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Патент USA US2403504

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E@
2?#039594
July 9, 1946.
R. E. CROOKE
‘ 2,403,504
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER
Filed Feb. 2l, 1941
¿259.1
2Sheets-Sheet 1
(Xw)St jk
ATTORNEY
July 9, 1946.y
R. E. cRooKE
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPÚTER
¿2,403,504
its;
Patented July 9, 1946
>2,403,504
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,403,504
,
‘
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER
Raymond E. Crooke, Great Neck, N. Y., assîgnor
to Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island
City, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application February 21, 1941, Serial No. 379,927
8 Claims. (Cl. 235-~61.5)
l
2
This invention relates to gun-fire control com
selected preparation period of time following the
instant of the observations, for computing the
puters and particularly to that type of comput
ers used to control the ñríng of guns against
aircraft.
The problem of the control of gun-fire against
aircraft may be divided into two classes;
where the aircraft or target is approaching
rectly towards its objective or the point of
servation and the firing gun, and (2) where
(1)
di
ob
the
target is passing at a distance to one side or
the other of the observing and firing point. The
invention herein disclosed is applied to the first
mentioned class. It will'of course be understood
that some of the principles thereof are applicable
to the solution of problems of the second men
tioned class.
In considering the solution of the problem of
anti-aircraft ñre control to which this invention
is applied as one embodiment thereof, it is as
sumed that the target is directly approaching
its objective, which is the point of observation
and the point of ñring of the gun, at a substan
tially constant height above the horizontal plane
of the objective, such as would be done in hori
zontal-bombing of a selected point. Upon the
picking up of the target by observers at the ob
jective, the slant range of the target and its ele
vation above the horizontal, expressed in angular
units, are observed by instruments well known in
the art and from the observed data the height
of the target and the horizontal range may be
determined, or if the height of the target is known
or obtained by observations and the elevation
is observed, the slant range and the horizontal
range may be determined.
From experimental data obtained during tar#
get practices, the most eii'ective ranges of the
guns are known as well as the time in seconds
required to set and adjust the sights and the
fuses of the projectiles and to load and ñre the
projectiles. In this specification, the time re
quired to set the observed values into the mecha
nisms, for the mechanisms to calculate the ad
vance range or fuse setting and the sight angle,
andthe time required to adjust the sight and
gun and load and ñre the gun is defined as the
“preparation period of time.” This preparation
period is arbitrarily selected and is based upon
experience under various circumstances of oper
sight angle or diiîerence in elevation of the gun
and the line of sight at the instant of ñring
and the time-setting values of the fuses of the
ñred projectiles.
It is a further object of the invention to pro
vide a vector analyzer having two concentrically
mounted vector arms, the angular position of
which represent successive positions of the tar
get. Associated with the vector arms are a com
ponent member representing height and two com
ponent members representing the horizontal
range to successive positions of the target cor
responding to the positions represented by the
vector arms.
'
It is a further object to include a timing de
vice to aid in timing the preparation period and
in determining or checking the speed of the tar
get or other object.
Mechanisms for accomplishing the objects of
the invention and their operation will be under
stood by considering the following description
and accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. 1 is an elevation side view of an aircraft
target directly approaching an observing and ñr
ing point at a constant height and showing the
consecutive angular and linear relations of the
target to the observing and iiring point; and
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view of a mechanism
to compute the values required in the control of
the ñre of the gun.
Referring particularly to Fig. 1, an aircraft or
target l is directly approaching the observing
and firing point O at a constant height (H)
above the horizontal O--O' and at a horizontal
speed of St.
When the target I reaches point A, observers
at O observe the slant range (R) and the eleva
tion angle of the target (AI), from which the
height (H) and the horizontal range (RH) may
be calculated by the equations resulting from
the right angle triangle OAA’ of H=R sin A1
and RH=R cos A1, respectively. A’ is the pro
jection-of the pointV A on the horizontal'O-O’;
The preparation period of time (X) is selected
as required and multiplied by the speed of the
target (St) to give the distance traveled by the
target during the time (X) represented by the
length of line AB, thus defining the point B
ation.
