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Патент USA US2403482

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July 9, 1946.
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Patented July 9, 1946
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William S. Cloud, Wilmette, Ill.
Application July 2, 1941, Serial No. 400,854
17 Claims. (Cl. 18-19)
This invention relates to methods of enclosing
articles in thermoplastic sheet material and to
apparatus for practicing such methods.
There are numerous, well-recognized advan
tages in wrapping articles intended for retail sale
or display with material which conforms to the
exact size and shape of the articles, especially
where the material is transparent. However,
these obvious advantages of the completed pack
age are olîset by the diiliculties encountered in
length of seam in the ñnished package. This, in
turn, reduces the number of `points of possible
leakage for moisture and air, 'which is particu
larly advantageous in packaging articles of food.
The extent of air tightness will depend upon the
weight of the ñlm and the amount of twisting.
A still further object is to Wrap articles- with
a minimum amount of material and with very
little wasted scrap. The use of a thermoplastic,
stretchable material, such as Plioñlm,'makes the
the high speed wrapping operation which is re
attainment of this object possible. For example,
quired. Numerous methods have been devised for
wrapping articles in material such .as Pliofìlm,
but these methods usually involve hand opera
are met by a rubber hydrochloride material now
in wrapping a spherical object such as an orange,
with non-stretchable material the area of the
wrapper must be 31/7 times the surface area- ofy
the orange. The excess wrapping material in
such case is consumed in the form _of Wrinkles
and folds. This is not true where my invention
f is practiced. According to my method the Wrap
ping material used is uniformly distributed over
sold commercially under the name Plioñlm.
the surface `of the article, wrinkles and folds
Other material, such as sheet rubber, may be
are substantially eliminated, and the thickness of
used but with less satisfactory results.
the wrapping material is substantially the same ,n ,
tions, slow speed, high cost, or unattractive pack- ages.
I prefer to use a material which is stretchable,
thermoplastic and scalable. These requirements
One of the objects of my invention is to pro- „ over> the entire area of the article.
A still further object is to provide a multiple
vide methods and the means for drawing a web
of sheet Plioñlm from a roll of the same, heat 25 wrapping apparatus which requires use of less
ing predetermined portions of the ñlm suñlciently
to cause it to become plastic, stretching prede
termined portions of the ñlm into pocket-like
material per article to be wrapped than is pos
sible Where the articles are wrapped individually.
An additional object is to provide a method
recesses, placing the articles in said pockets, hold
and apparatus for wrapping in Whole or in ‘part
ing the ñlm tightly against the articles while 80 articles which have protruding therefrom a stick
simultaneously twisting both the articles and the
or handle. For example, my invention may be
ñlm whereby the articles are completely enclosed
used in wrapping candy suckers having such> pro
by said ñlm.
trusions. In such case both the article and the
Another object of my invention is to form
handle may be enclosed in the Wrapper or the
pocket-like recesses or extensions in material 35 handle portion may be left outside the completed
such as sheet Plioñlm by suspending the sheet
material over a series of openings and forcing
Other objects and advantages Will appear here
tube-like means against the suspended sheet.
Another object is to provide fast, economical,
A preferred embodiment of the invention se- '
and eñìcient means for wrapping articles which
lected for purposes of illustration isshown in
vary greatly in size and shape without requir
the accompanying drawings, in which,
ing adjustment of the machine. For example,
Figure 1 is a side elevation of the complete
I have found that my method and apparatus can
be used to wrap such articles as oranges, lemons,
machine, shown from the right side.
Figure 2 is a side elevation of the complete
eggs, pieces of candy, ball bearings, light bulbs, 45
machine,` shown from the left side.
nuts and bolts, coffee, sugar, flavored powder
Figure 3 is a longitudinal section on line 3-3
such as is used in making soft drinks anda great
of Figure 6.
variety of other articles which it is not deemed
Figure 4 is a longitudinal section on line 4-4
essential to list in detail at this time. It should
be noted however that I also have used my in
vention to package predetermined quantities of
Another object of my invention is to provide
50 of Figure 6.
