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July 9, 1-946.
2,403,532.
' W; S. HOOVER,
‘HYDRAULIC COMPENSATING PROPELLER
Filed-March 14, 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOIR
lfer .fa‘coi'fliooverK
"1%; 1 M
ATTORNEY
July 9, 1946'
' 7
‘
w. s. HOOVER
“
2,403,532
HYDRAULIC COMPENSATING VPROPELLER
Filed March 14, 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
1719.2
INVENTOR
Wa Her 5:0 #Hoover
BQW #1 M
ATTORNEY
July 9, 1946‘
I
w. s. HOOVER
2,403,532
HY‘DBAULIC COMPENSATING PROPELLER
'
Filed March 14, 1941
‘
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
A94
196
A4,
192
/-96
INVENTOR
v1M1?! fer Sco?Hoover
ATTORN E'Y
' July 9, 1946.v
2,403,532
'w.'s. HOOVER '
HYDRAULIC COMPENSATING PROPELLER
Filed March 14, 1941
I
I
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
no
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. 4
‘Q
INVENTOR
WalferSco?Habve?
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ATTO RNEY.
Patented July 9, 1946
, ‘2,403,532.
UNITED ‘STATES ‘PATENT 'OFFICE I
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2,403,532
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HYDRAULIC COMPENSATING PROPELLEB
Y
Walter Scott Hoover, ltlontreal, Quebec, Canada
' Application March 14, 1941, Serial No. 333,391
\
21 Claims.
(01. 170-103)‘
.
.
1
~-
.
ernor compensating device taken on the line 1-1
This invention relates to improvements in aero
of Fig. 1.
nautical propellers Aand has. particular reference
control mechanism therefor.
An- object‘ of the invention resides in the pro
vision of a‘ combined controllable-pitch aero
nautical propeller‘and self-contained control ap
paratus therefor arranged in a compact unitary
-
Fig. a is an elevational view of another portion of the governor compensation device which ?ts
to an improved unitary‘construction embodying
a controllable-pitch aeronautical propeller and
within the annular pump and distributing mem
bers shown in Figs. 3 to 6, inclusive, a portion
of the compensating device being broken away
and shown in section to better illustrate the con
' struction thereof, and
Fig. 9 is a schematic view illustrating the op
eration of the governor pitch changing and con- A further object resides in the provision, in a
trol apparatus shown in Fig. 1.
controllable-pitch propeller and control appa
Referring to the drawings in detail, and par
ratus therefor including a speed responsive gov
ticularly to Fig. 1, the numeral lllgenerally indi
ernor, of means for compensating the action of
the governor to provide a more accurate and 15 cates a propeller shaft projecting from an engine
nose 12 through an outboard hearing it in a man
sensitive response of the propeller to speed vari
ner well known to the art. Mounted on the pro
ations.
'
Jecting end of ‘the shaft III by suitable means,
Another object resides in the provision of an
such as the cones I 6 and I8 and the end nut 20,
improved governor and morespeci?cally a com
bined pump and governor valve mounted on the 20 is a propeller hub, generally indicated at 22. This
hub may conveniently be a one piece structure
propeller hub. I
having a shaft surrounding portion 24 and a
Other objects and advantages will be more par
plurality of blade sockets, one of which is-indi
ti'cularly pointed, out hereinafter or will become
cated at 28, within which are rotatably mounted
apparent as the description proceeds.
'
respective propeller blades, as indicated at 28, by
In the accompanying drawings, in which like
means of suitable abutments ‘and thrust bear
reference numerals are used to designate similar
ings in a manner well known to the art. v
parts throughout, there is illustrated a suitable
Each blade has attached to its end within the
mechanical embodiment for the purpose of dis
structure.
'
2
.
10
’
hubv structure a pitch changing gear, as indicat
are for the purpose‘of illustration only and are 30 ed at 20, which gears or gear structures are ro
tated by a common master gear 32, mounted to
not to be taken as limiting or restricting the in
rotate about the axis 01' the shaft 10. The gear
vention since it will be apparent to those skilled
22 may be driven by a suitable motor such as the
in the art that various changes in the illustrated
gear type oil motor, generally indicated at 34.,
construction may be resorted to without in any
35 which is secured to the front end of the hub
way exceeding the scope of the invention.
22 v‘within an enclosing spinner 36 and connected
In the drawings:
,
.
to the gear 32 through a suitable reduction gear
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view through
train, generally indicatedat 38. While agear
a propeller and control apparatusoonstmcted ac
type oil motor has been illustrated for the pur
. cording to the invention.
closing the invention. The drawings, however,
Fig. 2 ‘is a front-elevational view of. the pro 40 pose of disclosing the invention. it is to be under- '
stood that various other types of oil motors, such
peller shown in Fig. 1a portion being broken
away'on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1 and shown in sec
' tion to better illustrate the construction of the
propeller mechanism.