An object of the invention is to provide a
mechanism settable in accordance with an ob
served range or height and elevation angle of
an approaching aircraft target and settable in
preparation period. The value of the distance
AB may be expressed by the equation
accordance with the speed of the target and the
AB=X‘St
i.
.n
at which the target l will be at the end of the
"
(1)
2,403,504
3
4
The horizontal range of target I at point B
(RHS) is equal to the observed horizontal range
range scale 4 engraved thereon and which is
rotated about its axis by gear 5 and shaft 6. The
minus the distance AB or
RH3=RH-X'St
radial scale 4 constitutes a vector arm. Shaft 6
is turned by gear `I thereon meshing with gear 8
(2)
From the right angle triangle OBB', the eleva
tion of the target when at point B (A3) will be
the angle whose tangent is the height divided by
the horizontal range to the point B, or
5
on shaft 9 on which is secured handle I0.
Gear
8 is kept normally in mesh with gear 'I by spring
I I bearing on gear 8 and a suitable area on frame
l2 of the instrument.
At one side of disk 3 is a first component slide
10 I3 mounted in suitable guides (not shown) to give`
H
.A3-tan 1RH3
(3)
the slide a restrained movement, shown as ver
tical. Mounted on slide I3 is stiff wire I4 which
cooperates with scale I5 to indicate the height
experimental data the time of flight (t) of the
represented by the position of slide I3 relative to
projectiles is known for various combinations of 15 the center of the disk 3. Slide I3 is moved by
From ballistic tables or curves obtained from
horizontal ranges and heights. As is well known
the time of night (t) is the period of time be
shaft I6 geared thereto and on which is secured
handle I'l.
tween the instant of firing of the projectile and
Movable in suitable guides and at right angles
the instant of its intercepting the target. The
to slide I3 are a second and a third component
travel of the target during this period of time is
slide I8 and I9 on which respectively are mounted
equal to the speed of the target multiplied by the
stiff wires 20 and 2|. Slide I8 is moved by shaft
time of night or t-St, and is indicated on Fig. l
22 geared thereto. Shaft 22 is geared to shaft
23 on one end of which is detachable clutch 24
by the line BC, or
BC=t~St
(4)
and handle 25 and on the other end of which is
This distance determines the point of intercept 25 slip clutch 26.
Slide I9 is moved by shaft 2l geared thereto
(C) and a perpendicular dropped from C de
at one end. The other end of shaft 21 is con
termines the point C’. It is obvious that OC'
nected to one side of differential 28. The other
represents the horizontal range to the point of
two sides of differential 28 are connected to shaft
intercept RHz, and that
30 22 previously described and shaft 29 the connec
RH2=RH3-(t-St)
(5)
tions for which will be described hereinafter.
Mounted coaxially with disk 3 is a shaft 3D
The elevation angle of the point of intercept
which carries a pointer 3l, constituting a second
(A2) is obtained from the right angle triangle
vector arm. Shaft 3U is geared to one end of
OCC’ and is the angle whose tangent is the
height divided by the horizontal range to the 35 shaft 32 on the other end of which shaft is elon
gated gear 33 which meshes with gear 8 both
point of intercept (RH2) or
in the “out” position of gear 8, as shown in the
drawings and in the L‘in” position, that is, when
gear 8 is moved to the right against the force of
The elevation of the gun above the line of sight 40 spring II and out of engagement with gear 1.
Shafts 32 and 6 are connected by differential
to the point B, to allow for the movement of the
34, the output of which is shaft 35. It will be seen
target during the time of flight is known as
that when gear 8 is in mesh with gears ‘I and 33.
vertical angular deflection (Ut) and may be ex
shafts 6 and 32 are moved simultaneously to ro
pressed as
tational positions in accordance with the value
of elevation as cranked in by handle I0 but when
Also from ballistic tables and curves obtained
gear 8 is moved to the “in” position and handle
from experimental data the correction in eleva
I0 is turned to move shaft 30 and pointer 3I in
tion, known as super elevation (e), that must be
.»l2=tan-‘R-î-íî
(6)
dependently of shaft 6, the output of differential
applied to compensate for the shape of the tra
jectory of the projectile, is known for various .i0 34, shaft 35, will represent the difference between
the rotational positions of shaft 6 and the rota
combinations of horizontal ranges and heights.
tional position of shaft 32.