Figure 5 is4 a vertical section on line 5-5 of
Figure 1.
Figure 6' is an end elevation of the complete-
machine shown from the feed end. _
a method of wrapping articles in such a manner
Figure 'l is a plan view of the entire machine.
as to reduce to a very minimum the amount or 55
Figure 8 is a detail section on line 8_8 of Fig
ure ||.
Figure 9 is a detail section taken on line 9_9
of Figure 11 and shows the cam means for mov
ing the vacuum mechanism into operating posi
4 _
have no handle or long protrusion. In such case
the sealing of the package is more easily and
completely accomplished.
Of course it should be understood that in the
case of articles having handles, such as candy
suckers, the entire article, candy and handle, may
be wrapped and vsealed by my method. A slight
Figure 10 is a plan section taken' on line Ill-_IIJ
of Figure 2.
adjustment of the apparatus is necessary in or
Figure 11 is a plan section taken on line I I--I I
der to provide deeper pockets in the wrapping
of Figure 2.
10 material sheet.
Referring to Figure 1, the apparatus isv sup
Figure 12 is a vertical section taken on line
|2---|2 of Figure 5.
ported by frame I, inverted 'U-shaped support
Figure 13 is a view similar to that of Figure 12,
members 2, angle-irons 3 mounted on members
shown in changed position.
I and 2 and running horizontally for the entire
Figure 14 is a view similar also to that of 15 length of the machine. It is upon said angle
Figure 12, shown in a still further changed po
irons. 3 that many of the principal moving parts
of the machine are fastened.
Figures 15 to 2l are diagrammatic views il
A roll of Pliofllm 4 (Figure 1) is mounted in
lustrating the various changed positions in the
the usual manner oníshaft 5 which is free to
operation of wrapping a candy sucker having a 20 rotate in half-bearings 6 which rest upon and are
projecting handle or stick.
bolted to angle-irons 3. 'I‘he ñim sheet-1 is drawn
Figure 22 is a modified form of my apparatus
from roll 4 by means of wringer rolls I5 and I6
showing the heating unit as a cylindrical drum.
mounted, respectively, on shafts I1 and I8 ro
Figure 23 is a fragmentary plan view of the
tating in block bearings I9 and 20, both of these
heating drum, showing grooves and the position
bearings being mounted on vertical bolts 2| and
of belts in said grooves.
secured to angle-irons 3. On shaft I8 of lower
Figure 24 is a fragmentary plan View of a mod
wringer roll I6 (Figure 4) is mounted sprocket
ified form of said heating drum, showing cross
23 which serves to drive this shaft by transmit
grooves and cross-strips.
ting power in the following manner. Chain 22
Figures 25 to 31 are diagrammatic views sim 30 is Wrapped part way around sprocket |55 (Figure
ilar to Figures 15 to 21 respectively, illustrating
8). This sprocket is rigidly fastened to ratchet
the various changed positions in the operation of
wheel |54 and these are free to rotate on shaft
wrapping a rectangular or cylindrical object such
|23. Ratchet wheel |54 is actuated by pawl |53
as a box of face powder or jar of cosmetic ma
on the end of arm |52 which also rotates freely
about shaft |23. Pawl |53 is moved by the ac
As already indicated, I prefer to use plioñlm
tion of cam |41 rigidly mountedto collar arm
as the wrapping material. It is obtainable now
lâa’which in turn is adjustably fastened to col
in rolls or webs of sumciently great length to sat
lar arm |59 by means of bolt |60. Collar arm |59
isfy the needs of a continuous and high speed
is rigidly mounted on shaft |33. The timing of
wrapping method such as described herein. The
this cam may thus be changed somewhat by ro
width of sheet used depends upon the size of the
tating one of these arms with respect to the posi
articles to be Wrapped and the number to be
tion of the other. Ca'm |41 raises and lowers
wrapped simultaneously, in a row, across the
cam wheel |48 on the end of arm |49 which is
sheet. A variety of widths, up to 52’inches is
pivotally mounted on shaft |31 and it thus gives
now available commercially,
movement to horizontal arm '|50 which in turn
The thickness of the material used will depend
moves vertical arm I5| and arm |52 already men
upon the weight, shape, size, and contour of the
tioned. Spring |56, attached to frame | at one
articles to _be wrapped and also the extent to
end by means of collar |51 and to the lower por
which it is desired to stretch the ñlm. Plioñlm
tion of arm |49 at the other end, serves to hold
is now available in thicknesses ranging from =
cam roller |48 in contact with the surface of
2/ 10,000 of an inch to 24/1o,ooo of an inch. Two sheets
cam |41.. Cam |41 is rotated by shaft |33 (Fig
in superimposed relation, may be run through
ure 11) which is driven by sprocket |32, this
my apparatus, and this provides another way for
sprocket being propelled by roller chain |3| which
determining and controlling the thickness of the
derives its power from sprocket |30 on `main
article covering.
