, for ex
stylus being mounted so as to be alternatively
ample, to produce charts, graphs or other records
by signals generated in accordance-with various
conditions to be recorded. Various other forms,
movable into marking position and out of mark
ing position with respect to the record sheet, me
chanical driving means for vibrating said stylus
modincations and uses will'suggest themselves
in a direction towards and from the record sheet
to those skilled in the art without departing from
to cause the same to impinge upon the record
the spirit of the invention, and therefore the in
sheet with a predetermined constant pressure
vention is not to be regarded as limited except
as indicated by the scope of the appended claims. 20 which is independent of the signal level of the
received marking signals, means responsive to
I claim:
said received marking and spacing signals for
1. Apparatus for recording on a record sheet,
producing signals of different polarity respec
comprising a platen for supporting- said sheet
during recording operations, means including a
tively corresponding to said marking and spac
recording stylus for causing marking impacts in 25 ing signals, and means including an electromag
termittently to be applied to said record sheet
net responsive to said signals of different polarity
to mark the same in accordance with' received y for causing the vibrating stylus selectively to be
marking and spacing signals representative o1'
actuated into and out of marking position to
the subject matter to be recorded, said platen
produce a record corresponding to said received
and stylus being mounted so as to enable relative 30 marking and spacing signals.
movement between them alternatively to position
5. Apparatus for recording on a record sheet,
them into marking position and out of marking
comprising means including a recording stylus
position with respect vto the record sheet, me
for causing marking impacts to be applied to said
chanical driving means for vibrating said stylus
record sheet to mark the same in accordance with
in a direction towards and from the record sheet 35 received signals representative oi the subject
to cause the same to impinge upon the record
matter to be recorded, said stylus being pivotally
sheet with a predetermined constant pressure
mounted so as to be alternatively rotatable into
which is independent of the signal level of the
marking position and out of marking Position
received marking signals, and means responsive
with respect to the record sheet, mechanical driv
to said received marking and spacing signals for 40 ing means for vibrating said stylus at a prede
eilectlng said relative movement between the
termined rate, and means including ari’~ electro
platen and the oscillating stylus selectively to
magnet and an associated armature responsive
position at least one of them into and out of
to said received signals for causing the amature
marking position to produce a record correspond
to move to one position when marking signals are
ing to said received signals.
~ being received- and to another position when
2. Apparatus for recording on a record sheet,
spacing signals are being received, said armature
comprising means including a recording stylus
providing said pivotal mounting for said stylus
for causing marking impacts intermittently to
and rotating the stylus selectively.
be applied to said record sheet to mark the same
6. Apparatus for producing in facsimile on a
in accordance with received signals representa 50 record sheet a copy of a picture, drawing, writing
tive of the subject matter to be recorded, said
or other subject matter, comprising a travelling
stylus being mounted so as to be alternatively
scanning carriage, a percussive recording stylus
movable into marking position and out of mark
mounted on said carriage for causing marking
ing position with- respect to the record sheet,
impacts intermittently to be applied to said rec
means including a rotating cam having a plural
ity of lobes thereon and a cam follower engaging
ord sheet in accordance with received facsimile
said lobes for mechanically vibrating said stylus
riage for mechanically vibrating said recording
at a predetermined rate, and means responsive
stylus at a constant speed and at a constant am
signals, means mounted on said travelling car
to said received signals for causing the vibrating
plitude irrespective of the amplitude of said sig
stylus selectively to be actuated into and out of 00 nals, means including said carriage for causing
marking position to produce a record correspond
the vibrating stylus to scan the record sheet, and
ing to said received signals.
means responsive to received facsimile signals for
3. Apparatus for recording on a record sheet,
causing the vibrating stylus selectively‘to be ac
comprising means including a recording stylus
tuated to a position for applying marking im
for causing marking impacts intermittently to
pacts tosaid record sheet and to a position to
be applied to said record sheet to mark the same
prevent the stylus from applying marking im
in accordance with received signals representa
pacts to the record sheet in accordance with said
tive of the subject matter to be recorded, said
received signals.
stylus being mounted s0 as t0 be alternatively
7. Apparatus for producing in facsimile on a
movable into marking position and out of mark
record sheet a copy of a picture, drawing, writ
ing or other subject matter, comprising a scan
ing position with respect to the record sheet, a
ning carriage, a percussive recording stylus
rotatable flutter cam having a series of cam sur
mounted on said carriage for causing marking
faces thereon, a motor for rotating said cam at
impacts intermittently to be applied to said rec
a constant speed, a cam follower engaging said
cam surfaces, means for causing said rotating cam 15 ord sheet in accordance with received facsimile
2,408,472
»
18
17
signals, means including motor driven cam mem
bers mounted on said carriage for vibrating said
recording stylus at a constant speé‘d and at a
constant amplitude irrespective of the amplitude
of said signals, means including said carriage for
causing the vibrating stylus to scan the record
sheet, and means responsive to received facsimile
signals for causing the vibrating-stylus selectively
to be actuated to a position for applying marking
impacts to said record sheet and to a position
to prevent the stylus from applying marking im
pacts to the record sheet in accordance with said
received signals.
I
- JAMES N. ANDERSON.
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