The total elevation of the gun above the line of
At the right end of Fig. 2, a stop watch 36 is
sight is known as sight angle (Us) and may be
secured in a casing 3'I which is rotatably mount
expressed as
ed on the frame of the computer by support 3B
65
In order to check or obtain the target speed
on which support is also mounted reference mark
39. Casing 31 is rotated about its vertical axis by
gear 4U which meshes with teeth in rim 4I of
casing 3T. Gear 4D is connected to shaft 42 by
ñrst observation. The position of the target at
shaft 43 and gears 44. The rotational position
the end of this time is indicated as S, and the 60 of shaft 42 is set in accordance with the prepara
projection on the horizontal as S’. The slant
tion time (X) by handle 45. Casing 31 is so
range to this point is designated Rs, the horizon
set in relation to shaft 42 that when shaft 42 is
tal range RHS, and the elevation angle is As.
in its zero position the zero mark on the face dial
(St) , a second observation of target position may
be taken at an interval or period (Xs) after the
The distance traveled by the target AS during
the‘timegXsis expressed as
"
u
m
v’
A
'P
`
"
ofA watch~ 38 is cppositethe Areference- mark »39.7 »
Watch 36 is started and stopped by a conven
tional stem 46.
Shaft 42 is connected to a conventional multi
It is evident that the relation of the elevation
plier 4l as one input, the other input, shaft 48,
angle (As) to the horizontal range RHS and the
height (H) may be expressed as
70 is settable by handle 49 in accordance with the
estimated speed of the target (St). The set-in
value of St is made visually available by dial 50
geared to shaft 48. The output of multipler 4l,
Referring particularly to Fig. 2, 2 is a vector
shaft 5I, is connected to slip clutch 26 previously
analyzer which consists of a disk 3 with a radial 75 described.
u
ai@
CLJ
2,403,504
5
Shaft 48 is also connected to a second conven
tional multiplier 52 the other input of which,
shaft 53, is moved in accordance with a com
puted period of time of fiight of the projectile.
The computation or generation of this value Will 5
be described hereinafter. The output of multi
plier 52 is shaft 29, previously described.
It is well known in the fire control art that the
ballistic factors of time of flight (t) and the
super elevation (e) may be determined as func
tions of the horizontal range and the height of
the target. The relation between these factors
and the two variables is determined experimen
tally for each type of gun and projectile and is
available in the form of curves or tables. Values
of these factors are computed or generated by
cam mechanisms indicated generally by the ref
6
.
by coaxial dial 11 which is set by shaft 18 turned
by handle 19, thereby adjusting an index line on
dial 11, against which index graduations on dial
16 are read.
It is well known in the fire control art that
the fuse settings for projectiles are proportional
to the time of flight of the projectile. Fuse set
ting values are made visually available by gearing
' shaft 53 to a graduated dial 8U. Corrections may
be added by moving the reference or index li‘ne
of dial BI, coaxial with dial 80, by shaft 82
turned by handle 83.
It is also well known that the deflection (Ds)
of a sight from the bore of the gun to correct for
the drift of the projectile is proportional to the
angle of super elevation (e). Deflection values
for drift are made visually available by gearing
output shaft 13 of cam mechanism 55 to a grad
erence numbers 54 and 55, respectively. The de
tails of the two forms of cams do not form parts
uated dial 84. Corrections may be added by mov
of this invention, but are included as illustra 20 ing the reference or index line of dial 85, coaxial
tive of three dimensional cams. The two forms
with dial 84, by shaft 86 turned by handle 81.'
of cams are the subject of a separate applica
At the outer end of range scale 4 on disk 3 is
an arrow 86 which when read against the eleva
tion filed on February 1l, 1941, in the name of
George Alfred Crowther, Serial No. 377,004.