~
.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of a ?uid pressure
pump taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1. .
as vane or piston type motors, may be utilized
' without in any way exceeding the scope or the in
vention. Y
45
Where a hydraulic motor, such as the gear type '.
oil motor 24, is utilized, suitable governor and .
valvevmeans are provided to control the opera- '
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the
tion 01' the motor in its pitch changing action in
annular pump and oil distributing members
a manner such that the propeller pitch will-be
shown in'Fig. 3 taken on the line l-l of Fig. 3. "50 adjusted to compensate any tendency of the en-.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view similar to Fig.4 taken
gine speed to vary fromv a selected rate to there
by maintain the speed of the propeller driving
ontheline HofFig. 3-.
Fig. 6 isa sectional view similar to Figs. 4 and
engine substantially constant at a selected value
at which the; speed responsive governor is set.
5takenonthe1ine HvofFig. 3.
"
Hg. 7 is a ‘sectional view or a portion of a gov . 55 Such means may conveniently comprise a plu- ‘
2,408,582
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rallty of annular members, as indicated at 48,
42 and 44 and a plurality of centrifugally actu
ated ?yballs as indicated at 48, surrounding an
annular extension 48 provided on the shaft sur-'
rounding portion 24 of the'hub 22 between the
blade sockets and the adjacent portion of the en
nose.
cured together against relative rotation at their
abutting surface and both members are normally
held as a unit against rotation by a. gear 88 driv
ingly mounted on an axle I88 secured in bearings
in a casing, generally indicated at I82, and mesh
ingwith teeth I84 provided on the exterior of
the member 42.
-
f With this arrangement, when the propeller
shaft I8 is rotating, the ‘member 48 will be ro
Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 and‘comprises a generally
cylindrical member having at one end a shallow -10 tated relative to the surrounding members 42 and
44 and ?uid will‘ be drawn into the portions of
internal ?ange 88 provided with ‘splines 82 which
glm'?ie member 48 is particularly illustrated in
the annular spaces 84 and 98 on the sides of the
vanes 88 and 18 on which the respective intake
the hub extension 48 to provide a driving connec
depressions 88 and 88 are located and will be
tion between the hub portion and the memberv 48
which will constrain the member 48 to rotate 15 expelled by the vanes 88 and ‘I8 through the
apertures 12 and 18 [into the middle or pressure
with the hub but will permit axial sliding move
channel 88. The intake wil1 be from one of the
ments of the member 48 relative to the hub por
end channels 88 or 82 depending upon the posi
tion upon which it is mounted. The member 48
tion of the member 48 on the hub ‘extension 48
is also provided intermediate its length with an
external annular extension 86 and with three 20 as will be presently explained. This construction
provides a ?uid pump whichswill maintain ?uid
spaced internal grooves or channels 88, 88 and 82.
under pressure in the middle channel 88 and will
The member 58 is provided with a pair of dia
intake ?uid from one of the end- channels 58' or
metrically opposed transverse slots 84 and 88
‘82, to operate the pitch changing motor 34. If
within which are disposed radially slidable vanes
88 and ‘I8 respectively. Adjacent to the vane 88 25 desired, a pressure relief valve may be placed be
tween the channel 88 and the intake side of the
the portion 88 is provided with a radial aperture
' engage with ‘splines 84 on the end portion of
12 which leads from the periphery of this portion
to the channel 88 disposed immediately within
the portion 88 and within which aperture there
pump preferably adjacent the intake depressions,
to limit the maximum pump pressure and pre
vent breakage. The gear 88 is connected with a
30 suitable motor 89, through suitable means, such
' as the gear train I88, so that, when the shaft I8
is not rotating the pump can be operated inde
member 88 into the groove '88 but to block any
pendently to furnish ?uid under pressure for
‘ ?ow of ?uid from the groove 88 to the periphery
is disposed a ball check valve ‘I4 arranged to per
mit passage of ?uid from the periphery of the
changing the pitch of the propeller and par
of the member 88. Adjacent to the vane 18 is a
similar aperture ‘I8 diametrically opposed to the 35 ticularly for feathering or unfeathering the pro
peller in the event it is desired to accomplish
either of these operations with the engine stopped. also operates to permit'?ow of ?uid from the
It has been found convenient to mount the gear
periphery of the portion 88 into the channel 88
88 on a spherical bearing I88 so that the gear
and to block any ?ow of ?uid from the channel 88
to the periphery of the portion 88. On the op 40 may tilt relative to its axle when the members
48, 42 and 44 are moved axially of the hub ex.
posite side of the vanev 88 from the aperture ‘I2
the portion 88 is provided with a peripherial
tension 48 in order that the movement of these
members may be accomplished without unneces
groove 88 which opens to the periphery'of the
sary friction or drag.