55 countershaft |23. Countershaft |23 is driven by
As already indicated, my method and appa
sprocket |25 through chain |26 (Figure 6) from
` ratus may. be used to wrap articles having a
an electric motor or other suitable source of
variety of shapes and sizes. For purpose of illus
tration, I have indicated herein how articles such
as candy suckers may be wrapped. 'I'his type of
power not shown. Countershaft |23 is mounted
in suitable bearings I 24 (Figure 1) on main frame
article is one of the most diñicult to wrap be
cause ordinarily it has a handle protruding from
the outer surface thereof for a distance of from
lution of shaft |33 (Figure 8) will 'cause sprocket
base I.
It is thus seen that one complete revo
|55 to rotate any predetermined amount and this
will be transmitted through chain 22 to sprocket
2 to 41/2 inches. Despite the diñìculty presented
23 (Figure 4) and this will rotate shaft I8 and
by such a handle, my invention enables a clean, 65 lower wringer roll I6. At the other end of this
smooth, and complete wrap to be made. The
shaft I8 is fixedly mounted thereon spur gear
wrapping material is twisted tightly about the
24 (Figure 6) and directly above this gear and
handle at a point adjacent the candy piece and,
meshing therewith is another spur gear 25 with
because of the thermoplastic character of the
the identical number of teeth ñxedly mounted on
Pliofilm, the wrapper is substantially sealed. This,
upper wringer roll shaft I'I._ It is evident that
of course, is one of the objects of my invention
in this manner bothwringer rolls I5 and I6 are
and is a decided advantage in wrapping food ar
driven with the same peripheral speed and will
ticles, reducing air and moisture 'leakage
draw the iilm 1 (Figure 2) uniformly from sup
I have also illustrated in Figures 25 to 31 how
ply roll 4.
my invention may be used to wrap articles which 75
Near the delivery end of the machine I have a
more or less similar construction of rollers which
serve to draw ñlm 1 from the first set of rollers
just mentioned. The upper rollers 26 (Figures '1
and 12) are loosely mounted on shaft 28 which
shaft is held in block 3| mountedv on vertical
bolts 32 attached to angle-iron frame 3. The
lower roller 21 (Figure 12) of this set is rigidly
mounted on shaft I4 which rotates in block 30
fastened to pins 32 and supported by angle-iron
of upper clamp plate 18 is produced in the follow
ing manner. Plate 18 is fastened to slidably
mounted blocks 8| (Figure 5) by lmeans of bolts
80. Sliding blocks 8| are mounted on vertical
shafts 82 and are raised by the upward move
ment of rods 85, the upper ends of which are
lifted by casting 4| to which they are held by lock
nuts 86. Clamp plate 18 ls lowered into clamping
position by the downward movement of casting
On one end of shaft I4 (Figure 4) is 10 4| which slides down on shaft 82 until it com
presses springs 84 against the upper surface of
blocks 8|. This operation clamps Pliofllm sheet
chain 22 in a manner similar to the description
frame 3.