Cam 54 for generating the value of the time
of flight period consists of a plate 56 constrained
to move vertically and having two grooves 51 and
58 cut therein forming two cam surfaces. Di
tion scale 89 indicates the elevation setting of
the disk 3. The angular position of the pointer
3l is also read against this elevation scale.
Operation
rectly below plate 56 is slide 59, which is moved
Before the approach of a target the hand of
horizontally by threaded portions of shaft SI) en 30 the stop watch 36 should be set at its zero posi
gaging threads in holes near the ends of slide 59.
tion by the stem 46 and the Watch as a whole
Shaft 6D receives its motion to a rotational posi
should be turned to its zero position by bringing
tion corresponding to the horizontal range of the
the zero mark of the dial opposite the reference
target (RHZ), by handle 6I. The set-in value
mark 39 by means of the handle 45. This opera
of horizontal range (RHZ) is determined by ro
tion sets the preparation period (X) input to
tating shaft 60 until the zero mark on compari
zero.
son dial 62 geared to shaft 60 is opposite the zero
Upon approach of a target its position is ob
mark on comparison dial 63 which is geared to
served in terms of elevation angle (AI) and range
shaft 21 previously described.
(R) or height (H) and the stop watch 36 is
Directly above plate 55 is a second slide 64, 40 started at the instant of making this observa
which is moved horizontally by the threaded por
tion of shaft i6 engaging a threaded hole at the
lower end of slide 64. Shaft I6 is moved to po
sitions in accordance with the observed or vector
solved values of height of the target (H).
Also above plate 56 is output slide 65 which is
constrained by guides to move vertically. The
vertical motion of slide 65 is transmitted to shaft
tion.
The observed value of elevation is set into the
mechanism by turning elevation handle I0 in its
“out” position to set the range scale 4 to the ob
served elevation angle by bringing the arrow 88
to the corresponding graduation of elevation
scale 89. This position is indicated by the dotted
line 4'.
53, previously described, by gears 66. A pin 61
The height slide I3 and wire I4 are set to the
sliding in a slot in slide 59 in the groove 51 of 50 observed value of height (H), as represented by
plate 56 and in a slot in slide 65 connects these
the reading of wire I4 against scale I5, by means
three elements together and a pin 68 in the upper
of handle I1. If slant range was observed instead
end of slide 64 engages groove 58 in plate 56.
of height the wire I4 is brought to intersect the
It will thus be seen that horizontal movements
range scale 4 at the graduation representing the
of slides 59 and 64 will move output Slide 65 ver
observed slant range This sets the height slide
tically as a function of the values of horizontal
and wire to the proper height.
range (RHZ) and height (H).
The horizontal range slide I8 and wire 20 are
Cam mechanism 55 is similar in construction
then set by handle 25 in its “in” position so that
and operation to cam mechanism 54 except that
the Wire 20 crosses the intersection of the range
plate 69 is moved about pin 19 by slide 1I which 60 scale and the height wire as shown by the dotted
corresponds to slide 64 of cam mechanism 54
line 20’. While making this setting the clutch
thus varying the vertical movement of output
26 slips to permit relative movement between
slide 12 in accordance with the output value of
shafts 23 and 5I.
height (H) as determined by the rotational po
As soon as this setting is made the handle 25
sition of shaft I6. The output of cam mecha 65 is returned to its “out” position and the slide I3Y
nism 55, shaft 13, is moved in proportion to the
and wire 20 are free to be moved by the multiplier
super elevation (e).
41 the inputs of which are now set to the ob
The super elevation (e), represented by shaft
served _value of target speed (St) by means of
13, is combined with the vertical angular deñec
the handle 49 and dial 50, and the desired value
tion (A2-A3), represented by shaft 35, in differ
of preparation period (X) by means of the handle
ential 14, the output of which, shaft 15, repre
45 which also bodily turns the stop watch 36
sents the sight angle (Us) which is made visually
vuntil its dial read against the reference mark 39
available by gearing shaft 15 to dial 16. 'I'his
indicates -the preparation period.
relation is apparent from Equations '1 and 8.