portion 88 and extends a short circumferential
aperture 12 and containing a check valve 18 which
distance from the vane 88 on the side thereof
opposite‘ the aperture ‘I2 and is connected by
The governor ?yballs 48 are mounted on re- ,
spective axles, one of which‘ is indicated at I I8,
the ends of which are received in respective aper
channels 82 with the internal groove 88 and by
tured lugs, as indicated at I I2, provided on a ring
similar channels 84 with the internal groove 82.,
Adjacent to the vane 18 and diametrically op
,I I4 which surrounds the hub extension 48 at its
posite the depression 88 there is disposed a similar 50 end adjacent to- the blade sockets and these ?y
balls are provided with bell crank arms carrying
depression 88 in the periphery of the portion 88
respective contact members, which may conven
connected at its bottom by channels 88, similar
to the channels 82, with the annular groove or
iently be in the form of small anti-friction bear
ings, as indicated at H8, which bear against a
channel 88 \and with channels, not illustrated but
similar to the channels 84, with the annular 55 thrust washer ll8 disposed against the end of the
groove or channel 82. , The annular member 42
member 42. With this arrangement, whenever
which overlies the right hand portion of the
the ?yballs 48 swing'outwardly incident to an in
crease in propeller speed the unit comprising the
member 48, as viewed in Fig. 1, is provided with
- an end ?ange 88 which overlaps the adjacent end
members 48, 42 and 44 will be moved to the left,
of the member48 and with an annular radial en 80. as viewed in Fig. 1. .The action of centrifugal
largement 82 "at its opposite end which enlarge
force on the ‘?yballs 48 tending to move the
ment overlies the portion 88 of the member 48.
above-mentioned unit to the left is opposed by a
governor speeder spring I28 disposed within a
Referring to Fig. 3, it will be observed that the
‘interior surface of the enlargement 82 is some
?anged bushing I22 the end ?ange of which bears
what elliptical in form to provide, semi-circum
against the external ?ange 84 of the member 44,
the oppositrend of ‘the speeder spring bearing
ferential spaces 84 and '88 between the interior
surface of this enlargement and the adjacent
against the interior of the end ?ange I24 of a nut‘
peripheral surface of the circular portion 88
I28 screw threaded into the end of the cover
of the member 48. The annular member 44 has
member I21 which ‘cover member is rigidly se- '
at its end adjacent the member 42 an external 70 vcured to the engine nose l2 and encloses the gov
ernor-?yballs 48. the pump and valve unit com
annular ?ange 88 which closes that side‘ of "the
annular space within which the portion 88 ro
' prising the members 48, 42 and 44 and the nut
tates and has'at its ‘opposite end an internal
I28 whichin-turn encloses the ‘speeder spring I28.
?ange 88 which’ overlaps the adjacent end of the - If desired, suitable means may be provided in the
engine nose I2 for rotating the nut I28 to chanse
member 48. The members 42 and 44 are se
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adjust the speed setting of the governor. No par
ticular means have been illustrated since it would
be obvious ‘to utilize some well known device such
to hunt on opposite sidesof theiparticular speed
for which the governor is set. In order to accom
pllsh this function there is provided in the shaft
bore of the propeller hub adjacent to the end of
as a worm and gear. mechanism or spur gear de
the shaft I0 a hydraulic device generally indi
vice for accomplishing this function. Preferably
cated at I54 and particularly illustrated in Figs.
1 and '7; and a connection is provided between
the loading on the speeder spring I20 and thereby
an oil seal I 28 is provided between the right hand
this device and the governor for imposing a com
end of the ‘cover member I21 and a shoulder pro
pensating action on the governor mechanism.
vided on the hub 22 between the extension 48 and
the blade sockets in order that lubricant for the 10 The device I54 may conveniently comprise a
member 1 I56 secured against rotation relative to
governor and valve mechanism may be retained
the propeller hub and having a skirt portion I58 ,
in the cover member against leakage.
-
surrounding the end of the propeller shaft within
The hub extension 48 is provided with a pair
the shaft bore of the propeller hub and a thick
of external grooves I30'and I32 which are spaced
to lie between the groove 60 and the groove 58 15 cylindrical end portion I60 having a diameter
smaller than the skirt portion I58 and having a
and between the groove 60 and the groove 62,
central aperture therethrough substantially co
respectively; when the member 40 is in its center
axialwith the axis of the shaft I0. Within the
or neutral position. The groove I30 is connected
cylindrical portion I60 there are provided a sub
through a suitable channel I34 with a manifold
I36 leading to one side of the various oil motor 20 stantially ‘centrally disposed annular groove I62
of substantially rectangular cross-section‘, an an- '
elements, as indicated at I38, I40 and I42, and
nular chamber I64 and a pair of annular ?uid
the groove I32 is connected by a similar channel
I44 with a manifold I46 leading to theopposite
manifolds I66 and I68. The groove ‘I62 is divided '
into two substantially equal portions by a pair of
side of the oil motor elements. Both channels
I34 and I44 are. connected, through respective 25 diametrically opposed integral vanes‘ I10 and I12.