sprocket 29. This sprocket is caused to rotate by
A1 in position for .succeeding operations about to
previously given for wringer roll I6. It is appar
be described. Plunger tubes 48 are ‘rigidly held
ent that these sets of rollers serve to draw film
1 from supply roll 4, drawing said film 1 through 15 in casting 4| (Figure 12) by set-screws 43 (Figure
5). The top of casting 4| includes funnel-shaped
the various parts of the‘apparatus as will be de
openings 42 into which the articles |28, to b_e
scribed hereinafter.
wrapped, are dropped. Clamp screws 44 (Figure
After ñlm 1 has been drawn from roll 4 (Figure
3) at each end of casting 4| are` for the purpose
l) by means of wringer rolls |5 and I8 as above
described, and has been moved forward through 20 of allowing this casting to compensate for dìifer
ent sizes of tubes 40, as it may‘be found desirable
the machine by wringer rolls 26 and 21, iilm 1
is drawn over hot plates or grids 34 (Figure 12) .
to use.
With Plioñlm sheet 1 rigidly held in position,
These hot plates are held against the heating
tubes 40 are lowered by the downward movement
manifold 33 by screws 35. Manifold 33 is held in
position by extension plates 36 which are sup 25 of casting 4| . this action being caused by con
necting arms |39 (Figure 5)> which are held to
ported on angle-iron frames 3 by stud bolts 31.
casting' 4I by extension bracket |42 at the upper
Hot liquid or steam 39 is conducted to manifold
end of connecting arms |3|A and pivot bolts |4|
33 through pipe 38 which leads to a suitable
hold bracket |42 to casting 4I, .the connecting
source of hot liquid or steam not shown. Hot
plates 34 may be of any desired shape and size. 30 arms |39 being actuated by the eccentric arms
|38 on shaft |31 through bolts |40. Shaft |31
In Figure 7 they are shown as being circular in
(Figure 4) is oscillated by means of arm |36 on
shape and between these plates there are gaps
the end of which is cam roller |35 held against
which it may be found desirable to cool with a
cam |34 by spring |44 on rigid arm |43, rod |45,
blast of air. A method of doing this is indicated
in Figure 1 where air is conducted from a suitable 35 and ring |46 on- a. crossfrod of main frame -|.
Cam |34 (Figure 4) is rigidly mounted on shaft
fan by means of pipe |04 which leads to mani
|33 which ,is rotated by sprocket |32 (Figure 2)
fold 98 from which air is drawn by nozzles 99
on the end of shaft |33, this sprock being driven
and pipe |0|. 'I'he air from nozzles 99 is used to
cool the working parts of the machine, if desired,
in turn from main countershaft |23 through
and air from pipe IDI is conducted to manifold 40 sprocket |30 and connecting chain |3| (Figure
|02 from which small nozzles |03 conduct the air
Immediately prior to tubes 40 reaching the
to the gaps between individual hot plates 34. Air
bottom of their stroke (Figures 13 and 16), the
baille |91, of impervious material, prevents this
opening in the bottom of each tube- 49 (Figure 13)
cold air from striking film 1 (Figure 1). Air
manifold 98 is supported from main frame 3 by 45 is closed by vacuum plate |1| and a partial vac
uum is created in each tube 49 , of suflìcient
means of vertical bracket |00.
strength to hold the stretched Plioñlm in its dis
It is evident from the above statement that
tended position while plunger tube 40 rlecedesl
ñlm 1 will rest upon hot plates 34 for a predeter
from its lowermost position ` (Figure l1'7). The
mined length of time, dependent upon the speed
of the machine and the shape of the cams in 60 mechanical movements involved in the creation
of this partial vacuum are as follows. Cam |15
volved. The time interval allowed for the film to
(Figure 9) on shaft |33 rotates and lifts cam
rest on hot plates 34 is sufllcient to render said
roller |11 which is mounted in U-shaped member
film 1 thermoplastic and in this state the film is
|16 onthe lower end of arm |18, thus moving
next drawn to a position underneath plunger
tubes 40 (Figure 4). Directly below tubes 40 is 55 lever arm |19 upward and causing shaft |12 to
rotate in a clockwise direction. lVacuum mani
cast iron block 45 (Figure 5). Block 45 is fas
fold |10 is fastened to hollow arm |69 which is
tened to angle-iron frame 3 by stud bolts 46.
