Патент USA US2403506код для вставки
2940395063 ' July 9, 1946.l No X v2,403,506 G. A. cRowTHER GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER _ Fi_1ed April 2, 1941 2 Sheets-Sheet l (xwbkst v IN VENTOR George A . Crowîlwr Z@ www. ATTORNEY YM ¿Juf RUJIÖ i EDG: July 9, 1946- G. A. cRowTHr-:R 2,403,506 GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER 'Filed April 2, 1941 2 sheets-sheet 2 hm I mh INVENTORl GeoïyeA . Crowther BY gow/Cv!" A TTORNE Y ¿UJI HUJIÖ l Enit. ißt Patented July 9, 1.946 2,403,506 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,403 ,50.6 GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER George A. Crowther, Manhasset, N. Y., assigner to Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island City, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application April 2, 1941, Serial No. 386,451 2 Claims. (Cl. 2235-615) l 2 This invention relates to gun-lire control com puters and particularly to that type of computers used to control the ñring of guns against air progressively introduced to afford a graphic rep resentation thereof, and which will automatically actuate visual indicators of the needed quan craft. tities for the proper setting of a gun under the The problem of the control of gun-lire against aircraft may be divided into two classes; (l) represented conditions. Other objects and ad vantagesof the invention will appear from. the where the aircraft or target is approaching di particular description hereinafter. rectly towards its objective or the point of obser For the attainment of these objects the inven vation and the firing gun, and (2) where the tion comprehends a fixed chart‘on which are» target is passing at a distance to one side or 10 delineated polar and rectangular coordinates and the other of the observing and firing point. The in relation to which move a vector arm pivoted at the polar point and component slides adjust invention herein disclosed is applied to the ñrst mentioned class. It will of course be understood able parallel to the rectangular‘coordinates which` that some of the principles thereof are appli intersect at the polar point. The polar coordi cable to the solution of problems of the second 15 nates represent the direct or slant range and mentioned class. the elevation angle of an observed target, and InA considering the solution of the problem of the rectangular coordinates represent the vector anti-aircraft ñre control to which this inven components of height and horizontal range. It tion is applied as one embodiment thereof, it is is obvious that with any two of these values assumed that the target is directly approaching 20 given the other two will automatically develop its objective, which is the point of observation from the setting. lThe chart also has delineated and the point of firing of the gun, at a substan thereon trajectory and time of flight curves for tially constant height above the horizontal plane reasons which will hereinafter appear. of the objective, such as would be done in hori Preferably in accordance with the invention zontal-bombing of a selected point. Upon the 25 the movable elements are settable manually in picking up of the target by observers at the accordance with scale indications, and to facili objective, the slant range of the target and its tate the location of resultant points on the chart elevation above the horizontal, expressed in angu the component slidesv will preferably carry cross wires. Computing means may be selectively as lar units, are observed by instruments well known in the art and from the observed data the height 30 sociated with the horizontal component slide to expedite the- introduction of future positions of of the target and the horizontal range may be determined, or if the height of the target is an observed target, the association preferably being such that the act of computation will at known or obtained by observations and the eleva tion is observed, the slant range and the horizon the same time reset the slide in accordance with A the computation. tal range may be determined. From experimental data obtained during tar The invention also comprehends means for translating'the angular movement of the vector get practices, the most effective ranges of the guns .are known as well as the time in seconds arm during a setting to introduce a future or predicted position of the target into terms of gun required to set and adjust the sights and the fuses‘of the projectiles and to load and fire the 40 setting relative to the line of sight from the projectiles. In this specification, the time re gun to the target, and for visually indicating quired to set the observed values into the mecha these quantities. i Mechanisms for accomplishing the objects of nisms, for the mechanisms to calculate the ad vance range and the corresponding values of de the invention and their operation will be under stood by considering the following description and flection and sight angle, and the time required accompanying drawings> in which: to adjust the sight and gun and load and fire the gun is defined as the “preparation period of Fig. 1 