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Патент USA US2403544

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July 9, 1946-‘
w. H. NEWELL
I
' 2,403,544
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER
_
Filed Feb. 21, 1941
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5W3? 9, 1946-
w. H. NEWELL
\2,403,544
GUNFIRE CONTROL COMPUTER.
Filed Feb. 21, 1941‘
Z-Sheets-Sheet 2
SGLOOOI
mm
mm
6
.
INVENTOR
‘
Maia/Wilma“ .
“v.
ATTORNEY
Patented July 9, 1946
_
2,403,544 , V f
UNITED STATES m
2,403,544
cUNFiRE CONTROL COMPUTER:
William
Newell, New York, N. Y., assignor to
_
Ford . Instrumentv Company, Inc., Long Islandv " ‘
Application
City, N. Y.,February
aco'rporationpf
21, 1941,1Serial
New York
No. 379,926
.3
2 I
This invention relates to gun-nre ‘control com.
used to control the ?ring of guns against aircraft.
The problem of the control of gun-?re against
aircraft may be divided into two classes; (1).,
where the aircraft or target is‘ approaching di
rectly towards its objective or thepoint of'ob
servation and the ?ring gun, and (2) Where the
target is passing at a distance to one ,sideor the.
other of the observing and ?ring point. The 10
invention herein disclosed is applied to the ?rst
mentioned class.
,
H
V
1;
correspond to the predetermined distances “asso
ciated-with the target speed setting. By the aid
of ‘these indicatorsv the operator may~reset.the:
vector'analyzer in accordance with the rangeiand‘
elevation‘ anglelof the target at the. time of ‘?ring;
It is a further object of the invention to :actue
ate ballistic and angle computing mechanisms in
accordance with the computed positions of the
targetto determine and indicate the sight and,
fuse-setting data for‘lthe g‘unsx'"
It will of course be understood
7
' -'
~ 7' " '
’
the invention-and their operation ‘will’ beTun'de'r-v \
stood~ by", considering‘ the Yfollowingj- \ description -
_,
and accompanying drawings in which: if?
‘
Fig. 1 is an elevation-sideWiew of an aircraft
In. considering the solution of the problem of;
anti-aircraft ?re control to-Which this invention
target directly apprqachingganiobservinsansi ?r
is applied as one embodiment thereof, it is as
‘ing mint: at» atonstant .heishtiandghgwing ‘the:
sumed that the target is: directly approaching its
objective, which is the point of observationvand 20 cgnsecutiverangularran linearrelatigns of the.
tareettqthe observineand
eppint; »;
>
the point of ?ring 0f the gun, at a substantially
constant height above the. horizontal plane of
the objective, such as would be done in horizon
the ?re (if the rim; and?
tal-bombing of a selected point._ Upon the pick
Fig-.3 issan enlaraédvl
ing up of the target by observers at the objec
'
i
> 3 _
Mi‘,
tive, the slant range of the target and its eleva 25 dial of Fig. 2.
7, Referring particularly ~ito Big. 1, an air a or
tion above the horizontal, expressed in angular
target I is directly approaching the observing and
units, are observed by instruments well known in
?ring-point .0_ at aconstantheight; (Ii). above-the
the art and from the observed data the height of»
horizontal O>—.0’:an3d at. a horizontalsneed Qf?t.»
the target and the horizontal range may bede
termined, or if the height ‘of the target is known 30 When the target I reachesgppint Arobserllersj
- at O observe the; slant range JR), and the?eleva
or obtained by observations and the elevation is
tiOn .;ang1e:'.0f.,the:~ target: .(Al)g,..ri.rom . which. the
observed, the slant range and. the horizontal
height .;(H) and the, horizontal, range (BI-l2 may,
range may be determined.
a.
. '‘
be‘ calculated by: the equations. resulting; from, the ,
Fromv experimental data obtained during tar—
right_anglej triangle 0AA"
get practices, the most effective ranges of the 35
RH =.R.i<co__s ‘(A-1;" respectivehc. -A' ‘is. the; WWW:
guns are known as Well as the time in seconds
tion of,the-'p'oint A on the horiziontalO.—0.'.v
required to set and adjust the sights andthé fuses
of the projectiles and to load and fire the pro
' N
The distance traveled by theitargetduringthe,
necessary preparation» period; of’. time (XL is lse
lected
as requiredandis represented by the length,
to set the observed valuesinto the mechanisms”, ~ - of; .line
thus ,- de?ning the , pointgB- at‘v
for the mechanisms to calculate the advance
Whi9h‘
the target I willbe atthe end ofithe preparation;
range or fuse setting and the sight angle, and the
jectiles. In this speci?cation,‘ the time required.