rigidly mounted on Ishaft |12 so that this ‘entire
From the point of being attached toframe 3 at
assembly rotates in a clockwise manner when-arm
46, cylinder block 45 has two arm-shaped mem
|18 is raised.
bers 41 which support or carry cylinders 48. At
On vacuum manifold |10, plate- |1| is fastened
the top of arms 41 is fastened bed-plate 14 (Fig
and a rubber gasket |14 is suitably glued thereto.
ure 5) by means of screws 11 (Figure 7). In bed
Openings |13 (Figure 12) are made in gasket |14
plate 14 is a groove 15 cut completely around the
in su'ch positions that they will match the open
length and width of the plate. Bed-plate 14 also
has in it circular openings 16 (Figure '1) which are 65 ings in the bottom of tubes 49 when the vacuum
pivotal assembly is in closing position as illussuflìciently large to permit tubes 40 together with
trated in Figure 13. Air is withdrawn from tubes
stretched iilm 1 to enter (Figure 16), as will be
49 by means of a vacuum pump, not shown, but
described more fully hereinafter.
from which pipe |65 (Figure 2) leads to pipe |66,
Directly above lower 4bed-plate 14 is a corre
sponding upper clamp plate 18 (Figure 3) which 70 thence to flexible hose |61, and then directly to
vacuum manifold |68 (Figure l2). There are no
also is of rectangular shape and it has a tcontact
valves in this vacuum line> so that it will be ap
ing edge 19 (Figure 2) adapted to cooperate with
parent that no partial vacuum is created by the
groove 15 (Figure 3) to firmly hold film 1. Upper
pump until the vacuum assembly engages the
clamp plate 18 is movable vertically whereas
lower bed-plate 14 is immovable. The movement 16 bottom of tubes 49, at which time a partial vac
uum is quickly created. This partial vacuum will
hold the distended Pliofllm 1 substantially in its
lowermost position until the next operation takes
place, which is the seizing of articles |28 by what
the electric current is turned off valve |62 is con
partment in each article holder 60 is. in its nor
I call article holders, now to be described. It is
assumed. of course, that articles |28 have been
forced into this chamber by the ~action of cam
|89 (Figure 1) on the end of rotating shaft |33,
deposited in funnel-shaped openings 42 (Figure
which cam serves to lift or tilt mercury switch
12) of tubes 40 at sometime during the downward
|88 (Figure 6), thus making electric contact and
nected to the vacuum pump so that the air com
mal position, contracted.
Compressed air ' is
causing solenoid |86 to draw solenoid tongue |81
stroke of tubes 40 or no later than immediately
10 upwards, thus opening the port in three-Way
prior to the operation of the article holders.
valve |62 that leads from compressed air in pipe
Article holders 60 (Figure 12) are tapered metal
|63 to pipe |64 and simultaneously cutting off
castings the inside walls of which are covered
vacuum pump line |65 from pipe |64.
with loose rubber or other flexible, impervious
As soon as cam |89 lowers mercury switch |88
sleeves 6|. Sleeves 6| are folded back over the
top of tapered holders 60 and fastened on the 15 to its original position the electric current is shut
off and three-way valve |62 returns, by the action
outside walls thereof by wire rings 66 which ñt
of a spring not shown, to its normal position of
into annular grooves, not shown, cut around the
being connected with the vacuum supply as here
outside circumference of holders 60. Sleeves 6|
tofore described. 'I'hus it is seen that article
are similarly fastened at the bottom of holders
60 by being folded around the lower ends of said 20 holders 60 may be contracted or expanded at pre
cise predetermined times. At the proper instant
holders and held by wire rings 66 in additional
when tubes 40 have been raised sufficiently to
annular grooves not shown. In this manner an
clear article holders 60, compressed air is ap
air-tight compartment is formed between each
plied and rubber sleeves 6| of article holders 60
sleeve 6| and the inner wall of each holder 60.
