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Патент USA US2403519

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July 9, 1946.
Filed Aug. 24, 1939
5 Sheets-Sheet l` Y.
July 9, 41946. `
2,403,519 _
24, 1939*
S'Sheets-Sheet 2'
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l Patented July 95 l19.48
Duncan Il.
Ltion o! Michigan
application sin.: 24, insaserniiÍ-Nc. '231.6301 .y
7) ,
« 'l
This, invention relates to
“teel"'whlch¿ corresponds to'fthel
power transmissions. `
particularly to those of the type comprising'two ' _
kposedony the2 driving apparatus `lati lIllltimcs
`or more ñuid pressure energytranslating devices » .
' Further objects and advantages‘ofîthe‘p
_ ‘_ _
invention will be apparentfrom the followingde
scription, reference being had ‘to the accompany
one of which may function as a pump and another ’
The invention is more particularlyconcerned f
with a power transmission system for driving a
' `load device separately or 'simultaneously at vany
ing drawings wherein j_a preferred-form of ‘
presentv linvention is 'clearly `Vshown.
desiredî'ra'te in each of_ two difierent'plane'srof
movement. A systemv oi this character finds par
j" Figure l is a longitudinal cross sectionîo econ#
trol valve incorporating a -preierre
crm ot the
ticular usefulness in operatinì'îsuch devices as a
gun turret wherein the gun mount may. be pointed
in any direction by the separate or simultaneous'
2 in
' the left-han
actuationoi’ the training and ’elevating portions
lthe view“ being taken online 2a-,-:-2 Aoil‘i
while the right-hand portionis; taken-_
'of the mount.
' "
The operation oi’ turrets and similar devices by
lhydraulic power transmission' means has> long
2b-2b ofiFigure 3.,r
_ __ '
3_is across section.~ Hlineß-l
_been customary, the usual vcontrol system being
one operating von the follow-up principle where
’ Figure 41s a cross section outline
by separate handwheels-for the elevatingvmotion' 20 “ré 2f- ` '
and the training motion -may be selectiveiy’oper
ate'din 4either directlon,_and through the medium
Fih .
~ Figure 5 is a fragmentary transverses
an aircraft fuselage incorporating »a powe
’of separateV follow-upcontrol mechanismsfthe
missionsystemconstructed in
y' hydraulic transmission systems are caused to op
Vthepresent invention.
_ -`
cord ce with
_y’ erate ina manner to «make the gunr mount follow 25 ` Figuren is a longitudinal >sectionfoi,-theîstrlicf
\ the movements imparted to each 'handwheelt
.ture illustrated in FigureV 5` showing_.¿_dia1gram7
Systems o! this character have been widely used
>matically also the power 'transmissivzprrrcircuit.y
‘ on shipboard mounts and have beenffouudlad
' i 'mirably suited for 'the purpose. ’ Various at#-
' _
-' v>Flirurc 'I'isîa cross section onlinelf-'I otfFig'
tempts have heretofore' been made vto apply'sim
.ilar transmission vsystexnsto gun mounts aboard
_ aircraft which, due to the more stringent re
quirements of aircraft service.> have heretofore '
beam I2 » on ' which is ypivotallylfmounted -at i4 a
Ibeen not entirely successful. Due to the very
rotatable turret structure generallyde'signated‘
l , great speed >at which aircraft travel inthe pres-` 35
ent state ofthe art the'ïrequiredspeeds of tur
ret operation are correspondinglyhigher, and in
l addition,` ' the f light*I weight 'construction neces-v '
sary for aircraft has militated against the suc
_ cessful use of follow-up control systems for this
It is' an- object of the present invention to pro
A circular
il secured
to _the'cross
loi' thefturret structureëlß »mayïroll,„ '
The turret structuremay comprise four'v or _more
radially extending arms “secured to a hubmem-j
_ beruf“, two ofthe arms as shown in lFlgurejô l
carrying uprightl columns {28 ï'. having « -pivo
mountings 30 positioned. at' the.,uppe‘rfeni‘lv ther
ïot. Secured tothetopofthecolumns 2l and sup
` therefore particularly adapted for operating 'a
'by' light uprightsclînV on the. vozathenitwo
load device in two different planes of movement; ported
radialarms 24 is a ring“ on which’is secured a
which is simple and oi' light construction in which
transparent dome 3l of spherical contour‘fhaving1j~
control oi' the load device .is provided without -the ,
use _of follow-up mechanism while permitting ‘ a slot Il therein through kwhich »amay be
substantially equal accuracy oi controll at high 60 The pivotal- mountin'gs» 10» support, an f_innerf
-vide a power transmission system 4and control
speed with less effort -byean opérator.