40
period.- _The__value ;0fjthe_, distance vAB maygbei
time required to adjust the sight and gtm and
load and ?re the gun is de?ned as the “prepara
expressed by the equation W
tion period of time.” This preparation period is 45
arbitrarily selected and is based upon experience
under various circumstances of operation.
'
anism settable in accordance with the speed of
the target and including a vector analyzerv set
table in accordance with the range or height and
elevation angle of a moving aircraft target ‘at the
observing instant.
_
It is a further object of the invention to, provide
,,
,
'1 _
t
i
-,
=hX-St'
t
- .
~
j
~‘ 41) ,
Thefhorizontal range oi target vl at point B IRE-133i"?
is equaltq-bhe observed horizontalv rangeiminus
An object of the invention is to provide, a mech
59.
the distanceAB
' '
' ‘ " RH3=RH+X¢stj
0r»- ;r; :i
: ; a ‘
~:. I
5-
I
From; the ; right. angle immense. time va
tion of the target when; at; point By (A3) ~will=be=
the angle whosetangent'is the height. divided;
a scale Or chart, associated with the target speed 55 by the horizontal range? to the point "B, or;
; g
setting means, to aid the operator in selecting
one of a plurality of predetermineddistances that‘
the target will move during the necessary prepa:
ration period of time and to provide aipluralityu'
of indicators on the horizontal. range component
'
“Mechanisms-for aecompn'shmgw the? objectsTQ'fF
that $91118 0f the principles thereof are applicable‘
to the solution of problems of ‘the second men
tioned class.
a
member of the vector analyzer spaced soas to
puters and particularly to that ‘type oicomputers,
.From'; ballistic tables or _. curves obtained, ,from' 1
experimental data the: time,0f;.?i'ght5.(t)\.: of;pro.-.t
jectiles is ,iknqwn for various. combinationsof her-1
2,403,544
3
izontal ranges and heights.
ance with the distance represented by their dis
As is well known
placement from; the zero, wire. {9.
the time of" ?ight (t), is the period gt time bet-L
tween theinstant of ?ring of the/projectile and‘
I ‘lA‘s?the range and height scales and the spac
ii‘ig of the vertical‘ Wires are all made to the same
I scale it will be seen that when the range scale 6,
height wire I2 and one of the change of range
wires I9, 20,, 2| or 22 intersect a right angle tri
the instant of its intercepting the target. “ The'
travel of the target during this period of time is,
equal to the speed of the target multiplied by the
time of ?ight or t-St, and is indicated, on
by the line BC, or
l
10
This distance determines the point of intercept
(C) and a perpendicular dropped-from C deter-.
mines the point C’. It is obvious that 0Q’ rep
resents the horizontal range to the point of in
tercept (EH2), and that
The elevation angle of the point of intercept (A2)
is obtained from the right angle triangle OCC’
and is the, angle whose tangent is the. height di
vided by the horizontal range to the point of
intercept (RI-I2) or
(6)
The elevation of the gun above the line of sight
the“ point B, to allow for the movement of the
target during the time of flight is known as ver
ticaljt angular de?ection (U1?) and may be ex
pressed as
Also from ballistic tables and curves obtained
from experimental data
the correction in eleva-»
tion, known as super elevation (e), that must be
applied to compensate for-the shape of the tra
jectory; of the projectile, is known for various
combinations of horizontal ranges and heights.
The total elevation of the gun above the line of
sight is known as sight angle (Us) and» may be
expressedas
‘
'
Us=Ut+e
(8)
Referring particularly to Fig. 2, the vector an
alyzer 2‘ consists of a vector disk 3. and two com
ponentslides 1L and. 5.