An annular member I14 surrounds the groove I62
check valves ‘I48 and I50 with an oil reservoir
and is also provided with a pair of diametrically
I52 within the hub space surrounding the reduc
‘opposed internal radial vanes I16 and I18 which
tion gear unit 38. '
.
. cooperate with the vanes I10 and I12 to divide
With this arrangement, when the governor ?y
the groove I62 into four separate chambers. For
balls 46 swing outwardly in response to an in-‘
convenience in assembly the member I14 is dia- ,
crease in propeller speed, the pump and valve
metrically split and the two parts are mounted
unit will be ‘moved to the left as viewed in Fig. 1.
within an annular extension I80 formed on the
This movement will connect the pressure groove
gear 32. This extension I80 may also constitute
60 with the end groove I30 so that ?uid under
pressure‘ will be supplied through the channel 35 the inner race for the gear bearing, the outer race
I82 of which is secured in the end‘of the shaft
I34 and manifold I36 to the oil motor 34, to actu
bore of the propeller hub 22. The member I14
ate the motor to move the propeller blades in a
pitch increasing direction, to thereby place addi
_ is secured to the cylindrical extension I80 in such
a manner that whenever the gear 32 is rotated to
tional load on the propeller driving engine and
reduce its speed. If the engine and propeller 40
speed falls below the speed for which the gover
nor is set, the speeder spring I20 will force the
change the pitch’ of the propeller the member
I14 will be rotated relative to the member I54 to
change the dimensions of the chambers between
pump and valve unit to the right as viewed in
the vanes I10, I12, I16 and I18.
Fig- 1, Overcoming the decreased centrifugal force
Adjacent to the hydraulic device I54 the hub is
acting on the flyballs 46, and will connect the 45 provided with a cylindrical bore I84 within which
is disposed a piston E86 mounted on a shaft I88
pressure groove 60 with the groove I32 thereby
which extends through a passage in the hub to a
supplying oil through the channel I44 and mani
connection with the end ?ange I90 of a sleeve
fold I46 to the oil motor 34, to operate the motor
member I32 disposed between the member 40 and
to move the propeller blades in a pitch decreasing
direction, to thereby reduce'the load on the en 50 the hub extension 48 and particularly illustrated
in Fig, 8. This sleeve member is slidable on the
gine and permitits speed to increase. Whenever
hub extension 48 and is provided with two rows of
the groove 60 is connected with, the groove I 30 the
apertures, as indicated at I34 and I96, spaced
pump will intake through the channel I 44 from
apart the same distance as the grooves I30 and
the manifold I46 and. from the reservoir I52
through the check valve I50 in case it becomes 55 I32 in the hub extension. The manifold £66 in
the member I56 is connected with the chambers
necessary to supply make up oil to the pump and
between the vanes I16 and I10 and the vanes I18
and I12 and with the left hand end of the cylinder
is connected with the groove I32 the pump will
bore I84 through suitable channels as indicated
intake from the groove I30 and the channel I34
and manifold I36 and, if necessary, from the res 60 .at I80, 200 and 202 while the manifold I68 is con
nected with the chambers between the vanes I12
ervoir I52 through the check valve I48.
and I16 and I18 and I10 and with the right hand
This construction provides an arrangement by
end of the cylinder bore ‘I84 through suitable
which the pitch changing motor 34 is under the
channels as indicated at 204 and 206.
full control of the speed responsive governor to
The operation of the compensating mechanism
adjust the propeller blades in a manner to main 65
is schematically illustrated in Fig. 9 in which the
tain the speedvof the propeller substantially con
blade turning motor 34 has been shown as a vane
stant by varying the load on the propeller driving
type motor rather than a gear motor, as shown in
engine. It has been found, however, that such
motor system. and similarly, when the groove 60 '
Fig. 1, for (the sake of simplicity in the illustra
- an arrangement, while fully operative, is not al
ways as stable and sensitive as might be desired 70 tion. If we assume that the governor ?yballs 46
and it is among the objects of this invention to
provide stabilizing means for such a governor
propeller combination to render the control of the
propeller by the governor more accurate and sen
have moved outwardly in response to an increase
in speed and have consequently connected‘ the
annular pressure chamber 60 with the annular
channel I30, hydraulic ?uid under pressure will
sitive and to avoid the tendency of the governor 76 then be supplied through the channel I34 to the
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1,668,971, issued May 8, 1928, to Ernest G. Mc
Cauley for Screw mechanism‘ for adjustable and
reversible pitch propellers, and particularly illus
trated in Figs. 1 and 2 of this application. IAS
vanes 288 and M2 will be rotated in a clockwise di
rection as viewed in Fig. 9, to turn the propeller
tatable within the relatively ?xed sleeve member
blades 28 toward a higher pitch condition. As
the motor device 34 turns the gear 32 through a
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motor 34, to the spaces between the motor vanes
288 and 2I8, and between the vanes 2I2 and 2“.