n '
_ Another object is to’prov'ide in a transmission
cage Il
to which
Il aresemicircular
secured. Aringmember
at _ - f Y.
system of this character a control system' in which
protection oi- the drive apparatusqis ail'orded by
Il is secured to’the'upper’cndsfoi the semicir- ~ j imparting to the control-operating' handle a 65 cular-_beams thus prov/lidia:> aY cage-_which
» '
ì "
' to a hollow end cap ||6 having a pipe connection
roughly hemispherical in shape and diametrically
at ||8. Journalled on the trunnion» |09 by anti
Afriction bearings |20 is a hub |22 secured to the
semicircuiar beam 42. Rigidly secured to trun
nion |08 at ,the left-hand side of the hub |22 is
supported on the pivotal mountings 80. The cage
40 may be provided with a gunner's seat 52 and a
gun 54 supported by an .arch member 56 and a
forwardly extending strut 58. It will be seen
is the wormgear 66.
‘that the gun and gunner may be trained in azi
muth by rotation of the entire turret structure
nion '|08 and the tube I I4 and contain pipe con
I8 about the pivotal axis I 4 and may be separately
-nections |28 and..|30. The construction at the
pivotal mounting |4 may be similar to that de
= scribed except 4that the worm wheel 60 is shown
as mounted between the Stationary hub on beam
the gun in any direction within a spherical angle .
‘_»I2’and the rotatable hub on the turret I8.
The mechanism thus far de‘
Referring now to Figures 1 through 4, the con
struction of the `dual control valve 92 is there
illustrated. `The valve comprises .a main“ body
the typefof load device
.scribed is illustrative ofsystem
of the present in.
' which .the transmission
ventionis particularly
adapted to operate and A
member |32 having two longitudinal bores |34
and |36 therein each of which is> provided with a
siidable spool |98 and |40 respectively. The bores
per se i’ormsno~ part of the present invention.
Suitable packed swivel
>heads |24 and v|26 close the ends of the trun
or'simultaneously moved in elevation about the
Vaxis of the pivotal mountings 80 ‘by operation of
the pivoted cage >40 thus providing for aiming
nof 180 degrees.
2,403,519 '
f- ’ ‘For thel purpose of training. the' turret struc;
60 may be stationarily
` turey |,6‘,"a_worm wheel
and _spools may be identical so that only one of
mounted on the ~fixed frame structure at the piv-v 20
them need be described. Thus, eachbore is pro
vided vwith a central pressure portV |42, with mo
o‘tal .a'xis’l4, and-a rotary ñuid motor 6_2 ¿of con-l
f ventional type. may be >mounted -on the turret
'structure ‘|6‘for driving a Worm 64 meshing with
the `worm wheel 60. A suitable gear casing, not
shown”,` may befprovided for enclosing theworm
gearing 60e-64.
tor ports |44 and |46 and with tank ports |48 and
|50. The spool is provided with three lands |52,
25 |54 and |56 normally‘blocking thepressure and
.tankports .from communication with the cylin
dery ports. Suitable tapered grooves |58 are pro
vided in the` lands facing inthe direction _of the
; For the purpose of rotating the cage 40 inele
vationa similar worm wheel 66 may be‘rigidly
motor` ports >|44. and.t |46. and are preferably so ` -
secured ~to the stationary trunnionfat'the pivotal '
as _to provide agradual opening to flow
a- fluidmotor 68.7being mounted on 30 graduated
in substantially direotìproportion to -the degree
the cage 4_0vfor driving a worm 10 meshing with
of'movernent of .the spool away. from neutral
"fthe ‘worm’wheel 66,..a suitable». gear casing, not
may be
fshown, being` also Vprovided for` these gears..