The disk 3 has a radial range‘scale B engraved ’
thereon. The range scale 6 terminates in an in
deg-‘1 cooperating» with an angular scale 8 ?xedly
mounted on the frame (not shown): of the in.
strument to indicate the angular position» of- the
disk 3; The vector disk 3 is angularly positioned
by the handle 9- connected to the disk) 3 by‘ the.
shaft?l and gears. H.
The. component slide 4 isrestrainedby guides.
(not- shown) to-move- vertically, thatisiat right
angles to the plane of the constructive horizon
and carries a stiff: wire.
tali diameter. oil the disk 3 disk
3: parallel to the.
angle is formed of which the sides represent
height and horizontal range respectively, and the
hypothenuse represents the direct range (R),
while the angle of the hypothenuse or disk 3 rep
resents the elevation angle of the target.
The target speed (St) is set into the mechanism
by handle 23, shaft 24 and shaft 25 which carries
the dial 26 for indicating the speed set into the
mechanism. The speed dial 26 is cylindrical and
has three other cylindrical dials 21, 28 and 29
mounted adjacent to. it for rotation by shaft 25.
These four dials are shown in greater. detail
in Fig. 3 from which their operation and purpose
will be more readily understood.
On the outer surface or dial 26 is engraved a
scale graduated in miles per hour of the speed
of the target. On the outer surfaces of‘ dials 2T,
28 and 29 are engraved scales graduated in sec
ends of: time and representing the time required
for the target to move respectively five hundred
yards, one thousand yards; and ?fteen hundred
yards at the corresponding speeds as graduated
on dial 26. Above the rings and on a~supporting
structure 30 are engraved letters or numbers for
identifying the graduations 0n the dials and also
index marks 3-! and 32- by» which the distance
traveled by’ the target» during different values of’
the preparation periods‘ (:31) may be determined,
for various’ valuesroft-he speed; of ~the target ('St‘).
'
In the setting disclosed‘ in Fig. 3_, it is shown: that:
for a speed- of the target of two hundred and'?ve.
miles per hour, the distance traveled-by the target;
during values of X of’ ?ve, ten, and'?fteen», sec
ends, is 500, i000 and 1500 yards respectively;
Assuming the Operator knows that ten seconds
as the preparation period of time is su?icient but‘.
that five seconds wouldbe too short a time, hev
therefore sees from the group of dials, especially
ring 28; that» the run of, the target during this,
preparation period of ten'seconds is 1000‘ yards.
As this 1000 yards represents’, the preparation,‘
period (X) times the target speed (St) or the dis
tance A-B of Fig. 1', it will beseen that for these
particular conditions the distance, AB or RH,
minus EH3- is equal to X-St, or 1000 yards.
In setting the ring! 26 to the target speed (St)
the operator also sets, the target speed; in this
case,_ two hundred and‘ ?ve miles an hour, into
the multiplier 33' by shaft 24. The value of ,the
period of the timeof‘ ?ight (t), the generation,
I2» extending across the
of whichnwill be described hereinafter, isv alsoset.
into multiplier 33 by shaft 34. The outputrshaft.
position relative to the center of the disk 3 is
member of, di?erential' 36., and is; positioned, by,
said constructive horizontal diameter. This wire.
represents height (H)- of. the target and its
indicated by the height scale l3 read against
the endof the wire l2; The slide 4/ and-the wire
l2 are located in accordance with‘ theheight of»
the’. target by the handle L4 acting through the
shafting l5 and the gears IS.
‘The component slide- 5' is restrained by guides,
_(not'- shown) to movement relative to the disk 3
paralleli to thewire l2, by means of: gears If!» and
shaft [8, theactuation of. which‘ willbe herein.
after described. The slide 5 carries four verti
cal: wires I9, 20, 2| and 22 extending across the
disk 3. The wire [9 is nearest to the center of
the disk 3. and is designated: by the. graduation
0.- The.» other wires~20, 21Land Here-‘designated.
500, .1000 .and, 1500 ‘yards.- respectively, inaccords'.
35; of multiplier 33 is connectedtmactuate one
the multiplier, in, proportion to t-St_ or the. dis
tance 13-0 of, Fig. 1, which equals the horizontal
range (RI-I3) minus horizontalrange (RI-12).,
Having, determined, from the indicationaboye
the dials 21, 28,011 2,9,,the distance the targetwill,
travel during the selected preparatiorrtime (X),
the operator sets in the observedielevationivalue.
