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Патент USA US2403506

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2940395063
' July 9, 1946.l
No
X
v2,403,506
G. A. cRowTHER
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER
_ Fi_1ed April 2, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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IN VENTOR
George A . Crowîlwr
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ATTORNEY
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RUJIÖ i EDG:
July 9, 1946-
G. A. cRowTHr-:R
2,403,506
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER
'Filed April 2, 1941
2 sheets-sheet 2
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INVENTORl
GeoïyeA . Crowther
BY
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Patented July 9, 1.946
2,403,506
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,403 ,50.6
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER
George A. Crowther, Manhasset, N. Y., assigner
to Ford Instrument Company, Inc., Long Island
City, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application April 2, 1941, Serial No. 386,451
2 Claims. (Cl. 2235-615)
l
2
This invention relates to gun-lire control com
puters and particularly to that type of computers
used to control the ñring of guns against air
progressively introduced to afford a graphic rep
resentation thereof, and which will automatically
actuate visual indicators of the needed quan
craft.
tities for the proper setting of a gun under the
The problem of the control of gun-lire against
aircraft may be divided into two classes; (l)
represented conditions. Other objects and ad
vantagesof the invention will appear from. the
where the aircraft or target is approaching di
particular description hereinafter.
rectly towards its objective or the point of obser
For the attainment of these objects the inven
vation and the firing gun, and (2) where the
tion comprehends a fixed chart‘on which are»
target is passing at a distance to one side or 10 delineated polar and rectangular coordinates and
the other of the observing and firing point. The
in relation to which move a vector arm pivoted
at the polar point and component slides adjust
invention herein disclosed is applied to the ñrst
mentioned class. It will of course be understood
able parallel to the rectangular‘coordinates which`
that some of the principles thereof are appli
intersect at the polar point. The polar coordi
cable to the solution of problems of the second 15 nates represent the direct or slant range and
mentioned class.
the elevation angle of an observed target, and
InA considering the solution of the problem of
the rectangular coordinates represent the vector
anti-aircraft ñre control to which this inven
components of height and horizontal range. It
tion is applied as one embodiment thereof, it is
is obvious that with any two of these values
assumed that the target is directly approaching 20 given the other two will automatically develop
its objective, which is the point of observation
from the setting. lThe chart also has delineated
and the point of firing of the gun, at a substan
thereon trajectory and time of flight curves for
tially constant height above the horizontal plane
reasons which will hereinafter appear.
of the objective, such as would be done in hori
Preferably in accordance with the invention
zontal-bombing of a selected point. Upon the 25 the movable elements are settable manually in
picking up of the target by observers at the
accordance with scale indications, and to facili
objective, the slant range of the target and its
tate the location of resultant points on the chart
elevation above the horizontal, expressed in angu
the component slidesv will preferably carry cross
wires. Computing means may be selectively as
lar units, are observed by instruments well known
in the art and from the observed data the height 30 sociated with the horizontal component slide to
expedite the- introduction of future positions of
of the target and the horizontal range may be
determined, or if the height of the target is
an observed target, the association preferably
being such that the act of computation will at
known or obtained by observations and the eleva
tion is observed, the slant range and the horizon
the same time reset the slide in accordance with A
the computation.
tal range may be determined.
From experimental data obtained during tar
The invention also comprehends means for
translating'the angular movement of the vector
get practices, the most effective ranges of the
guns .are known as well as the time in seconds
arm during a setting to introduce a future or
predicted position of the target into terms of gun
required to set and adjust the sights and the
fuses‘of the projectiles and to load and fire the 40 setting relative to the line of sight from the
projectiles. In this specification, the time re
gun to the target, and for visually indicating
quired to set the observed values into the mecha
these quantities.
i
Mechanisms for accomplishing the objects of
nisms, for the mechanisms to calculate the ad
vance range and the corresponding values of de
the invention and their operation will be under
stood by considering the following description and
flection and sight angle, and the time required
accompanying drawings> in which:
to adjust the sight and gun and load and fire
the gun is defined as the “preparation period of
Fig. 1 is an elevation side view of an aircraft
target directly approaching an observing and
timeij This preparation period is arbitrarily se
ñring point at a constant height and showing
lected and is based upon experience under vari
50 the consecutive angular and linear relations of
ous circumstances of operation.
Fundamentally an vobject of this invention is
the target to the observing and ñring point;
to provide a graphic solution of this problem.