_ position illustratedt lThelvalve.,spool
‘biased to neutral position by a centering spring
; vFor ‘theV purpose .of driving the fluid motor 62
|60 together with suitable abutment washers |62
»and l“68- ag' suitable Asource of- pressure fluid „illus 35 and
|64 cooperating with shouldersl|66 and |68
, _trated in Figure 6 as comprising a reservoir 12,
„with the body, and shoulders` |10 and
"apurnp-H, .an'accumulator 16, and an unload
`|12 associated _with the spool. ~The centering
' .ing `valve 18 may be provided at a suitable posi#
-means may be >enclosed by an end cap |14 which
tionï in the ¿main .portion of the aircraft. i .The
details' of the pressure source forming no part 40 .also serves to close fthe left~hand ends of the
‘ ‘ mounting' 30,
"of >`the »present invention and being well known v
I ¿in theart.)further> description thereof will be
dispensedY with, ¿it beingunderstood that pres
sure iluid isfsupplied through av delivery line 80,
valve bores.`
An angular passage I18‘cor`nmunic`a'tes `between
Uthe left-hand end space
vof the valvei bore and
v an adjustable restriçtor |18 providing a restricted _
the Íspent 'fluid being returned vto the reservoir`- 45 path for now between the end chamber and the
tank port |50. vAt theright-hand end of the valve
§12 through areturn line 82.`
bore'an angular passage |80 connects to a similar
The lines 80 >and 82 extend through thev pivotal
mounting |4, suitable swivel .connections` being - adiustabierestrictos’ lez commumcanngwim the `
tankport |48. .`
provided at 84 and `86 ,to permit of necessary
rotary movement and extend. through the pivotal 60 The right-hand Aend of_` the spool is provided
with a stem |84 having a ballend .|88 and pro
mountings 30wheresimilar Swivel, connections
jects through a packing „|89 provided in an end
88 and190may be provided‘for taking care ofthe
plate |90 secured to the right-hand faceof the
rotary movementA ofy cage 4_0 relative to turretV
member |32. The end plate |90 is provided
‘ |8.3„Within the cage
tend ’to the pressure and tank portsof a duplex 55 with. a recess |92~positioned to one sideof thel
control valve. generally l designated as '92 4which
' is' mounted in the cage 40 somewhat forward of
the center thereof and has- a rearwardly project
' ing " control lever- 94
positioned for convenient
' actuation by an .operator positioned in the gun
ner’sseat 52. Fromrthe control valve 92 a pair
of conduits 95 and 98 extend to the fluid motor
plane joining the axes of the two valve bores |34
and |88 and equidistant therefrom. A ball socket
positioned in the recess |92 and
`together with a second socket member |96 forms
60 a ball socket for the reception of a ball '|98 inte
grally mounted on‘the inner end of the control
handle 94. The socket members |94 and |96 are
retained in position by an end plateV 200 having
. member |94 is
88. A second-pair of conduits 98 `and |00 extend
a recess 202 in alignment with the recess |92 and
to swivel connections |02 andv I|l4l at the right
) hand pivotal mounting 30 and extend outside the 65 secured in abutment with the plate |96. Suitable
studs 204 secure the plates |90 and 200 to the left»
turret structure I5 downwardly and> inwardly to
. hand face of the body |32.
i the iluid motor62. . g'
, The vconstruction of the swivel connections at
secured in` tnepalilss at right amines to each
30 is illustrated- in Figure 7 from which it will be
Y seen that the vupright 28 carries _a hub |06 to
other and at right angles to the handle 94 are a
‘,ï which Ais rigidly; secureda tubulantrunnion. `| 08v
._u.eri`ds..2|_0.v The glatter' are connected to the ball
»havingfan end caps-1| 0
“to andy provided vwith a ',_conduiti connection`> I I2.
l - ‘Concentricî .with-r the; trunnion I 0 8 is ,an internal
" tube "I I4,=the right-hand. end; of whichlîis _secured
pair of operating arms_,206jand 208>having"`bal1
nds' .lesion ‘váiyejsterwrlsï ist by' split çoupnng
forming aflinkV between the lballs
is universally pivoted at the ball |98 for a lim- -
ited angular movement _in any direction _away
,. '
similarly the cage _49 may be rotated about»
the trunnionsßû by upward or-downward move»- '~
-ment of the lever l94 in Figure 5, the upward
from the neutral position illustrated.