(Al) by. turning the handle 9 to rotatethe disk
' 3= until the index ‘llis opposite the“ desired ._value_»
of theseale 8.7 Forthe assumed,conditions-indie.
ceted by? Fig. 3iandwtenseconds preparationpe-a
riod; the; operator then: moves the , horizontal‘.
ranger slide 5.: from the“ position where its:zero.
yard-r. wire‘, l9 :passes .through the‘: center‘v of fdisk, 3;
until the 1000 yard wire 2| is positioned to inter-5
sect the range scale 6 at the observed slant range
(R). The slide 5 is positioned by handle31_ and
shaft 38 and shaft 35 which are connected to
shaft l8 through differential 36.
-
‘
- It will be seen that the position of the 1000
yard Wire 2| relative to the centerof the disk 3
6.
sented by 'theirotational DOSitiOh-OfIShaft' l0, and: >
of (A2) as represented bytherotational position
of 1shaft’45, Iare :combin‘ed in’ differential i4'li1th'eti
output. of which, shaft 48, represents therelevaa.
tionlpredictioniangle (Ut)1which is?equalftox
A2+:A-3,"a,s shown-'by Equation 7.
~
e e. .
. ..
The super" elevationw‘angle' (e). which is; added
now represents the horizontal range (RI-I); cor
to the'elevation prediction angleiUttoi'obtain the
responding to the observed range (R) and since
sight'S'angIe (Us),'as shownfbyfEquationi8,sis-1a: ‘
the zero wire I9 is permanently spaced from the. 10 function‘ 30f“; the height (H) "and the-horizontal.
wire 2| a distance representing 1000v yards, the
range-.(RHZ') when: the 'targ'et'iis wat:pioihtrsCJ;v
distance of the zero wire from the center of the
From experimental data a ‘ballistic three-.dimene...
disk 3 will represent the horizontal range. (EH3);
sional cam 49 may be made similar in construe-i.
This relation will be seen from Equation 2 since
tion and operation to cam 39 previously described,
X-st equals 1000 yards. The rotative positionof
except that the surface of the solid 'cam is such
shaft l8 connected to slide 5 will therefore also
that cam followerv 50 is moved about its ‘threaded.
represent the horizontal range (EH3); Since the
carriage $5011‘ on the shaft l5 so that. the-‘sector
rotational position of shaft 18 due‘ to the come
5| ‘rotates elongated gear 52'mountedonxshaft:
bined effect of shafts 35 and 38 represents the
53 in proportion to'the'super elevation (e) r '1:
horizontal range (RH3) and shaft 35 represents 20 ‘As the sight angle; (Us) is equal to the-‘pres,
(‘t-St) it Will be ‘seen from Equation 5 that be
diction Tangle (Ut) plus the super-elevation'rtwr
cause of the differential 36 the rotational posi
shafts 48. and ‘53 ‘are connected to differential
tion required of shaft 38 will represent the hori
54, the output of which is: gear 55. The-rota-y
zontal range (RHZ) to the point ofintercept-(C').
tional position of gear 55. thereforerepresents.»
The corresponding value of height (H) for the 25 the sight- angle (Us). Gear 55 is connected to.vv
assumed conditions is obtained by turning shaft
shaft :56 through a yieldable drive 51, such*as“ax
l5 by handle [4 until wire l2 intersects the 1000
centralizing spring. Shaft 56 is connected gto;
yard wire 2| where wire 2| crosses the. range scale
graduated dial 58. by: gear 59. Corrections may
6 at the observed direct range graduation; ,4 e
be applied to the readings of dial 56 by rotatingv
The value of the period of the time of flight is
the'ring dial 60 by the handle BI and gears.~62i
generated by a conventional three-dimensional
The ring dial 60 is mounted coaxially with dial"
cam 39 which consists of _a solid rotated'by the
58 and carries an index 63-against which-‘dial
shaft 38, the surfaces of the variouslateral cross
5891s read. Graduations on ring dial 60aregread;
sections of the solid along its axis forming indi-.