Fig. 2 is a view of a- chart and associated mech
More especially the invention aims to provide a
anism embodying the _invention for graphically
representing and solving a problem;
relatively simple and easily operable chart mech
anism into which the problem may be quickly and 55 Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are views showing successive
2,403,506
3
4
operating positions of the mechanism of Fig. 2.
Referring particularly to Fig. 1, an aircraft or
is known as sight angle (Us) and may be ex~
pressed as
target I is directly approaching the observing and
firing point O at a constant height (H) above the
Referring particularly to Fig. 2, the vector ana
horizontal O-O and at a horizontal speed of St. 5
lyzer 2 comprises a vector arm 3 and a pair of
When the target I reaches point A, observers
component slides 4 and 5, respectively, all super
at O observe the slant range (R) and the eleva
imposed on a trajectory chart 6.
tion angle of the target (AI), from which the
The vector arm 3 is pivoted at the point 1 and is
height (H) and the horizontal range (RH) may
be calculated by the equations resulting from 10 graduated along one edge in terms of slant range
(R), the zero graduation being at the point 1.
the right angle triangle OAA’ of H =R sin AI and
The arm 3 terminates in a pointer 8 in line with
RH :R cos AI, respectively. A' is the projection
the edge of the arm carrying the range gradua
of the point A on the horizontal O-O'.
tions. The pointer 8 is read against the angular
The distance AB represents the distance trav
eled by the target during the preparation .period 15 elevation scale 9 to indicate the angular .position
of the arm 3. A toothed sector I0 is secured to
of time (X), and determines the position of the
the anm 3 and the arm is thereby positioned by
point B at which the target I will be at the end of
gears II which are connected to a wide face
the preparation period. The value of the dis
gear I2. The gear I2 meshes with a narrow face
tance AB is determined as the product of the
preparation period (X) and the target speed (St) 20 -gear I3 mounted on a shaft I4, which is rotatably
positioned by a knob I5.
and may be expressed by the equation
The trajectory chart'ñ includes a horizontal
range (RH) scale I 6 across the bottom and a
The horizontal range of target I at point B (BH3)
height (H) scale I1 along the left side. These
is equal to the observed horizontal range minus 25 scales represent the rectangular coordinates of
the distance AB or
the chart and the zero graduation of each scale
is at the pivot point 1 of the vector arm 3. The
spacing of the .graduations of the horizontal
From the right angle triangle OBB', the elevation
range scale is the same as that of the range (R)
of the target when at point B (A3) will be the 30 scale on the vector arm 3. The height scale is
angle Whœe tangent is the height divided by the
graduated in feet to the same scale as the range
horizontal range to the point B, or
graduations which is in yards and therefore the
height graduations are spaced at one-third the
H
distance apart of the graduations of the range
.A3-tan 1RH3
(3)
35 scales. The range scales are numbered in thous
ands of yards and the height scale in thousands of
As is well known the time of flight (t) is the
feet.
period of time between the instant of firing of
Radial lines I8 extending to the angular ele
the projectile and the instant of its intercepting
vation scale 9 represent polar coordinates of the
the target. The travel of the target during this
period of time is equal to the speed of the target 40 chart 6 and are used in locating the vector arm 3.
Trajectory curves I9 represent the path of the
multiplied by the time of flight or t-St, and is
projectile for various gun elevations. Time of
indicated on Fig. 1 by the line BC, or
flight curves 20 indicate the »points the projectile
Will reach along its Various trajectories in the
number of seconds indicated by the time of flight
This distance determines the point of intercept
(t) scale 12| at the left of the chart. In Fig. 2 sev
(C) and a perpendicular dropped from C de
eral curves of each form are shown for purpose
termines the point C’. It is obvious that OC’
of illustration but in the chart as actually used
represents the horizontal range to the point of
more curves of each type may be provided as
intercept (RHZ) , and that
desired.
The elevation angle of the point of intercept (A2)
is obtained from the right angle triangle OCC’
and is theV angle whose tangent is the height di
vided by the horizontal range to the point of
intercept (BH2) or
H,
A2-tan 1RH2
(6)
The elevation of the gun above the line of sight
to the point B, to allow for the movement of the
target during the time of Hight is known as ver
tical angular deflection (Ut) and may be ex
pressed as
The correction in elevation, known as super ele
vation (e), that must be applied to compensate
for the shape of the trajectory of the projectile, is
known for various combinations of horizontal
The horizontal range component slide 4 is pro
vided vvith a stiff vwire or index 22 projecting per
pendicular to the direction of movement of the
slide 4 and the height component slide 5 is pro
vided with a similar wire or index 23 extending
perpendicular to its direction of movement. Both
of these wires project over the trajectory chart B.