, Referring to Figure 3, if the lever 94 be rocked
movement causing'clockwise rot'ationfin Figureß
inthe plane which includes >the axis of the left
and the downward movement causing `counter'
hand valve member and the ball |98, ‘it‘will be
seen that the left-hand valve member only'will
‘ clockwise rotation. Simultaneous movement of
both the turret about its pivotand thecage about \
’ be operated and. may be shifted to the left in Fig
its vpivot may 'be'obtalnedxin vvarying degrees
ure 2 by moving the lever downwardly and to the 1 «by appropriate shifting» 'of the control handle.“
left. or to the right in `Figure 2. by _moving the 10 in the direction ofthe desired resultant move- ‘
lever upwardly and to the right. Conversely, the _
ment. It» will thus 'be kseen that -the action of
right-hand valve stem may be shifted’independ'
the-'control lever>`94 is such as yto produce a
ently of the left-'hand valve stem lby rocking of
rmotion of the gun kandgunner’s seat which ex#
, the handle 94 in a plane including the ball |99
' actly corresponds'both-in direction and in speed
and the axis of the right-hand valve.l By rock 15 with the direction f and _amount of shifting of
ing of the handle 94 in a vertical plane in Fig- . the handle 94.» . y l
ure 3, both valves may be actuatedequally and
During‘all suchvmovements ofthe handle . 8_4 ‘
simultaneously in the same 'directions._ By rock
» the dash'pots formedrby the end chambers >of‘bores
ing the handle in a horizontal plane in Figure 3 , - |94 and |86'and by the restrlctors |18 and |82
both may be actuated equally and simultaneously 20 «act to controlthe speed at whichV the handle~
in opposite directions. Byrocking in 'any inter
'94 maybe shifted. Thusythe more rapidly han-`
, mediate plane, both valves may be actuated si
_ multaneously but to different degrees.
The valve‘ body |32 is provided with pipe con
>dle 94 is shifted,~the greater lsthe resistance
vimparted to movement thereof by the oil being
forced through'the restrlctors |18 and ~|82.,;,In
nections `2|4 and 2| 6 communicating Awith the 25_ this way the “feel"~ofj'the handle 841s made
motor ports |44 and |46. _A'transverse bore 2|8
more or less stiff _inproportion -to the amount
_,(see Figures 2 and 4) connects a pressure line V ‘of acceleration the operatorl tries to lgive to the-
pipe connection‘229 with the pressure port |42`in
both valve bores. Similar transverse bores 222
»gun mount as a whole;A
Inasmuch `as the prin- '
cipalload on the ñuid motors is VVarlßinertia‘load
and 224 connect thetank ports |48 and |69 ln 30 and sin'cethe force required tomovel the load“ `
both valve bores and are connected togetherby
is proportional to the productrof its‘ mass'and j
.a longitudinal central bore,_22_6 (see Figure l). .
The bores 222 and 224 are provided‘with -external
pipe connections at 228 and 239, the latter vbeing
In operation, assuming that'the pump 1_4 is
the acceleration imparted thereto,` it will beV seen
that the “feel" or resistance .to movement of
vvthe "handle 94 varies 1in substantial accordance
35 withthe load which is- to be -imposed on the fluid ’
operating and that the accumulator 16 is filled
maintaining a _supply` of oil under pressure for
delivery to the line 89 as required, wlthjthe han-,
motors 62 and 66.
yThis results in a control whereby the operator
is apprised of ‘he efl'ort required to moveA the
gives mount
a “feel”
in at
the control
his wishesv
and n" ` `
die 94 in the neutral position lllustrated,_both 40 vgun
valve spools |38 and' |49 will remain in neutral
and, no oil will flow Ato 'either motor`62 ormotor
68, the unloading valve servingl to bypass’ the
, pump delivery to tank at negligible pressure
whenever the ‘accumulator is filled.