against'the ?xed index64 to indicate; the-amount
vidual cam surfaces to give to cam follower/30 35 the index 63'is' displacedfrom its'-normalppQsi-_
and its associated arm an ‘angular motionabout
a threaded carriage 40a proportional to the time
'As is 1 wellvknown, "the deflection of the sight I
of ?ight of the projectile for the range represent
due to drift isrproportionalnto the super elevaei'
ed by the rotational position of the solid and the
tion, therefore shaft 53 is connected to rotatea
value of height represented by the axial position 40 de?ection dial 65 through a yieldableydrive. 66;;
of the follower 40. The threaded carriage 40a
shaft 61‘and gears 68. Corrections maynbeape
for cam follower 40 is moved parallel to the axis
plied to the readings of dial 65 by ring dial 6!)
of the solid cam to engage the follower tHlewit'h
mounted'coaxially with dial 65 andtmovedby.
the various lateral sections of the cam, in ‘ac
gears 10 turned by handle-1|.
- -'
a
‘
45
cordance with the value of height‘ (H), by the
As the time of fuse setting isproportional to
rotational position of the threaded portion of
the time of flightof the projectile, .the values-of f
shaft l5 which carries the threaded carriage.
fuse settings are made visually available by: con;-,
It will be understood that the threaded carriage
necting shaft;34* to. dial 172 through a yieldable,
is held against rotational movement by guide
drive .13 and shaft 14, Corrections may be app-.1
50
means not shown. Cam follower 40 is kept in
plied 'to the readings of dial 12 by ring dial 15
engagement with the cam surface by' spring 4|
mounted ooaxially with dial’ l2 and moved by
and its motion is transmitted to elongated gear
gears ‘16 which is turned .by handler". :
a
' .
tion;
>-
-
.vre-
.
.
..
..
The yieldable drives 51, 66 and 13 are provided"
in the ‘connections to the outputdials 58, 65 and
is obtained by a conventional vector-solver 44 55 12 respectively, to permit the dials to- be locked’
42The
on shaft
elevation
34 by angle
toothed
ofsector
the target
43. " at,
" . point ‘C
the component inputs of which are connected
to shaft I5 the movement of which represents
height (H) and shaft 38 the movement of which
represents horizontal range (RHZ). The output
of vector solver 44 is shaft 45 the rotational posi-' 60
tion of which represents the elevation angle (A2)
to the point C as shown by Equation 6.
'
-
The elevation angle (A3) of the target at point
B is obtained from vector analyzer ‘2. It has
been explained that the position of the- slide 5
and the zero wire I!) represent the horizontal
range (EH3) to the point B. If the‘ operator now»
rotates disk 3 by handle 9 until the range ‘scale
in ‘position as soon as a-solution has been ob
tained so' that while the readings are being taken»
from the dials the operator may change them
put settings in accordance withnew observations.
To lock the dials when desired, the ‘ends of;
the/"yieldable drives.‘ connected to the dials are
each provided'with a brake drum 18. Cooper
ating with each. brake drum ‘[8 is a brake-shoe
19 mounted on_an. arm 80.
The arms 80 are
pivoted to theiframe of theinstrument on pivots;
8|. The free ends of the arms 80 are adjacent
to collars '82 on a locking rod 83 which is actu
atedby a .push knob or button 84. The locking
rod is normally held in ‘its out position by a
6 crosses the zero wire [9 where wire l9, inter
sects the height wire l2 the position of disk 3 70 spring 85' one. end 'of which‘ abuts against the '
and the rotational position of shaft ID will rep
under sideof button 84 and the other end against
resent the elevation angle (A3) as shown by
the frame of the instrument. 7
e
g1; -
Equation 3.
This position of therange scale 6
is indicated by the dotted line 46 on Fig. 2. l . .
: The values of elevation angles (A3) as :repre-.
Normally the locking button is in its outpost-z
tion and the dials 58, 65and12 are driven Lin;
75' accordance with the driving'end of the yieldable:
gnu-c3544;
7.‘
drive“ Whemthezbuttnn 84 is pressed- thetbrakei
the: target; meansmovable in accordance} with . a.
computed’ time of? ?ight. of the; projectile‘, a mul
tiplien
settableibyithe-target speed settable means!