Now, since the vanes 2| 8 and 2“ connected to
the inner member 2I8 are relatively ?xed, the
shown this lock includes the cam member 228 ro
238 and held against rotation relative to the
sleeve member by the locking balls 282 as long as
the motor 34 is not exerting a pitch changing '
suitable reduction gear, such as is indicated at
38 in Fig. 1, the portion I14 of the hydraulic 10 effort,‘ the balls being releasable by the element
284 and lost motion connection 238 whenever the
mechanism I54 will also be rotated in a clockwise
motor acts to change the propeller pitch. \Ap
direction carrying the vane I18 towards the vane
plication of power by the motor 34 will, because
I12 and the vane I18 toward the vane I18. This
of the lost motion connection, ?rst turn the gear
will cause hydraulic pressure to be exerted on the
line I88 leading to the right hand end of the cyl 16 238 on the shaft 248 thereby moving the element
284 which is keyed fast to gear 288. 'This will
I84. The chambers between the above
unlock one ball 232 and permit the shaft 248 with
mentioned vanes are, however, also connected
its attached mm 228 to be freely rotated. As
with the annular reservoir I84 through channels
soon as the pump gear 238 takes up the lost mo
2I8 and 228 and the adjustable restricted ori?ce
222. If the speed increase is relatively small so 20 tion in connection 288, the motor will drive the
shaft 248 and through the gear train 38 change
that the groove I88 is connected with the pressure
inder
chamber 88 by a restricted amount such that the
movement of the motor 34 and hydraulic device
I54 will produce a ?ow through the channel 2I8 .
the propeller pitch.
If, however, the propeller '
attempts to drive the motor the cam 228 driven by
the shaft 248 will catch up with and will be locked
by one of the balls 232.
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within the capacity of the ori?ce 222, oil will be
If the speed of the propeller should be below
transferred between the opposed chambers of the 26
device I54 and the reservoir I84 but will not move
thatifor which the governor is set, the governor
spring would act to move the member 48 to the
right as viewed in Fig. 9 andactuate the motor 84
springs 224 and 228, since it has been found that 30 to decrease the pitch angle of the propeller. This
for such small and relatively slow pitch changes
movement of the motor 34 will cause a movement
the governor does not need to be compensated.
of the hydraulic device I58 which would apply hy
However, if the governor acts strongly incident
draulic pressure through the line I88 to the left
to a rapid change in speed so that the ?owfrom
hand end of the cylinder I84 to move the sleeve
the device I54 cannot be accommodated by the 35 I82 toward the right to followthe similar move
ori?ce 222 the piston I88 will be moved to the
ments of the member 48 and the compensating
left, as viewed in Figs. 1 and 9, and will move the
action would be the same as that described above
sleeve I82 to the left following the similar move
' in connection with a; speed increase above the
ments of the member 48. This movement of the
governor setting. After the proper pitch angle
sleeve following the member "will maintain a 40 has been attained and v'the member 48 moves back
certain degree of restriction between the pres
to its centered position the sleeve I82 would fol
a . the piston I88 which will be maintained in its
centered position, as illustrated by the centering '
. sure chamber 88 and the channel I38 which re
low this movement toward the left as viewed in
striction will gradually increase as the propeller
Fig. 9 as the ?uid was bled from the left hand end
blades approach the pitch condition necessary to
of the piston I84 through the adjustable restricted
restore the engine and propeller to the selected
ori?ce 242 to the reservoir I84. Thus, the pro~
speed and the sleeve I82 will be in position to sub 45 peller would asain be left at the proper pitch posi
stantially block the flow of ?uid from the pres
tion to maintain the selected speed and the gov
sure, chamber to the channel I88 when the pro
' ernorwould be brought back to its neutral posi
peller has reached the proper pitch setting al
tion and in condition to act to change the pro
though the engine speed is still above the selected
peller pitch in case the speed again varies in either
50
_ speed. As the speed of the engine and propeller
direction from the selected value.
slows down and the governor returns to its neu
While a suitable mechanical embodiment has
tral position; the sleeve I82 will maintain the
been
hereinabove described and illustrated in the
connection between the pressure chamber 88 and
accompanying drawings for the purpose of dis
the groove I38 blocked so that no further change
in the‘ propeller pitch will take place during the 55 closing the invention, it is to be understood that
the invention is not limited to the particular con
movement of the member" back to its centered
struction ‘so illustrated and described, but that
position in which it obstructs this connection. As
such changes in the size, shape and arrangement
the member 40 moves back toward its center posi
of the various parts may be resorted to as come
tion under the in?uence of the speeder spring I28
within the scope of the'sub-ioined claims.