, _
.same as if hisjeiiîorts were appliedk directly'- in
shifting the mount. This is particularly advan--_„ :1
tageous where,v as in aircraft, the permissible
weight of the driving mechanism is' held down'
_to a minimum and’ where accordingly the. driv- `
If it is desired >to vswing the turret structure
I6l about the axis | 4 without swinging the cage
49 about the'axis 39, the control handle‘94 may
be shifted to oneside or the other, let usy say
' ing equipment might be-easilyïoverloade'd if the.v ‘
left in Figure 3, thereby shifting the _spool |38
is in practical effect> achieved a positive limitv
resistance to- movement jof theHcontrol handle»
were thesame lwhether it be' moved rapidlyor
' slowly. By vthe provision of `thisvariable 're
_ to- the left in Figure 5 orupwardly and tothe 60 sistance to ~movement _of the control handle,_there
to the right in Figure l admitting pressure oil
from the delivery line 99 through connection
229, passage 2|8, port |42' of valve' bore |34,
port |46, connection 2|6, and` conduit |99 lto 65
to the maximum acceleration which can be im
parted to thegun mount, which limit is deter- w
mined bythe maximum manual effort whicha
given operator is able to applyv toward shifting
motor 62. 'I‘he turret I6 is'accordingly driven _, theV control handle. Adjustment-of this resist
_clockwise when viewed from the top in Figure 5
by the action of the worm 64 _on the stationary
worm wheel 69. Oil is discharged from the motor
through line 93, connection 2|4, ports |44 and 60
|48, passage 222, connection 228 and conduit 82
to tank. The speed of turret movement will de
pend upon the distance to which thelever 94 is
'ance may be varied v'to suit operators of `diiïer- _
ent muscularstrength by suitable adjustment of
the restrlctors |18 andi 82..
Whilethe. form Vof embodiment of
the inven--Iv
tion as herein disclosedconstitutes va preferred
form, it is to be understood that otl‘er forms
might be adopted, all coming within the `scope
shifted, that is. the farther the lever is shifted
o1' the claims which follow.
to the right, the faster the turret will rotate. 65 What is claimed is as follows:
. The turret will continue rotation at a speed cor
1. In a >hydraulic powerjtransmission system
responding to the angular displacement of the
the combination with a source of pressurel fluid
lever 94 and may be stopped by permitting `the
and a pair oi" fluid motors for driving a load
lever to shift to neutral position.
device in each 0i' two directions Ain perpendicular ,
Opposite movement of the turret I6 is pro
planes. a pair-of control valves arranged side by
duced by shifting the lever 94 to the right vin
side and each having a longitudinally'vshiftable
Figure 5 or downwardly and to theright in Figure
operating stem, and a single operating lever uni
3, flow in this case being reversed and directed
versally pivoted on a center spaced from a plane ¿
to the opposite side of the motor 62 through
including the lines of travel»v of said stems, said '
conduit 98.
75 operating - lever having an . operatingA connection
' . -
nf.. ‘
of the member away from neutral position where
with each stem whereby the lever may be rocked
by the ratey of movementV of the member deter-.vl
mines the acceleration of the' load device, a man
in a plane including the line of travel of one
stem to shift said stem without shifting theother
u'ally operable deviceyfor shifting the control
or vice versa and may be rocked in other inter
l member, andV _means for resisting movement 'of
mediate' planes _to‘variably shift both stems in
dinerent proportion. - c
r2. In a hydraulic power transmission;v system.