The height component slide 5 is positioned by
a knob' 24, a shaft 25 and gears 26 meshing with
a rack 21 on the slide 5. >The slide ‘5 is restrained
to movement parallel to the height scale by
guides (not shown)`.
The horizontal range component slide 4 is posi
tioned by a knob 28 on shaft 29 which carries a
narrow face gear 30. 'I'he narrow face gear 30
meshes with a wide face gear 3| on a shaft 32
which drives shaft 33 by gears 34. The shaft 33
is geared to rack 35 on slide 4 by gears 36. The
slide 4 is restrained to movement parallel to the
horizontal range scale by guides (not shown).
The end of shaft 33 carries one-half of a
ranges and heights and is obtained in the oper
ation of this mechanism from the trajectory
mounted on the shaft of a gear 38 and is pressed
chart associated with the vector analyzer. The
total elevation of the gun above the line of sight
into contact with the first half .by a spring 33.
The clutch 31 is normally held in engagement
clutch 31, the other half of which is slidably
¿auf titulo' I Hi8.'
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105
2,403,5061
5
6
by spring 39 but may be disconnected by bell
crank 49 which is actuated by inward movement
'I1 of clutch 16 similarly includes a grooved
collar which is engaged by a pin 92 in a lever 93.
of shaft 29. The shaft 29 carries a hub having
two grooves 4| and 42 which are selectively
One end of the lever 93 is pivoted on a bracklet
engaged by a locking pin 43 which is normally
held in the groovesv by spring 44 acting against
94, secured to a part of the casing 45, and the
other end is forced against the end of gear I3 by
means of a spring 95 acting against a collar 96
on shaft 18. Stops 91 and 98 are provided to
the wall of the casing 45 of the instrument, a
section of which is shown. The pin 43 may be
limit the downward movement of levers 88 and
withdrawn by knob 46 when it is desired to shift
93 respectively when the gear I3 is shifted out of
the shaft 29. In the outer position of shaft 29, 10 engagement with the ends of the levers.
as shown, the clutch 31 is engaged. When shaft
The shaft I4 carries a collar having three
29 is shifted to its inner position the locking pin
grooves 99, |99 and |9| which cooperate with a
43 engages groove 42 and the bell crank 49 dis
locking pin |92 to hold shaft I4 in one of three
connects the clutch 31.
positions of longitudinal movement. The looking
The gear 38 meshes with a gear 41 on shafting 15 pin |92 is forced into the grooves by a spring |93
48 which is connected to move a time-speed chart
acting against a collar |94 on pin |92 and against
49 through gears 59 and racks 5I. The chart 49
the casing 45. The pin may be withdrawn from
is mounted to be moved vertically relative to a
engagement with the grooves 99, |99 and |9| by
reference wire 52 by guides (not shown). The
means of knob' |95 to permit longitudinal shifting
ends of the reference wire 52 are secured to the 20 of shaft I4.
casing 45, portions only of which are shown. A
In Fig. 2 the shaft I4 is shown in its innermost
pair of springs 53 connect the lower edge of the
position with the clutches 64 and 16 Iboth held
chart 49 to the casing by pins 54 and tend to
open by the levers 88 and 93 respectively. In
bring the chart 49 against the fixed stops 55
Fig. 3 the shaft I4 is shown in its central position
secured to the casing 45, portions of which are 25 with clutch 64 held open by lever 88 and clutch
shown.
16 closed. In Fig. 4 the shaft I4 is shown in its
The time-speed chart 49 includes vertical
outermost position with both clutches 64 and 16
equally spaced lines l56 which represent time or
closed.
the abscissa as indicated by the time scale 51
Operation
across the upper portion of the chart. The chart 30
When a target is observed to be approaching,
49 also has speed lines 58 so spaced that the
the knobs I5 and 28 are placed in their inner
ordinate or vertical movement from its zero
position, required of the chart to bring the inter
most position which releases the clutches 64, 16
and 31 so that the dials 61 and 19 are brought
section of the speed line, representing the
speed at which the target is approaching, and 35 to their zero positions by the cams 69 and 8| and
the time-speed chart 49 is brought to its zero
the time line 56, representing the length 0f the
position by the springs 53.