the sleeve I82 will follow as the ?uid bleeds out
Having now described the invention so that
of the right hand end of the cylinder I84 through
others skilled in the art may clearly understand
the device I54 and through the restriction 222 to
I the some, what it is desired to secure by Letters
the reservoir I84 and. under the in?uence of the
Patent is as follows:
,
centering springs 224 and 228 will also reach a
1. In a hydro-controllable Propeller, a hub, a
centered or neutral position about the same time
plurality of blades carried by said hub and mount
that thesmember 48 reaches its centered position
ed for pitch changing movements. a fluid motor
leaving the propeller pitch at the correct angle
operatively connected with said blades for chang
to maintain theselected speed and the'goverx )r'
ing the pitch thereof, a ?uid pumpcarried by said
in condition ‘to act to change the pitch in case
70 hub for supplying pressure ?uid to said motor,
the speed again varies.
connections from both sides of said motor to said
The propeller blades are. preferably locked in
pump, and means for varying said connections to
the adjusted pitch position against turning under
control the operation of said motor, said pump in
the eifect of centrifugal or aerodynamic forces by r
a suitable locking device such as the well known .' cluding a rotor membersurrounding one end of
lock disclosed in United States Patent Number 15 said hub and rotatable therewith, and a relatively
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non-rotatable member surrounding said rotor
able .portion for regulating the propeller speed by
member, said rotor member
having 'grooves constituting
channels for said pump said
said hub end being relatively
moving said common portion.
and said hub end
intake and outlet
rotor member and
movable to control
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I 6. Pitch control means for a hydro-control
'lable. propeller having a blade carrying hub
structure comprising, a hub carried ?uid motor
for changing the pitch of said blades, a1hub I ‘
said intake and outlet channels. . _
carried pump for supplying pressure ?uid to said
2. A ?uid pump for a hydro-controllable pro
motor, one portion of said pump forming/a por
peller having a blade carrying hub structure com
tion of a valve, said valve portion being movable,
prising, a portion encircling one end of said hub
structure and provided with an annular external 10 .for controlling the application of said ?uid to
said motor, propeller speed regulating means con
ring rotatable with said hub structure, a relatively
, nected with said movable valve‘ portion and in
‘ ?xed annular portionsurrounding said rotatable
cluding a governor for actuating said valve por
portion and having an annular groove receiving
tion and a hub carried supply of ?uid.
said ring, said groove being non-circular in shape
7. Pitch control means for a hydro-control
to provide pump chambers between the periphery 15
lable propeller having a blade carrying hub
of said ring and the bottom of said groove, intake
structure comprising, a hub-carried ?uid motor
and outlet ports in said ring, a vane carried by
for changing the pitch of'said blades, a hub car
said ring between each adjacent intake and outlet
ried pump for supplying pressure ?uid to said
port, and annular grooves in the interiorof said
rotatable portion connected one with said outlet 20 motor, a hub carried governor for controlling the
application of said ?uid to said motor; and a hub
ports and two, located one on each side of said
carried governor compensator having a central
outlet port connected groove, with said intake
ports.
'
position but movable, by changes in propeller
,
pitch, temporarily away from said central posi
propeller having a blade carrying hub structure 25 tion to temporarily change the governor setting
and retard the pitch changing action of said
comprising, a pitch changing ?uid motor, a pump
governor as the propeller pitch approaches a con
rotor carried by and rotatable with said hub
dition consistent with the speed change demands
structure, a pump casing surrounding said rotor
_ of said governor means, independent of propeller
and held against rotation, grooves in the interior
of said rotor constituting a pressure channel and 30 pitch, restoring said compensator to said central
3. Pitch control means for a hydro-controllable
position.
a pair of intake channels, a pair of grooves in said
hub, separate means connecting one of said hub
grooves with one side of said motor and the other
hub groove with the other side of said motor, and
8. Pitch‘ control means for a hydro-control- '
lable propeller having a blade carrying hub
structure comprising, a ?uid motor for changing
speed responsive means operative to connect said 35 the pitch of said blades, a ?uid pump for supply
ing pressure ?uid to said motor, a reversing valve
between said pump and said motor having a pre
pressure channel with either of said hub grooves
to connect either side of said motor with the
pump outlet while connecting the alternative side
with the pump intake through the other hub
groove and an intake channel to operate said mo
selected closed position, a governor for operating ,
said valve, and a‘ governor compensator for
40 changing the closed position of said valve in a
direction to follow up the valve operating move
ments of said governor and means independent
tor in'either direction depending upon the speed
change demand of said speed responsive means.
of the propeller pitch for restoring the closed
position of said valve to said preselected position.