A , the control member-witha force which increases
, with increased speed
of movement of the con
trol memberwherebythe “feel’f of the manual
device is in generaly proportion tothe load yim
'posed on the' fluid motor during all'movements of
the combination with a source of pressure fluid f
and a pair of iiuid motors for driving a load de-y
vicein each of two directions in perpendicular
the manual deviceg' .
planes, 'a pair oi' control valves karranged side by «
6. In Va 'hydraulic power transmission system
sideand each having ar longitudinally shii'table , , the "combination with' a ‘source of pressure ?uid
operating stem; and a single operating lever uni
versally pivoted on a center spaced from a plane
and a iluid motor for driving van inertia load in
either ¿direction- at variable speeds of ay control
valve shiftable in varying degree to either side
operating lever having an operating _connection « `Vof a neutral position for selectively controlling
including the lines of travel of said stems, said
with each stem 'whereby‘th‘e'lever may be rocked
» the direction vand , rate of
iiuld flow to the 'motor
in a. plane including the line ot travel of one stem
in proportion tothe degree of movement oi' the ,
to shift said stem without shifting the other or
valvek away i'rom` neutral position whereby` the
vice versa andmay be rocked .in other interme 20 ratey ofk movement of the valve determines ythe
vdiate planes to variably shift both stemsin dif- c acceleration of the load device, a. manually yop
valve being mounted with `
ferent proportion, said
the operating lever oriented for rocking move- '
ment in the same directionsin space as the load
erable >device for` shifting the valve, Vand means
forresisting movement of the valve with a force
3. In a hydraulic' power transmission system
which increases with increased speed ofmove
ment of the valve whereby the “feel" of the man» i
ual device is in general proportion vto the load '
the combination with a source of pressure duid , ‘ imposed on Vthe fluid motor during all move
and a pair of iluid motors for driving a load de
vice in each of two directionsy in perpendicular
planes, a pair of fluid flow-controlling members
for selectively directing iluidirom the source to'
said motors arranged side by side and each hav
ing a longitudinally shiftableoperating stem, and
ments of the manual device.
Y '1. In a hydraulic power >transmission system
the combination with a source of pressurefluld
f and a fluid motor for driving "an inertia load in
either direction at variable speeds of'a control
member- shiftable in varyingv degree to’either side
a single operating lever universally‘plvoted on a
of a neutral position for selectively controlling
center spaced from a plane including the lines $5 ythe direction and rate ofrfiuid flow to the motor
of travel ofr said stems, said operating lever hav >¿in proportion to kthe degree of movement of the
ing.` an operating connection with each stein
member away from neutral position whereby the
wherebythe lever may be rocked in'a plane in- ' rate of 'movement of the member determines the
cluding the line of travel of one stem to shift
acceleration of the load device, a manually oper
said stem without shifting the Aother or vice 40 able device for shifting the control member, and
versa and may be rocked in other intermediate
planesto variably shift both stems in different
4. A dual valve for controlling iluid flowÀ to
separate circuits simultaneously and independ
ently comprising in combination a pair of con
trol valves arranged side by side and each hav
dashpot means‘associated with said control mem-
45 _both
`8..In a~hydrau1ic power- transmission system'
. the combination with a source of pressure fluid .
and a fluid motor for driving an inertia load in
ing a longitudinally shiftable operating stem, and _A eitherl direction at variable speeds of ‘a`control
a single operating lever universally pivotedton
member shiftable in varying degree to eitherv side
a center spaced from a plane including the lines 50 of a neutral position for selectively controlling
of travel of said stems, said operating lever hav
the direction` and rate of fluid flow to the motor
ing an operating connection with each stem
in proportion to the degree of movement of the
whereby the lever may be rocked in a plane in
member away from »neutral position whereby the
cluding the line of travel of one stem to shift
rate of movement of the member determines the
said stem without shifting the other or vice versa 55 acceleration ofthe load device, a manually oper
and may be rocked in other intermediate planes
to variably shift both stemsA in different propor
able device for shifting the control member, and
means including a dashpot for resisting move
ment of the control ’member with a. force which
5. In a hydraulic `power transmission system
increases with increased speed of movement of
the combination with a source of pressure fluid
the control member whereby the “feel”` of the
and a iluid motor for driving an inertia load in
manual device is in general proportion to the load
either direction at variable speeds of a control
imposed on the ñuid motor during all movements
member shiftable in varying degree to either
of the manual device.
side of a neutral position for selectively control
» ling the direction and rate> of iluid flow to the
motor in proportion to the degree of movement
ber and including a ñuid restrictor connected
to pass all iiuid flow to or from the dashpot in, ~
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