is an elevation side view of an aircraft target directly approaching an observing and timeij This preparation period is arbitrarily se ñring point at a constant height and showing lected and is based upon experience under vari 50 the consecutive angular and linear relations of ous circumstances of operation. Fundamentally an vobject of this invention is the target to the observing and ñring point; to provide a graphic solution of this problem. Fig. 2 is a view of a- chart and associated mech More especially the invention aims to provide a anism embodying the _invention for graphically representing and solving a problem; relatively simple and easily operable chart mech anism into which the problem may be quickly and 55 Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are views showing successive 2,403,506 3 4 operating positions of the mechanism of Fig. 2. Referring particularly to Fig. 1, an aircraft or is known as sight angle (Us) and may be ex~ pressed as target I is directly approaching the observing and firing point O at a constant height (H) above the Referring particularly to Fig. 2, the vector ana horizontal O-O and at a horizontal speed of St. 5 lyzer 2 comprises a vector arm 3 and a pair of When the target I reaches point A, observers component slides 4 and 5, respectively, all super at O observe the slant range (R) and the eleva imposed on a trajectory chart 6. tion angle of the target (AI), from which the The vector arm 3 is pivoted at the point 1 and is height (H) and the horizontal range (RH) may be calculated by the equations resulting from 10 graduated along one edge in terms of slant range (R), the zero graduation being at the point 1. the right angle triangle OAA’ of H =R sin AI and The arm 3 terminates in a pointer 8 in line with RH :R cos AI, respectively. A' is the projection the edge of the arm carrying the range gradua of the point A on the horizontal O-O'. tions. The pointer 8 is read against the angular The distance AB represents the distance trav eled by the target during the preparation .period 15 elevation scale 9 to indicate the angular .position of the arm 3. A toothed sector I0 is secured to of time (X), and determines the position of the the anm 3 and the arm is thereby positioned by point B at which the target I will be at the end of gears II which are connected to a wide face the preparation period. The value of the dis gear I2. The gear I2 meshes with a narrow face tance AB is determined as the product of the preparation period (X) and the target speed (St) 20 -gear I3 mounted on a shaft I4, which is rotatably positioned by a knob I5. and may be expressed by the equation The trajectory chart'ñ includes a horizontal range (RH) scale I 6 across the bottom and a The horizontal range of target I at point B (BH3) height (H) scale I1 along the left side. These is equal to the observed horizontal range minus 25 scales represent the rectangular coordinates of the distance AB or the chart and the zero graduation of each scale is at the pivot point 1 of the vector arm 3. The spacing of the .graduations of the horizontal From the right angle triangle OBB', the elevation range scale is the same as that of the range (R) of the target when at point B (A3) will be the 30 scale on the vector arm 3. The height scale is angle Whœe tangent is the height divided by the graduated in feet to the same scale as the range horizontal range to the point B, or graduations which is in yards and therefore the height graduations are spaced at one-third the H distance apart of the graduations of the range .A3-tan 1RH3 (3) 35 scales. The range scales are numbered in thous ands of yards and the height scale in thousands of As is well known the time of flight (t) is the feet. period of time between the instant of firing of Radial lines I8 extending to the angular ele the projectile and the instant of its intercepting vation scale 9 represent polar coordinates of the the target. The travel of the target during this period of time is equal to the speed of the target 40 chart 6 and are used in locating the vector arm 3. Trajectory curves I9 represent the path of the multiplied by the time of flight or t-St, and is projectile for various gun elevations. Time of indicated on Fig. 1 by the line BC, or flight curves 20 indicate the »points the projectile Will reach along its Various trajectories in the number of seconds indicated by the time of flight This distance determines the point of intercept (t) scale 12| at the left of the chart. In Fig. 2 sev (C) and a perpendicular dropped from C de eral curves of each form are shown for purpose termines the point C’. It is obvious that OC’ of illustration but in the chart as actually used represents the horizontal range to the point of more curves of each type may be provided as intercept (RHZ) , and that desired. The elevation angle of the point of intercept (A2) is obtained from the right angle triangle OCC’ and is theV angle whose tangent is the height di vided by the horizontal range to the point of intercept (BH2) or H, A2-tan 1RH2 (6) The elevation of the gun above the line of sight to the point B, to allow for