4. Pitch control means for a hydro-=controllable
propeller having a blade carrying hub structure
9. Pitch control means for a hydro-control
comprising, a pitch changing ?uid motor, a ‘pump 45
lable propeller having‘ a blade carrying hub ,
rotor carried by and rotatable with said hub
structure comprising, a ?uid motor for changing
the pitch of said blades, 9. ?uid pump for sup
plying pressure ?uid to said motor, a reversing
structure, a pump casing surrounding said rotor
and held against rotation, grooves in the interior
of said rotor structure constituting a pressure‘
Y valve between said pump and said motor, a gov
channel and a pair of alternatively operative in
ernor for operating said valve, and a governor
take channels for said pump, a pair of grooves in
compensator for changing the closed position of
said hub structure, separate means connecting
said valve'in a direction to follow up the valve ;
one of said hub grooves with one side of said mo
operating movements of said governor, said gov- '
tor and the other hub groove with the other side
‘of said motor, a governor mechanism carried by 55 emor compensator comprising a ?uid displace
ment device movable in proportion to the pitch
said hub \structure, and a connection between
changing movements of said blades and a ?uid
said governor mechanism and said pump rotor
' motor operated by said displacement device for
for shifting said rotor axially of said hub struc
shifting the closed position of said valve.
ture to connect said pressure channel with either
10. In combination, a reversible ?uid motor, a
of said hub grooves to connect either side or said 60
pump for supplying pressure ?uid to said motor,
motor with said pump outlet and the alternative
a two part reversing valve between said pump
side with said pump intake by connecting one
and said‘ motor having a predetermined closed
intake channel with the other hub groove to
position, a governor for moving one part of said
thereby operate said motor in response to the
valve relative to the other part to control the
speed change demands of said governor.
operation of said motor, and a governor com
5. Pitch control means for a hydro-control
pensator comprising a perforated sleeve between
lable propeller having a. blade carrying hub
the two parts of said valve and means operated
structure comprising, a. hub carried ?uid motor
by movement of said motor for moving said sleeve
for changing the pitch ofsaid blades, a hub
_ carried pump for supplyingpressure ?uid to said 70 to shift the closed position of said valve propor
tional to the rate and extent of the movements
.motor,‘ a valve combined with said Dump and
of said motor and means independent of said
having at least one movable portion common
with said pump for controlling the application ’
.01’ said ?uid to said motor and a speed control
ling governor connected with said common mov
motor for gradually restoring said compensator
sleeve to said predetermined closed position of
75 said valve.v
'
2,408,582
ll
.12
11. In combination, a reversible ?uid motor, a
pump for supplying pressure ?uid to said motor.
a two part reversing valve between said pump
pressure opposing the action of said centering
means.
'
14. In a structure including a support and a
propeller rotatable with respect to said support,
and said motor, a governor for moving one part
of said valve relative to the other part to control
the operation 01' said motor, and a governor com
pensator comprising, a perforated sleeve between
the two parts of said valve, a ?uid displacement
a pump having'a rotor, at driving connection be
tween said propeller and said rotor, a pump cas
ing enclosing said rotor, a connection between
said casing and said‘support comprising power
supply means connected with said support and a
device operated by said motor, an expansible
chamber device voperated by the ?uid vdisplaced 10 power transmitting connection between said
power supplying means and said casing, said
by said ?uid displacement device and operatively
power transmitting connection and said power
connected with said sleeve for moving said sleeve
supply means preventing rotation of said casing
to shift the closed position of said valve in pro
relative to said support when said propeller is
portion to the movements of said motor, resilient
centering means associated with saidexpansible 15 rotating and said power supply means is deener
gized and serving to rotate said casing relative
chamber device for returning said sleeve to its
to said rotor and said propeller when said p'ro
neutral position, and a ?uid bleed for gradually
relieving ?uid pressure opposing the operation oi’ .peller is not rotating and said power supply
means is energized.
said centering means.
,
" 15. In a controllable-pitch propeller having
12. In combination, a reversible ?uid motor, a
hydraulically operated pitch changing means, an
pump for supplying pressure ?uid to said motor, a
hydraulic pump having two relatively movable
two part reversing valve between said pump and
portions comprising one portion rotatable with
said motor, a governor for moving one‘ part of
said propeller and relative to another portion for
said valve relative to the other part to control the
operation of said motor, and a governor com 25 supplying ?uid under ~pressure to said pitch
pensator comprising, a perforated sleeve between ' changing means during operation of said pro-‘
peller, said other portion being rotatable relative
the two parts of said valve, a fluid displacement
to said propeller, and said one portion for supply
device operated by said motor, an. expansible
ing ?uid under pressure to said pitch changing
chamber deviceoperated by the ?uid displaced
by said ?uid displacement device and operatively 80 means while said propeller is stationary and
means for holding said other portion stationary
connected. with said sleeve for moving said sleeve
while the propeller is rotating and for rotating
to shift the closed position oi.’ said valve in pro
said other portion‘while said propeller is sta
portion to the movements of said motor, resilient
tionary.