Air is either forced to each such compartment or 25 are expanded in such manner as to seize articles
|28, as `shown in Figures 14, 19, and 20. This
withdrawn from it by duct 64 which connects at
seizing, of course, is uniform about substantially
one end with annular groove 65 around the in»
the entire surface of articles |28, the amount of
side circumference of holder 60. The other end
applied pressure being varied to an accurate de
of each duct 64 leads to pipe nipple 62 screwed
into holder 60 and extending downward a suffi 30 gree by control of the air pressure used. This
may be accomplished by a regulating Valve in the
cient distance to enable a rubber hose 63 or other
compressed air line or by any other customary
suitable fitting to be attached thereto. Each hose
method and is not shown or described herein.
63 is connected to an additional pipe nipple 59 the
The next step is to twist articles |28 and Plio
function of which will be described later.
Article holders 60 are held in position «by means 35 ?lm sheet 1 that surrounds them. This is ac
complished by twisting or turning article hold
of projections or shoulders 10 which are bored to
ers 60 in the following manner. The entire ar
fit over vertical pins 68 and are ñxed thereto by
ticle holders 60 (Figure 14) , including their bases
set-screws 1| (Figure 12). Holders 60 are sup
or hubs 52 and tubes 49, are rotated by means
ported by hubs or collars 52. Hubs 52 are rigidly
fastened to vertical tubes 49 by means of set 40 of gears 12 rigidly fastened to said tubes. Spacers
or thrust washers13 separate rotatable tubes 49
screws 54. Between hubs 52 and main cylinder
from the fixed part of cylinder casting 48 (Fig
block 48 there are interposed washers 53 which
are used as spacers or thrust bearings.
ure 14) .
Gears 12 form a train of gears as shown
in Figures 5 and 10, the end one of which |05
pins 68, already mentioned are fastened rigidly
into projections 61 of hubs 52 by set-screws 69. 45 transmits power from shaft |06 on which it is
Pipe nipples 59 are screwed into these same pro
Shaft |06 is mounted in bearing |01 (Figure 5)
jections 61 (Figure 12) and lead to angular ducts
58 bored through hubs 52 and connecting with
and carries one-half of a jaw clutch |08 at its
lower end. Directly beneath this half of jaw
annular groove 51 cut around the periphery of
the upper portion of tubes 49. Duct 56 is bored 50 clutch |08 is the engaging part or the other half
in the wall of each tube 49 and there may be one
of this clutch |09 which revolves at all times in
the following manner. Shaft |23 (Figure 3) de
or more of such ducts which lead from annular
groove 51 downwardly to annular groove 55 (Fig
rives its power to rotate as lhereinbefore de
ure 12) which is also cut in the periphery of tube
scribed. On shaft |23 is mounted sprocket |22
49. This second annular groove 55 matches with 55 (Figures 3 and 6) which turns shaft ||6 (Figure
an opening in the wall of tube 49 into which pipe
3) by means of chain |2| and sprocket |20 (Fig
nipple 50 is fastened. Air may thus be forced
ure 11). Shaft ||6 (Figure 1) on which sprocket
into or withdrawn from each article holder 60 by
|20 is mounted, is housed in bearings ||3 and
means of various passages and ducts thus de
these bearings are formed in a casting for the
scribed even though the entire tube 49, base 52 60 purpose of constituting a right-angle drive. To
and article holder 60 are all in rapid rotation.
accomplish this, bevel gear ||5 (Figure l1)
Air is compressed in each article holder com
mounted on shaft ||6 (Figure 1) meshes with
partment at certain predetermined intervals and
and turns bevel gear | I4 (Figure 3) on the lower
end of vertical shaft | I0. Shaft ||0 is housed
withdrawn at other intervals in a manner now
to be described. Pipe nipple 50 (Figure 12) is 65 in bearing -||2 which is also a part of casting ||3
which forms a part of the right-angle drive.