time of movement of the target, to the reference
As soon as the position of the target | is de
Wire 52 represents the distance traveled by a
target at the speed and during the time repre
termined in terms of elevation angle and range
sented by the intersection. The speeds repre 40 or height, as for the point A of Fig. l, the vector
arm 3 and the wires 22 and 23 are set by the
sented by the speed lines 58 are indicated b'y the
numerals along the righthand edge of the
knobs I5, 28 and 24 respectively to intersect at
the point on the trajectory chart corresponding
chart 49.
to the observed position A. The wire 23 will be
The wide face gear I2 is connected to a gear 59
which turns shaft -69 in accordance with the 45 in the position shown in Fig. 2 and the wire 22
and the arm 3 will be in the position shown by
angular position of the vector arm 3. Shaft 69
the dotted lines 22A and 3A respectively. A stop
has two branches, 6I and 62 respectively.
watch or other timing means is started at the
Branch 6| of shaft 69 terminates in one part
time of making the observations representing
63 of a clutch 64, the other part 65 of the clutch
64 is slidably connected to shaft 66 which carries 50 the position A.
The knob 28 is now shifted to its outer posi
a horizontal deñection dial 61, which is read
tion which closes the clutch _31 thereby connect
against an index 68. The shaft `66 carries a
ing the time-speed chart >4-9 to the component
centralizing cam 69 which cooperates with a
slide 4 for simultaneous movement. The knob
roller 19 on an arm 1| pivoted on a pin 12. The
roller 19 is forced against the cam 69 by a spring 55 28 is rotated to move the chart l4'9 so'that the
time line 56, representing the selected prepara
13 connected to the arm 1| and a pin 14. The
tion period, and the speed line '58, representing
pins 12 and 14 are secured to a part of the
casing 45.
the target speed, intersect under the reference
wire 52. The movement of the chart 49 repre
Branch 62 of shaft 69 terminates in one part
15 of a clutch 16, the other part 11 of the clutch 60 sents the movement of the target during the
preparation period and the component slide 4 is
16 is slidably connected to shaft 18 which car
moved to the left a corresponding amount so
ries a sight angle dial 19, which is read against
that the intersection of the wires 22 and 23 now
an index 89. The shaft 18 carries a centralizing
represent the point B of Fig’ 1. The Wire 22 is
cam 8| which cooperates with a roller 82 on an
arm 83 pivoted on a pin 84. The roller 82 is 65 in the position indicated by the dotted line 22B
on Fig. 2. The vector arm 3 is next rotated by
forced against the cam 8| by a spring 85 con
knob I5 till its graduated edge passes through
nected to the arm 83 and a pin 86. The pins 84
this intersection, when it is in the position indi
and 86 are secured to a part of the casing 45.
cated by the line 3B on Fig. 2. The angular po
The part 65 of clutch 64 includes a grooved
collar which is engaged by a pin 81 in a lever 70 sition of the vector arm 3 as read from the an
88. One end of the lever 88 is pivoted on a
gular elevation scale 9 equals the angle A3 of
bracket 89, secured to a part of the casing 45,
Fig. 1 and the point at which the Wire 22, in its
and the other end is forced against the end of
position 22B, crosses the horizontal range scale
gear I3 on shaft I4 by means of a spring 99
I6 represents the horizontal range BH3 of Fig. 1.
acting against a collar 9| on shaft 66. The part 75 The knob 28 is now returned to its inner posi- ~
2,403,506
7
8
tion which releases the clutch 31 and permits the
mechanisms and the mode of operation. For ex--l
time-speed chart 49 to return to its zero posi
ample, a mechanical multiplier may be sub
stituted for the time-speed chart. While thein
tion, under the action of the springs 53.
f
The knob 28 is next shifted to its outer posi
tion, which' reconnects the clutch 31, and the
knob I5 is shifted to its intermediate position as
vvention has been described as used for a target ap--.
proaching at a substantially constant height it is
contemplated that variations in height may be
allowed for by appropriate adjustments of the
height setting to agree with the actual height of
the target at the successive computing points. It
10 is also obvious that a multiplier may be provided
for aiding in this adjustment similar to that
to
provided for the horizontal range adjustment.
the point B from the time of flight curves 20 of
shown in Fig. 3 thereby allowing the lever 93
move down sufficiently to permit the spring 95
close the clutch 16. The sight angle dial 19
now rotatively connected to the knob I5.