The movement or position- oí-,the output shaft
Correction to the readings of dial 15 may be made 75 5I -of multiplier 41 now represents X-St or the
c' ^ t'
2,403,504
7
8
distance AB of Fig. 1. Because the handle 25 is
Since shaft 21 now represents horizontal range
(BH2) the slide I9 and wire 2l will be positioned
to represent this value. The handle I0 is now
shifted to its “in” position and pointer 3| is
now in its “out” position shaft 5I 'drives shaft
23 through the clutch 26 and slide I8 with wire
2D are moved to the left an amount representing
AB or X -St so they now represent the horizon
tal range (RHS) as will be evident from Equation
turned to cross the intersection of the horizontal
range (RHZ) wire 2I and the height (H) wire I4.
2.
’
It will be seen from Equation 6 that the position
If the target speed is not accurately known
of pointer 3| now represents the elevation angle
from observation it may be obtained by using
(A2) which may be read from scale 89. The
the apparatus in the following manner. After 10 values of A2, represented by the rotation of shaft
setting the vector analyzer in accordance with
32, and of A3, represented by the rotation of shaft
the first observed position of the target, a second
6, are combined by differential 34, the rotational
set of observations of the position of the target
position of the output of which, shaft 35, repre
is made at a known time interval (Xs) after
sents the vertical angular deflection (Ut) as will
the ñrst observation. This time interval can be 15 be seen from Equation 7.
conveniently determined from the stop watch 36,
Shaft 63 also sets in the value of horizontal
which was started when the first observation was
range (RH2) into cam mechanism 55, the out
made, by turning the case of the watch by the
put of which, shaft 13, is moved in proportion to
handle 45 to keep the hand of the watch oppo
the super elevation (e) . The movement of shafts
site the reference mark 39 until the second ob 20 35 and 13 are combined by differential 14 to ob
servation is made. The turningpofe-the case is
tain the sight angle (Us) which .is used for ad
stopped at this instant and the dial reading op
justing the relative vertical angle between the
posite the mark 39 will indicate the time interval
sight and the gun, This angle is represented
which interval has been set into the multiplier
by the rotational position of shaft 15, which is
41. If the target speed (St) was correctly set 25 geared to dial 16.
the horizontal range wire 20 will cross the inter
The values of the fuse settings and the deflec
section of the height wire I4 and the range scale
tion are available as previously described.
4 when the disk 4 is turned to the new observed
The sight and fuse setting data thus obtained
elevation (AS) and will act as an index of the
are correct for firing the gun at the end of the
computed position of the target. 1f the range 30 preparation period, as indicated when the hand
wire 20 does not cross the intersection the target
of Watch 36 comes opposite reference mark 39.
speed (St) setting should be changed until it does.
It is obvious that various changes may be
The target speed setting will then be correct.
made by those skilled in the art in the details of
Having thus checked or determined the target
the invention as disclosed in the drawingsl and
speed the handle 45 is turned to introduce the 35 described above within the principle and scope
full preparation period (X) to turn the watch case
of the invention as expressed in the appended
and to introduce the preparation period into the
claims.
'
multiplier 41. From this point on the operation
I claim:
is as otherwise described.
1. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun for firing
With the handle I0 still in the “out” position 40 a projectile at a target approaching at a constant
the disk 3 is rotated so the range scale 4 crosses
height above a horizontal plane, comprising a
the new intersection of the horizontal range wire
vector analyzer including two independent ro
20 and the height wire I4. Froml Equation 3
tatable vector arms and means to angularly ad
it will be seen that the angle of the disk 3 now
just the positions of the arms and including a
represents the elevation angle (A3) which may
ñrst component slide and means to move the
be read from the indication of arrow 88 on the
said slide to positions in accordance with the
elevation scale 89. This condition is shown in
height of the target and second and third com
solid lines on Fig. 2.