the movement of the target during the time of Hight is known as ver tical angular deflection (Ut) and may be ex pressed as The correction in elevation, known as super ele vation (e), that must be applied to compensate for the shape of the trajectory of the projectile, is known for various combinations of horizontal The horizontal range component slide 4 is pro vided vvith a stiff vwire or index 22 projecting per pendicular to the direction of movement of the slide 4 and the height component slide 5 is pro vided with a similar wire or index 23 extending perpendicular to its direction of movement. Both of these wires project over the trajectory chart B. The height component slide 5 is positioned by a knob' 24, a shaft 25 and gears 26 meshing with a rack 21 on the slide 5. >The slide ‘5 is restrained to movement parallel to the height scale by guides (not shown)`. The horizontal range component slide 4 is posi tioned by a knob 28 on shaft 29 which carries a narrow face gear 30. 'I'he narrow face gear 30 meshes with a wide face gear 3| on a shaft 32 which drives shaft 33 by gears 34. The shaft 33 is geared to rack 35 on slide 4 by gears 36. The slide 4 is restrained to movement parallel to the horizontal range scale by guides (not shown). The end of shaft 33 carries one-half of a ranges and heights and is obtained in the oper ation of this mechanism from the trajectory mounted on the shaft of a gear 38 and is pressed chart associated with the vector analyzer. The total elevation of the gun above the line of sight into contact with the first half .by a spring 33. The clutch 31 is normally held in engagement clutch 31, the other half of which is slidably ¿auf titulo' I Hi8.' @@@IGIII limiti 105 2,403,5061 5 6 by spring 39 but may be disconnected by bell crank 49 which is actuated by inward movement 'I1 of clutch 16 similarly includes a grooved collar which is engaged by a pin 92 in a lever 93. of shaft 29. The shaft 29 carries a hub having two grooves 4| and 42 which are selectively One end of the lever 93 is pivoted on a bracklet engaged by a locking pin 43 which is normally held in the groovesv by spring 44 acting against 94, secured to a part of the casing 45, and the other end is forced against the end of gear I3 by means of a spring 95 acting against a collar 96 on shaft 18. Stops 91 and 98 are provided to the wall of the casing 45 of the instrument, a section of which is shown. The pin 43 may be limit the downward movement of levers 88 and withdrawn by knob 46 when it is desired to shift 93 respectively when the gear I3 is shifted out of the shaft 29. In the outer position of shaft 29, 10 engagement with the ends of the levers. as shown, the clutch 31 is engaged. When shaft The shaft I4 carries a collar having three 29 is shifted to its inner position the locking pin grooves 99, |99 and |9| which cooperate with a 43 engages groove 42 and the bell crank 49 dis locking pin |92 to hold shaft I4 in one of three connects the clutch 31. positions of longitudinal movement. The looking The gear 38 meshes with a gear 41 on shafting 15 pin |92 is forced into the grooves by a spring |93 48 which is connected to move a time-speed chart acting against a collar |94 on pin |92 and against 49 through gears 59 and racks 5I. The chart 49 the casing 45. The pin may be withdrawn from is mounted to be moved vertically relative to a engagement with the grooves 99, |99 and |9| by reference wire 52 by guides (not shown). The means of knob' |95 to permit longitudinal shifting ends of the reference wire 52 are secured to the 20 of shaft I4. casing 45, portions only of which are shown. A In Fig. 2 the shaft I4 is shown in its innermost pair of springs 53 connect the lower edge of the position with the clutches 64 and 16 Iboth held chart 49 to the casing by pins 54 and tend to open by the levers 88 and 93 respectively. In bring the chart 49 against the fixed stops 55 Fig. 3 the shaft I4 is shown in its central position secured to the casing 45, portions of which are 25 with clutch 64 held open by lever 88 and clutch shown. 16 closed. In Fig. 4 the shaft I4 is shown in its The time-speed chart 49 includes vertical outermost position with both clutches 64 and 16 equally spaced lines l56 which represent time or closed. the abscissa as indicated by the time scale 51 Operation across the upper portion of the chart. The chart 30 When a target is observed to be approaching, 49 also has speed lines 58 so spaced that the the knobs I5 and 28 are placed in their inner ordinate or vertical movement from its zero position, required of the chart to bring the inter most position which releases the clutches 64, 16 and 31 so that the dials 61 and 19 are brought section of the speed line, representing the speed at which the target is approaching, and 35 to their zero positions by the cams 69 and 8| and the time-speed chart 49 is brought to its zero the time line 56, representing the length 0f the position by the springs 53. time of movement of the target, to the reference As soon as the position of the target | is de Wire 52 represents the distance traveled by a target at the speed and during the time