1'8? andf lock. the dials while- the‘. mechanism may
and
timezof:flightmovablemeans;means for
be‘: reset. with: consequent. displacement. of the‘
setting the secondslide with.’ thatoneofiits incre
yield‘ablelv drive. When; the button 811‘v is released: 5 ment
wires corresponding to' the: distance trav
the brakes are released‘- ami the; dials? come' into.
ersedé.
in:
a. preparation‘. period: in‘ a‘ position: corre
agreement with” the new: computed: values.
spending with the observed‘ slant rangezand: ele
It is: obvious. that’. various‘ changes
be.
vation of! the target. including anloperatingshaft.
made hy'th'ose skilled in’ the artinlthes detail‘sioi. 10 and’; at diirerential oneasidezof- which is connected;
the: invention as disclosedi
the drawings: and‘
to* the" output of the'multiplier and the other two
described: above: withinthe principle andiscopemf'
sides of ‘which are connected’ to:the;shaft and. the
the: invention as. expressed:
the: appended‘.
second? slide: respectively; ballistic computing
claims;
meansvconne'cteditozth'e ?rst slide and-:toi the op‘
liclaimlz
erating: shaft. of theisecondsli‘de' setting means as‘.
15
1;. Apparatusfor use in aiming: aagunicr ?ring.
inputs; and, having‘v an: output moved" in accord-1
avprcjectile at? atargetapproaching at a. constant.
ance witltthe time of; flight; motion transmitting
heightiabove' a horizontaliplane; comprisihgsaiveca
means connecting the output of‘th'e ballisti'czcom
ton analyzer’ including a; vector member‘ having:
putin'g: means and the time of flight movable
a range. scaleiangularlysettable in accordance with‘:
meansiand means connected to the target speed
elevation: angles. of the- target- and also including 20F settable
means forsindicating:increments of move-l
8110652192‘ come. in: contact with the brake drums"
a‘ first-- component 'slide- settable to positions in'
accordance withthe observe'di height; of the: tar-
ment. of ' the‘ target‘: for corresponding periods: of:
getandza. second component. slidesettahleztmpost
preparationatimez .
tions-in' accordance‘ with the; horizontalz range: of
the target, the ?rst slide having amindicating‘
Wire‘ thereon extending ‘from the slide‘ in:v ar.di:-.
recti'oni at right‘ angles to the movement: thereof.
andithe-second slide‘ having thereon azerozrefere
ence=~wire and aplura‘lity of; wiresspaced; at. dise
tancesztherefrom representing predetermined; in;
crements of. horizontal range through. which the
target moves- during corresponding preparation.
periods of- time‘ and extending from the;s1ide" at
right‘ angles‘ to they movement "thereo?lmeansisetm
remem- accordance with theispeed of the=target;_
means movable in accordance with a computed
timeof ?ight of the projectile, amultiplier set
table by'the‘ target speed setta'ble'meansI and the;
time‘ of‘flight movable means, means‘ for setting
the secondi slide with that. one of itsmovement‘.
wireslcorresponding to-the distance traversedtin=
at preparation periodi in. at position. corresponding:
3‘; Apparatus .for‘usein aiming. a gun‘ for ?ring
a’- pro‘jectile. atia‘ target approaching. at a constant
height above‘ a; horizontal plane;. comprising a.
vector“ analyzer including. a vector member haw
ingairange‘scaleizangularly‘settable in accordance:
with elevation anglesi of the target. and also in
cluding av ?rst‘ componentslide- settable' to posi
tions' in accordance With? the‘ observed heightiof
the target and a‘sec'ond componentislidesettable
to positions in accordance‘ with‘ the horizontal
range of’ thetarget, the ?rst slide having an in-"
dicat-ing‘wi’re thereon extending from the'slide
in a- direction at‘ right angles- to the movement“
thereof’ and the second slide having» thereon a“
zero reference'wire'and'a plurality of wires spaced
at distances therefrom- representing predetermined increments of horizontal range through‘
which" the target moves' during corresponding
preparation periods of" time and extending‘from
the slide at rightangles'tothe movement‘thereof,“
the target including anoperatingqshaft' and aldifz 45:1 means settable in accordance with the speed ‘of
with: the observed slant range and elevation: of:
output-of the multiplier: and the‘ other. two. sides;
the target, means‘ movalole'in accordance withia
computed‘ time of ?ight of the projectile; a multi
of which are - connected‘to' the shaft‘andi thezsecz
plier, settahle by_ the targetspeed settablemeans
ferential one side of which. is connected; to the
ond'slide respectively, ballistic: computing meansand‘ thetime of‘flight movable means, means for
connected: to the first slide, and. toltliei operating: so? setting the second slide with that‘ one of its in‘
shaft of the second slide settingmeansfascinputs
crement wires corresponding. to the. distance trav
and having an output movediniaccordanceg'witlr
ersed in a. preparationperiodin a position corre
the time of flight, and motion transmittingzmeans’
sponding to the-observed.‘ slant range and eleva
connecting the output of‘th'e ballisti'cdcomputing
tion. of. the. target, including“, an operating shaft
means ‘and the'time- of ‘flight movablecmeans.