The operator observes the time of flight
to
to
is
I claim:
1. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun, com
the trajectory chart 6 and turns knob 28 to bring
the time-‘speed chart 49 to the position correspond
ing to the time of flight and the target speed. 15 prising a ballistic chart having curves represent
ing the trajectory and the time of flight of a
projectile relative to the gun, a vector analyzer
associated with the chart including a vector arm
sition representing the point C of Fig. l. As the
and a pair of component slides, the vector arm
Wire 22 approaches the position C as shown in
Fig. 2 the operator observes from the trajectory 20 having its axis of rotation located to intersect
the point of the chart representing the gun and
chart B the time of flight for this shifting posi
each component slide having an index movable
tion and adjusts the time-speed chart 49 so that
the corresponding time line 56 intersects the speed
over the chart, means operable to move one com
ponent slide to position its index relative to the
line 58 at the reference wire 52. The setting of
the time-speed chart 49 as shown on Fig. 2 rep 25 chart in accordance with the height of a target,
means operable to move the second component
resents a target speed of two hundred miles per
slide to position its index relative to the vchart in
hour and a time of ten seconds. The wires 22
accordance with the horizontal range of the tar
and 23 also intersect on the ten second time ~of
get, means operable to angularly position the
flight curve 20 of the trajectory chart 6. This
As the chart 49 is moved the component slide 4
and the wire 22 move to the lefttoward the po
operation has therefore determined the point C 30 vector arm relative to the chart in accordance
with the angular position of the target corre
`
'
sponding to the intersection of the indices of the
The operator now turns the knob Il5 to bring
component slides, means for determining the
the graduated edge of the vector arm 3 to the
product of time and target speed including a
intersection of the wires 22 and 23 as indicated
on Fig.'2 by the dotted line 3C. The angular 35 part movable in accordance with said product,
of Fig. 1.
and clutch means operable to connect the part
to the means to move the second component
slide, whereby operation of the means to move the
1, and the sight angle dial 1‘9 will have been
second component slide will move the part and
moved through the angle Ut, which equals A2
A3 as shown by Equation 7.
40 the second component slide simultaneously and in
corresponding amounts.
The knob I5 is now shifted to its outer position
2. Apparatus for use in aiming a gun, compris
as shown in Fig. 4 thus allowing lever 88 to move
ing a ballistic chart having curves representing
sufficiently for the spring 90 to close the clutch
the trajectory and the time of flight of a pro
64 and thereby rotatively connect the deñection
jectile relative to the gun, a vector analyzer asso
dial 61 to the knob I5. The clutch 16 remains
closed during this shift.
,
ciated with the chart including a vector arm and
The operator now moves the vector arm 3, by
a pair ofv component slides, the vector arm having
the knob I5, until its graduated edge is tangent
its axis of rotation located to intersect the point
to the trajectory curve I9 which passes through
of the chart representing the gun and each com
position of the vector arm 3 as read from the
elevation scale 9 now equals the angle A2 of Fig.
the point C.
The vector arm `3 is now in the ~ . ponent slide having an index movable over the
position shown in Fig. 2 and the sight angle dial
chart, means operable to move one component
slide to position` its index relative to the chart in
accordance with the'height of a target, means
operable to move the second component slide
19 has been moved an amount representing the
super-elevation (e). The total movement of the
dial 19 therefore indicates the sight angle (Us)
or Ut-l-e as seen from Equation 8.
' , to position its index relative to the chart in ac
The' deflection dial 61 is moved by this last
cordance with the horizontal range of the target,
adjustment of the vector arm 3 an amount pro
means operable to angularly position the vector
portional to the super-elevation (e) which, as
has been pointed out, is proportional to the hori
zontal deflection (Ds).
,
The readings of sight angle and deflection in
arm relative to the chart in accordance with the
dicated by the dials 19 and 61 are set on the
sights of the gun so that as the sights are main
tained on the target the gun is in the proper po'
sition for firing at the end of the preparation
period, that is, when the target is at the point
B. The end of the preparation period may be
determined from the stop-watch which was start
ed when the observations of target position were
angular position of the target corresponding to
the intersection of the indices of the component
s1ides,-a time-distance chart having lines repre
senting target speeds so spaced relative to rec
tangular coordinates that the abscissa and ordi
nate of a point represent time and distance
, traveled by the target at its respective speed, a
part movable to position representing ordinate
co,
made.
Fuse setting values may be obtained for the
point C from the time of flight curves 20 of the
trajectory chart 6 or by other well known means.
It is obvious that various changes may be made
by those skilled in the art in the selection of 75
corresponding to selected target speed and time
values, and clutch means operable to connect the
part to the means to move the second component
slide, whereby operation of the means to move the
second component slide will move the part and the
second component slide simultaneously and in
corresponding amounts.
._
GEORGE A. CROWTHER.
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