repre termined in terms of elevation angle and range sented by the intersection. The speeds repre 40 or height, as for the point A of Fig. l, the vector arm 3 and the wires 22 and 23 are set by the sented by the speed lines 58 are indicated b'y the numerals along the righthand edge of the knobs I5, 28 and 24 respectively to intersect at the point on the trajectory chart corresponding chart 49. to the observed position A. The wire 23 will be The wide face gear I2 is connected to a gear 59 which turns shaft -69 in accordance with the 45 in the position shown in Fig. 2 and the wire 22 and the arm 3 will be in the position shown by angular position of the vector arm 3. Shaft 69 the dotted lines 22A and 3A respectively. A stop has two branches, 6I and 62 respectively. watch or other timing means is started at the Branch 6| of shaft 69 terminates in one part time of making the observations representing 63 of a clutch 64, the other part 65 of the clutch 64 is slidably connected to shaft 66 which carries 50 the position A. The knob 28 is now shifted to its outer posi a horizontal deñection dial 61, which is read tion which closes the clutch _31 thereby connect against an index 68. The shaft `66 carries a ing the time-speed chart >4-9 to the component centralizing cam 69 which cooperates with a slide 4 for simultaneous movement. The knob roller 19 on an arm 1| pivoted on a pin 12. The roller 19 is forced against the cam 69 by a spring 55 28 is rotated to move the chart l4'9 so'that the time line 56, representing the selected prepara 13 connected to the arm 1| and a pin 14. The tion period, and the speed line '58, representing pins 12 and 14 are secured to a part of the casing 45. the target speed, intersect under the reference wire 52. The movement of the chart 49 repre Branch 62 of shaft 69 terminates in one part 15 of a clutch 16, the other part 11 of the clutch 60 sents the movement of the target during the preparation period and the component slide 4 is 16 is slidably connected to shaft 18 which car moved to the left a corresponding amount so ries a sight angle dial 19, which is read against that the intersection of the wires 22 and 23 now an index 89. The shaft 18 carries a centralizing represent the point B of Fig’ 1. The Wire 22 is cam 8| which cooperates with a roller 82 on an arm 83 pivoted on a pin 84. The roller 82 is 65 in the position indicated by the dotted line 22B on Fig. 2. The vector arm 3 is next rotated by forced against the cam 8| by a spring 85 con knob I5 till its graduated edge passes through nected to the arm 83 and a pin 86. The pins 84 this intersection, when it is in the position indi and 86 are secured to a part of the casing 45. cated by the line 3B on Fig. 2. The angular po The part 65 of clutch 64 includes a grooved collar which is engaged by a pin 81 in a lever 70 sition of the vector arm 3 as read from the an 88. One end of the lever 88 is pivoted on a gular elevation scale 9 equals the angle A3 of bracket 89, secured to a part of the casing 45, Fig. 1 and the point at which the Wire 22, in its and the other end is forced against the end of position 22B, crosses the horizontal range scale gear I3 on shaft I4 by means of a spring 99 I6 represents the horizontal range BH3 of Fig. 1. acting against a collar 9| on shaft 66. The part 75 The knob 28 is now returned to its inner posi- ~ 2,403,506 7 8 tion which releases the clutch 31 and permits the mechanisms and the mode of operation. For ex--l time-speed chart 49 to return to its zero posi ample, a mechanical multiplier may be sub stituted for the time-speed chart. While thein tion, under the action of the springs 53. f The knob 28 is next shifted to its outer posi tion, which' reconnects the clutch 31, and the knob I5 is shifted to its intermediate position as vvention has been described as used for a target ap--. proaching at a substantially constant height it is contemplated that variations in height may be allowed for by appropriate adjustments of the height setting to agree with the actual height of the target at the successive computing points. It 10 is also obvious that a multiplier may be provided for aiding in this adjustment similar to that to provided for the horizontal range adjustment. the point B from the time of flight curves 20 of shown in Fig. 3 thereby allowing the lever 93 move down sufficiently to permit the spring 95 close the clutch 16. The sight angle dial 19 now rotatively connected to the knob I5. The operator observes the time of flight to to is I claim: 1. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun, com the trajectory chart 6 and turns knob 28 to bring the time-‘speed chart 49 to the position correspond ing to the time of flight and the target speed. 