‘ '
centering means associated with said expansible
16. In a controllable-pitch propeller having
chamber device for returning said sleeve to its 35
neutral position, av?uid bleed for gradually re
lieving ?uid pressure opposing'the operation of
hydraulically-operated pitch-changing means, an I '
structure, a pump casing surrounding said rotor
and held against rotation, grooves in the interior
oi'said rotor constituting a pressure channel and
ing ?uid under pressure to said pitch-changing
means while said propeller is' stationary and
means includingan electric motor for holding
said other portion stationary while the propeller
is rotating and for rotating said other portion
while said propeller is stationary.
1'7. In a controllableypitch propeller having
hydraulically-operated pitch-changing means, an
hydraulic pump having two relatively movable
portions comprising one portion rotatable with
said propeller and relative to another portion for
supplying ?uid under pressure to said pitch
changing means during operation of said pro
hydraulic pump having two relatively movable
portions comprising one portion rotatable with
said centering means, and a reservoir for carrying
said propeller and relative to another portion for
a supply of ?uid for said displacement device.
13. Pitch control means for a hydro-control 40 supplying ?uid under pressure to said pitch
clianging means during operation of said pro
‘lable propeller having a blade carrying hub
peller, said other portion being rotatable relative
structure, a pitch changing ?uid motor, a pump
to said propeller and said one portion for supply
rotor carried by and rotatable with said hub
v a pair oi.’ alternatively operative intake channels
for said pump, a pair of grooves in said hub struc
. ture, separate means connecting one of said hub
grooves with one side of said motor and the other
hub groove with the other side of said motor, a '
governor carried by said hub structure, and a ,
connection between said governor and said pump
rotor for shifting said rotor axially of said hub
I structure to 'connect said pressure channel with
' either 01' said hub grooves to connect either side
of said motor with said pump outlet and the
alternative side with said pump intake by con
necting one oi’ said intake channels with the other
hub groove to. thereby operate said motor in
either direction in response to the speed change
demands of said governor and a governor com
peller, saidother portion being rotatable relative ‘
to said propeller and said one portion for supply
ing ?uid under pressure to said pitch-changing '
means while said propeller is stationary and
means including an electric motor normally sta
- tionary while the propeller is rotating and ener
pensator comprising, a perforated sleeve disposed
between said rotor and said hub, a ?uid displace
ment device operated by said motor, ‘an expans
ible chamber device operated by the ?uid dis-'
placed by said ?uid displacement device and
operatively connected with said sleeve for mov
gizable for rotating said other portion while said.
propeller isstationary.
‘
18; A combined pump and governor compris
ing, a rotatable shaft, a rotary pump surrounding
said shaft and having a rotor rotatable with said
shaft and a stationary casing surrounding said
rotor, passages in said shaft and rotor arranged
in: said sleeve to gradually restrict the connec 70 to form ?uid connections between said shaft and
tions provided by said governor between said
said pump, Speed responsive means associated
pump and said motor, resilient centering means
associated with said expansible chamber device
for returning said sleeve to its neutral position,
and a ?uid bleed for gradually relieving ?uid 'Il
with said shaft operably connected with said
pump for moving said casing and rotor relative to
said shaft to change the relative relation of the
passages insaid shaft and rotor to. control the
9,408,588
13
output or said pump in accordance with the speed
of said speed responsive device.
'_
19. A combined pump and governor, compris
14
, motor, a cut-oil’ valve between said pump and
motor, a governor for operating said .valve, a
_ governor compensator ,for operating said valve
ing, a pump having a rotor and a casing, a mem
ber rotatable with said rotor, valve ports in said
rotorv connected with the intake and outlet of
said pump, valve ports‘ in said member positioned
to cooperate with the rotor valve ports, speed
independently of said governor and means for
actuating said compensator in response to pitch
> changing movement of said propeller blade. .
> 21. In a hydro-controllable propeller, ‘a hub, a ’
plurality of blades carried by said hub and
responsive means associated with said pump and
mounted for pitch changing movements, a?uid
said member, means connecting said speed re 10 motor operatively connected with said blades for
sponsive means and said pump for moving said
changing the pitch thereof, a ?uid pum'p carried ,
pump rotor relative to said member to control
the output of said pump by controlling the~rela
tive position of said valve ports.
20. In a hydro-controllable propeller, a hub, a 15
by said hub for supplying pressure ?uid to said
motor, a cut-off valve between said pijimp and
motor, a governor ioroperating said valve and a
governor compensator including means ‘operative
plurality oi.’ blades carried by said hub and~ in response to the velocity of pitch change move
ment of the blades for shifting the position of
mounted for pitch changing movements, a ?uid
said valve.
motor operatively connected with said blades vfor
WALTER SCOT!’ HOOVER. '
changing the pitch thereof, a, ?uid pump carried
by said hub for supplying pressure ?uid to said 20
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