ponent slides and means to simultaneously set
While the above settings are being made the
the second and third slides in accordance with
comparison dial E2 is kept matched with the dial 50 values of horizontal range and to independently
63 by means of the handle 6 I. This operation sets
set the third slide relative to the second slide in
the horizontal range (RHZ) into the cam mecha
accordance with changes in values of horizontal
nism 54 which together with the height setting
range, means settable in accordance with a se
introduced by the handle I1 gives an output of
lected preparation period of time, means settable
time of flight which is introduced into the multi~
in accordance with the estimated speed of the
plier 52 by shaft 53. The movement or position
target, a first multiplier the inputs of which are
of the output shaft 29 of this multiplier represents
connected to the preparation period setting means
t~St or the distance BC of Fig. 1.
and the target speed setting means and the out
The movement of shaft 29 is combined by dif
put of which is connected to the second and
ferential 28 with the position of shaft 22, which
third simultaneous slide setting means, a second
has been set to represent horizontal range (RI-I3),
multiplier with inputs settable in accordance with
so that the movement or position of shaft 21 and
the speed of the target and a computed flight
dial 83 represent horizontal range (BH2) as may
period and having an output connected to the
be seen from Equation 5.
third slide independent setting means, ballistic
_ dItmvill be observed thatgas shaft 60 and dial
computing? means forAcomputing the flight pe
62 are turned to match dial 63 that the position
riod and settable in accordance with the position
of dial 83 is modified because of the connection
of the first slide and in accordance with the p0
of shaft 6D through the cam mechanism 54, shaft
sition of the third slide including an output
53, multiplier 52, shaft 29, differential 28 and
moved in proportion to the computed ñight
shaft 21. It will be evident however that since
period, motion transmitting means connecting
the direct effect of movement of handle 5I on dial
the output of the computing means to the flight
62 is much greater than the indirect effect of
period input of the second multiplier, means to
such movement on dial 63 that no difficulty is ex
set the vector arms in accordance with the ele~
~>perienced in bringing the dials to a matched con
vation angle of the target at selected positions,
dition.
75 a differential the inputs of which are moved in
@li
2,403,504
10
accordance with the positions of the two vector
arms and the output of which is responsive to
the difference in movement of the two vector
with the position of the third slide including an
output moved in proportion to the computed
night period, motion transmitting means con
arms, a second ballistic computing means for
necting the output of the computing means to
computing super elevation angles and settable in Ol the night period input of the second multiplier,
accordance with the position of the ñrst slide
a watch settable about an axis perpendicular to
and in accordance with the position of the third
the center of its face by the preparation period
component slide including an output moved in
setting means, and a reference mark juxtaposed
proportion to the computed super elevation an
the face and the hand of the watch for indicat
gle, and a second differential connected to the 10 ing the termination of the preparation period,
output of the first differential and the second
4. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun for ñring
ballistic computing means, whereby the output
a projectile at a target approaching at a constant
of the second differential is moved in proportion
height above a horizontal plane, comprising a
to the sight angle.
vector analyzer having three component slides,
2. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun for firing
means for moving one of said component slides to
a projectile at a target approaching at a constant
positions in accordance with the height of the
height above a horizontal plane, comprising a
target, means including a differential for moving
vector analyzer including a iirst component slide
the second and third of said slides simultane
and means to move the said silde to positions in
ously to positions in accordance with the hori
accordance with the height of the target and 20 zontal ranges of the target, a iirst multiplier the
second and third component slides and means to
inputs of which are settable in accordance with
simultaneously set the second and third slides
the speed of the target and a selected prepara
in accordance with values of horizontal range
tion period of time, motion transmission means
and to independently set the third slide relative
connecting the output of the first multiplier to
to the second slide in accordance with changes
the second and third slide moving means, a sec
in values of horizontal range, means settable in
ond multiplier the inputs of which are settable
accordance with a selected preparation period of
in accordance with the speed of the target and
time, means settable in accordance with the es
a computed period of time of iiight of the pro
timated speed of the target, a first multiplier
jectile, motion transmitting means connecting the
the inputs of which are connected to the prepa 30 output of the second multiplier to the differential
ration period setting means and the target speed
whereby the third slide is moved independently
setting means and the output of which is con
of the second slide in accordance with changes
nected to the second and third simultaneous slide
in horizontal range, ballistic computing means
setting means, a second multiplier with inputs
for computing the iiight period and settable in
settable _in accordance with the speed of the
accordance with the position of the iirst slide and
target and a computed ñight period and having
in accordance with the position of the third slide
an output connected to the third slide independ
including an output moved in proportion to the
ent setting means, ballistic computing means for
computed ñight period, and motion transmit
computing the flight period and settable in ac
ting means connecting the output of the comput
cordance with the position of the first slide and 40 ing means to the night period input of the sec
in accordance with the position of the third slide
ond multiplier.