connected to pipe |64 which leads to a three-way
Thus it is seen that the rotation of` horizontal
valve |62 (Figure l), from which pipe |65 leads
to the above mentioned vacuum pump, and pipe
shaft ||6 is converted into rotation of vertical
|63 leads to an air compressor not shown. It is
shaft |I0 whenever jaw clutch |09 engages its
thus evident that either compressed air or a re 70 mate |08.
duced air pressure may be directed to article hold
Lower jaw clutch |09 is slidably mounted, but
ers 60 by simply rotating the handle of three-way
is nevertheless keyed on to vertical shaft | |0 and
valve |62 through an angle of approximately 90
its vertical movement along this shaft is con
degrees. This is done mechanically by means'of
trolled by means of a yoke or fork on the end
an electric solenoid valve |86 (Figure 1). When 76 of cam arm ||1 (Figure 3) functioning in groove
| I | of the hub portion of jaw clutch |09. „Cam
arm ||1 is fulcrumed around post ||8 (Figure 1)
which post is held in bracket ||9 fastened to
2. on to delivery belt |82 driven by pulley |83 o_n
'shaft |34 (Figure 3). Shaft |84 is driven by
frame | and is actuated by cam roller |29,(F'igure
Surplus film 8 is drawn -forward, as previously
explained, until it'passes between wringer rolls
26 and 21, vfrom which point it is rewound on to
a spool, not shown, on shaft 9 (Figure 7) mount
ed Qin bearings | 0. Shaft 9 is rotated >by pulley
|I driven by leather belt i2 from smaller pulley
10 |3_on lower lwri'nger roll shaft |4 (Figure l).
3) rolling in box-cam |21 mounted on rotating
shaft |83. As box-cam |21 causes lever arm H1
to rise, it lifts the lower half of jaw clutch |09
into engagement with the teeth of jaw clutch
|08, causing the same to turn. This revolves
sprocket |85 (Figure l0) from chain 22.
shaft |86 as long as the jaw clutch teeth are so
engaged. In this way gear |05 (Figure-l0) and
Electric switch | 92 is for the main heating ele
the train of gears 12 are turned. The turning of
ment in the oil line, not shown. Electric switch
said gears causes tubes 49 and article holders B0
|93 is for the control of -the secondary heating
to be rotated. Thus, as shown in Figure 14, the
element in the oil line not shown.
partially wrapped articles are caused to turn or 15
Electric switch |94 is to control electric cur
twist any predetermined amount and ordinarily
rent to heat cut-ofi wires |96. Electric switch
this would be until the ñlm 1 across the top of
|95 is to control the motor pumping oil through
articles |28 has closed in on itself and sealed
' pipe 38 (pump and motor not shown). Chain 22
itself to the desired extent and tightness. If an
(Figure 4) is kept tight by means of idler 'sprocketl
object such as candy sucker with a stick or a 20
cord protruding from the top thereof is being
wrapped then film 1 will wind and constrict itself
tightly around said stick or cord until a sub
stantial seal has been made. Rotating tubes 49
may be lubricated by use of ordinary Alemite
fittings 5| (Figure 14). Articles |28 and the sheet
An alternative method of heating and drawing
the sheet nlm material through the machine is
shown in Figures 22, 23, and 24. This method
has been found to be eilîcient and practical and is
described as follows.
Film l on roll 4 is drawn
from said roll by wringer rollers |5 and l5 in a
film `1 now have the appearance as shown in Fig
manner similar to that used in the method here
ure I9. At this point cut-off wires |96 function
tofore described. After film l leaves said wringer
to cut the wrapped articles |28 from the excess
rollers |5 and I6 it passes around a snubbing roll
film. This severing operation is performed as 30 205 which is free to rotate in arm 206 adjust
follows. Insulating tubes 88 (Figure 22) have at
ably mounted on angle-irons 3. From snubber
their lower ends, rings of wire |96 which, when
roll 205 film '| is carried around a cylindrical
subjected to the proper electric potential will be
heating drum |98 mounted on shaft |99 which is
come heated without detriment to themselves.