15 prising a ballistic chart having curves represent ing the trajectory and the time of flight of a projectile relative to the gun, a vector analyzer associated with the chart including a vector arm sition representing the point C of Fig. l. As the and a pair of component slides, the vector arm Wire 22 approaches the position C as shown in Fig. 2 the operator observes from the trajectory 20 having its axis of rotation located to intersect the point of the chart representing the gun and chart B the time of flight for this shifting posi each component slide having an index movable tion and adjusts the time-speed chart 49 so that the corresponding time line 56 intersects the speed over the chart, means operable to move one com ponent slide to position its index relative to the line 58 at the reference wire 52. The setting of the time-speed chart 49 as shown on Fig. 2 rep 25 chart in accordance with the height of a target, means operable to move the second component resents a target speed of two hundred miles per slide to position its index relative to the vchart in hour and a time of ten seconds. The wires 22 accordance with the horizontal range of the tar and 23 also intersect on the ten second time ~of get, means operable to angularly position the flight curve 20 of the trajectory chart 6. This As the chart 49 is moved the component slide 4 and the wire 22 move to the lefttoward the po operation has therefore determined the point C 30 vector arm relative to the chart in accordance with the angular position of the target corre ` ' sponding to the intersection of the indices of the The operator now turns the knob Il5 to bring component slides, means for determining the the graduated edge of the vector arm 3 to the product of time and target speed including a intersection of the wires 22 and 23 as indicated on Fig.'2 by the dotted line 3C. The angular 35 part movable in accordance with said product, of Fig. 1. and clutch means operable to connect the part to the means to move the second component slide, whereby operation of the means to move the 1, and the sight angle dial 1‘9 will have been second component slide will move the part and moved through the angle Ut, which equals A2 A3 as shown by Equation 7. 40 the second component slide simultaneously and in corresponding amounts. The knob I5 is now shifted to its outer position 2. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun, compris as shown in Fig. 4 thus allowing lever 88 to move ing a ballistic chart having curves representing sufficiently for the spring 90 to close the clutch the trajectory and the time of flight of a pro 64 and thereby rotatively connect the deñection jectile relative to the gun, a vector analyzer asso dial 61 to the knob I5. The clutch 16 remains closed during this shift. , ciated with the chart including a vector arm and The operator now moves the vector arm 3, by a pair ofv component slides, the vector arm having the knob I5, until its graduated edge is tangent its axis of rotation located to intersect the point to the trajectory curve I9 which passes through of the chart representing the gun and each com position of the vector arm 3 as read from the elevation scale 9 now equals the angle A2 of Fig. the point C. The vector arm `3 is now in the ~ . ponent slide having an index movable over the position shown in Fig. 2 and the sight angle dial chart, means operable to move one component slide to position` its index relative to the chart in accordance with the'height of a target, means operable to move the second component slide 19 has been moved an amount representing the super-elevation (e). The total movement of the dial 19 therefore indicates the sight angle (Us) or Ut-l-e as seen from Equation 8. ' , to position its index relative to the chart in ac The' deflection dial 61 is moved by this last cordance with the horizontal range of the target, adjustment of the vector arm 3 an amount pro means operable to angularly position the vector portional to the super-elevation (e) which, as has been pointed out, is proportional to the hori zontal deflection (Ds). , The readings of sight angle and deflection in arm relative to the chart in accordance with the dicated by the dials 19 and 61 are set on the sights of the gun so that as the sights are main tained on the target the gun is in the proper po' sition for firing at the end of the preparation period, that is, when the target is at the point B. The end of the preparation period may be determined from the stop-watch which was start ed when the observations of target position were angular position of the target corresponding to the intersection of the indices of the component s1ides,-a time-distance chart having lines repre senting target speeds so spaced relative to rec tangular coordinates that the abscissa and ordi nate of a point represent time and distance , traveled by the target at its respective speed, a part movable to position representing ordinate co, made. Fuse setting values may be obtained for the point C from the time of flight curves 20 of the trajectory chart 6 or by other well known means. It is obvious that various changes may be made by those skilled in the art in the selection of 75 corresponding to selected target speed and time values, and clutch means operable to connect the part to the means to move the second component slide, whereby operation of the means to move the second component slide will move the part and the second component slide simultaneously and in corresponding amounts. ._ GEORGE A. CROWTHER.