and including an output moved in proportion to
5. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun for ñr
the computed iiight period, motion transmitting
ing a projectile at a target approaching at a con
means connecting the output of the computing
means to the iiight period input of the second
multiplier, a timing device settable by the prep
aration period setting means, and means jux
taposed the timing device for indicating the ter
minaticn of the preparation period.
3. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun for fir
ing a projectile at a target approaching at a con
stant height above a horizontal plane, compris
ing a vector analyzer including a iirst component
slide and means to move the said slide to positions
stant height above a horizontal plane, compris
ing a vector analyzer having two independent
rotatable vector arms and three component slides,
a shaft for angularly setting one of said arms, a
shaft for angularly setting the second of said
arms, means for moving said shafts, a first dif
ferential the inputs of which are connected to
the respective shafts, means for moving one of
said slides to positions in accordance with the
height of the target, indicating means on 'the
height slide overlying the analyzer in position to
in accordance with the height of the target and- 55 intersect the vector arms, means including a sec
second and third component slides and means to
ond diiîerential for moving the second and third
simultaneously set the second and third slides
of said slides simultaneously to positions in ac
in accordance with values of horizontal range and
cordance with the horizontal range of the tar
to independently set the third slide -relative t0
get, indicating means on the second and third
the second slide in accordance with changes in 60 slides overlying the analyzer in position to inter
values of horizontal range, means settable in ac
sect the vector arms and height indicating means,
cordance with a- selected preparation period of
a first multiplier the inputs of which are settable
time. means settable in accordance with the esti
in accordance with the speed of the target and a
mated speed of the target, a ñrst multiplier the
selected preparation period of time, motion trans
Vinputs of which are connected to the preparation 65 mission means connecting Vthe output of the ñrst
period setting means and the target speed set
multiplier to the second and third slide moving
ting means and the output of which is connected
means, a second multiplier the inputs of which
to the second and third simultaneous slide setting
are settable in accordance with the speed of the
means, a second multiplier with inputs settable in
target and a computed period of time of Eight 0f
accordance with the speed of the target and a 70 the projectile. motion transmitting means con
computed flight period and having an output con
necting the output of the second multiplier to
nected to the third slide independent setting
Athe second diiferential whereby the third slide is
means, ballistic computing means for computing
moved relative to the second slide in accordance
the flight period and settable in accordance with
with changes in horizontal range. ballistic com
the position of the iirst slide and in accordance 75 puting means for computing the flight period and
2,403,504
11
12
sett-able in accordance with the movement of the
first slide and in accordance with the movement
of the third slide including an output moved in
three component slides, means for moving the
ñrst of said slides to positions in accordance with
the height of the target, indicating means on the
proportion to the computed flight period, motion
height slide overlying the analyzer in position to
transmitting means connecting the output of the
computing means to the flight period input of the
second multiplier, a second ballistic computing
means for computing the super elevation angle
and settable in accordance with the movement
intersect the Vector arm, means including a dif
ferential for moving the second and third of said
of the first slide and in accordance with the move
ment of the third slide including an output moved
in proportion to the super elevation, and a third
differential connected to the output of the first
differential and the output of the second ballistic
computing means whereby the output of the third
differential is moved in proportion to the sight
angle.
6. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun for lir
ing a projectile at a target approaching at a
constant height above a horizontal plane, com
prising a vector analyzer havingatuee- independ
ent rotatable vector arms and three component
slides, a shaft for angularly setting one of said
arms, a shaft for angular-ly setting the second of
said arms, means for moving the two shafts, a
ñrst differential the inputs of which are connect
ed to the respective shafts, means for moving
the first of said Slides to positions in accordance
with the height of the target, indicating means
on the height slide overlying the analyzer in _
position to intersect the vector arms, means in
cluding a second differential for moving the sec
ond and third of said slides simultaneously to po
sitions in accordance with the horizontal ranges
slides simultaneously to positions in accordance
with the horizontal ranges of the target, indi
cating means on the second and third slides over
lying the analyzer in position to intersect the
vector arm and the height indicating means, a
nrst multiplier the inputs of which are settable
in accordance with the speed of the target and a
selected preparation period of time, motion
transmission means connecting the output of the
first multiplier to the second and third slide mov
ing means, a second multiplier the inputs of
which are settable in accordance with the speed
of the target and a computed period of time of
night of the projectile, motion transmitting
means connecting the output of the second mul
tiplier to the differential whereby the third slide
is moved relatively to the second slide, ballistic
computing means for computing the flight period
and settable in accordance with the movement of
the first slide and in accordance with the move
ment of the third slide including an output moved
in proportion to the computed flight period, mo
tion transmitting means connecting the output
of the computing means to the night period in
put of the second multiplier, and a dial gradu
ated in fuse setting units connected to the out
put of the ballistic computing means.
8. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun for firing
of the target, indicating means on the second and .
a projectile at a target approachingJr at a con
third slides overlying the analyzer in position to
intersect the vector arms and height indicating
stant height above a horizontal plane, compris
ing a vector analyzer having a height component
means, a ñrst multiplier the inputs of which are
slide and tivo horizontal range component slides
connected for joint and independent movement,
get and a selected preparation period of time, 40 each slide carrying indicating means overlying
settable in accordance with the speed of the tar
motion transmission means connecting the out
the analyzer, means to move the height compo
put of the ñrst multiplier to the second and third
slide moving means, a second multiplier the in
puts of which are settable in accordance with
the speed of the target and a computed period 4
of time of iiight of the projectile, motion trans
mitting means connecting the output of the sec
ond multiplier to the second differential whereby
the third slide is moved relatively to the second
slide, ballistic computing means for computing 50
the flight period and settable in accordance with
the movement of the first slide and in accord
ance with the movement of the third slide in
cluding an output moved in proportion to the.
nent slide to introduce a height setting in the
analyzer, means operative to move the two hori
zontal range component slides together, means
operative to introduce independent movement to
one of the latter slides, means settable in accord
ance with a selected preparation period of time,
means settable in accordance with the estimated
speed of the target, a first multiplier the inputs
of which are connected to the two last men
tioned means and the output of which is con
nected to the means for moving the two hori
zontal range component slides together, manual
operative means also selectively connectable to
computed flight period, motion transmitting 55 the last mentioned meansl whereby the slides
means connecting the output of the'computing
may be set to an initial position and automati
means to the flight period input of the second
cally moved to indicate a horizontal range after
multiplier, a second ballistic computing means
the preparation period, a second multiplier with
for computing super elevation angles and settable
inputs settable in accordance with the speed of
in accordance with the movement of the first slide 60 the target and a computed flight period and
and in accordance with the movement of the
having an output connected to the operative
third slide including an output moved in pro
means for introducing independent movement in
portion to the super elevation. a third differential
the one horizontal range component slide, ballis
connected to the output of the first differential
tic computing means for computing the flight
Aand/theoutputeoLthe second computing means ~ `period and settableimaccordance with the posiwhereby the output of the third differential is
tion of the height component slide and in accord
moved in proportion to the sight angle, and a dial
ance with the position of the independently mov
graduated in deflection units connected to the
able horizontal component slide and including
output of the second ballistic computing means,
an output moved in proportion to the computed
7. In apparatus for use in aiming a gun for 70 ñight period. and motion transmitting means
firing a projectile at a target approaching at a
constant height above a horizontal plane, com
prising a vector solver having a vector arm and
connecting the output of the computing means
to the flight period input of the second multiplier.
RAYMOND E. CROOKE.
,Y
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