carried in bearings 200 bolted to frame 3. Chain
Insulating tubes 88 are clamped in position be
22 drives sprocket 207 _on shaft |99. . Oil which
tween angle-ìrons 81 (Figure 4) and fixed there
has been heated to a, suitable temperature in any
to by screws 89 (Figures 4 and 5). Angle-irons
conventional manner or, steam may be used to
81 are fastened at their ends to U-shaped mem
heat drum |99.
bers 90 (Figure 5) by screws 9| (Figure 12). u
Grooves 203 (Figure 22, 23, and 24) are cut
shaped members 90 are firmly held on the ends~ 40 around the circumference of drum |98 and nar
of rods 92 the upperfends of which rods are
row belts 20| are carried in said grooves. Belts
connected to the tongues of solenoids 93 by bolts
91. Bolts 96 on the upper ends of rods 92 (Fig- ,
ure 5) strike against the upper ends of compres
sion springs 94. The 1ower ends of springs 94
rest against stationary arms 95 rigidly fastened
to upright posts 82 seated in castings 45 by bolts
83. Arms 95 are bored out to allow rods 92 to
move vertically without impediment.
20| are made of cotton fabric and serve to in
sulate this portion of iilm 1. In grooves 203 may
be placed a layer of insulating material 208 as
desired. Asbestos is preferable for this use.
Narrow belts 20| pass around heating drum |98
as described and then pass between clamping
' plates 14 and 18, thence between wringer rolls 2 B
and 21 and downward around idlers 202 (Figure
When electric current is turned into solenoids 50 22). Belts 20| are actually propelled by contact
93 it causes the tongues thereof to descend rap
with drum |98 and also rollers 26 and 21. Since
idly against compression springs 94 causing in
film 1 rests on belts 20|' it is carried along or at
sulating tubes 88 and wire rings |98 (Figure 22)
least helped along by said belts. It should be
to descend against the stretched film 1 (Figure
noted that where ñlm 'l passes over grooves 203
12) severing the surplus film completely and in 55 and belts 20| it is less heated and therefore less
stantly from the ñlm on articles |28. The
thermoplastic, so that this portion of ñlm 1 is
l amount of heat used in wires |96 is controlled by
less stretch‘able and thus can itseltg be pulled .
rh'eostats in the usual manner. Electric current
through the apparatus by drum |98 and wringer
is fed to solenoids 93 by action of cam |9| (Fig
rolls 26 and 21 more efficiently than would be
ure 1) actuated by revolving shaft |33, raisingor 60
tilting mercury switch |90 to allow the mercury
therein to complete electric contact through said
solenoids 93. As soon as film 1 has been severed
in this manner the air pressure in article holders
60 is released and the pressure may be actually
reduced below atmospheric pressure by connec
tion with‘ the vacuum pump as heretofore ex
plained. In this manner flexible sleeves 6| are
drawn tightly against the walls of article holders
the case if the entire surface of ñlm 'I were heated -
and were completely thermoplastic.
It should
also be noted that these strips of cooler film reg
ister exactly between plunger tubes 40 at the next
station of the machine operation. This helps to
keep the ñlm from being ruptured on the edges of
cylinder’openings 16 (Figure 7) when the ñlm is
stretched by tubes 40. One of the vadvantages
of the cylindrical drum method of heating the
film is that the film moves with the surface of
60 and articles | 28, now wrapped, are allowed to 70 the heating element rather than across such
fall through tubes 49. At substantially the same
surface. Avoiding this friction, which is often
time, vacuum gate valve |14 (Figure 12) is low
extreme, between the film and the surface of the
ered away from the openings of tubes 49 and , heating element reduces greatly the possibility of
wrapped articles |28 fall from tubes 49 across
fracture of the film. Another advantage to‘this
chute |80 (Figure 4) held by brackets |8I to framev 75 method of heating is that the heated film is
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