P and adiff'erential onesideofwhich is-connected.
2i" Apparatus for use in-aiming axgunzfor'?rs
totheoutputof the'multiplier. and the other. two.’
ing a projectile at a=~target approachingtataaacom
sidesofwhich are connected‘to the shaft and the
stant height above‘. a. horizontal: plane; _ compris
second slide respectively, ballistic. computing.v
ingl aevector analyzer including-at vector member
meanslconnected; to. the. ?rst-slide and-to the op
havingla range scale angularly. settahleeiniaccorm
ancelwith»elevationangles of the target: and also
including-v a» ?rst componentslide .settable;to.~posi-,
tions=inl accordance with the observed. height; of"
the target‘ and a secondcomponent:slidezsettableg
to- positions in- accordance. with the: horizontal;
range . of ’ the target,v the '‘ ?rst :slide; having an; in;- Y
dicating wire thereon extendingzfromi the. slide:
inka' direction‘ at right angles to the. movement
thereof? and the second .slidewhavin‘g *th'ereoira'v zero.
reference wire. and aplurality ofl wiresspaceda
at? distances therefrom. representing: predeter
mined: increments of; horizontal; range. through
which the target moves‘. during corresponding:
preparation-periods of‘. tiine and extendingrfrom
the slide at'right angles to the mcvementthereofi.
eratingishaft of. the; second. slide ‘ setting. means as
inputs. and. having, a first» output moved- in. ac?
cordance with the :time of?ight and. asecond. output moved in accordance with the super‘ elevation
angle, motiontransmitting means connecting the
?rstvoutput: of» the. ballisticrcomputing, means and
the movable-timeofi?ight means, a .vectorsolver
settable :by; the-?rst: slide '- and > the’ operating shaft
of? the second slide'settingimeansi means respon
sive-to angulanmovement of the range‘scale-from
an initial»positionmepresenting an‘ observed? posi-~
tion- of,~ the, targetto - a- position? intersecting‘ both:
the first‘. slide-wireand ‘the’ zero reference 1 wire of
the'second slide; means for-combiningthe'movei
ment of they responsive means and-thetoutput“ of’
meansa'settable inv accordan'cm withzthesspeedz Ofs: 75'2 the} vector solvenyand meansfor; combiningi'the
@
9
2,403,544
'10
output of the last mentioned combining means
and the second output of the ballistic computing
means whereby the sight angle is obtained.
value and the output of a‘ multiplying mecha- ,
4. In apparatus for use in the aiming of guns,
a vector analyzer settable to represent the posi
tion of a target, means for initially setting said
vector analyzer in accordance with the observed
angular relation of a target from an observing
station, a pair of rectangular component mem
bers associated with the said vector analyzer one
of said members having a single indicating wire
for indicating the height of the target from the
observing station and the second of the said
members having a plurality of indicating wires
spaced to represent increments of movement of 15
the target, means for setting the height compo
nent member in accordance with the height of
a target, means for setting the second component
member to bring the wires selectively into agree
ment with the horizontal range corresponding to
the setting of the said vector analyzer, said last
mentioned setting means including means set
table in accordance with a horizontal range value
and the output of a multiplying mechanism hav
ing two input members, means for actuating one 25
of said input members in accordance with the
nism havingtwo input members, means for actu
atingone of said input members in accordance
with the target speed including target speed indi-'
cating means, means for actuating the other of
the said input members in accordance with the
time of ?ight of the projectile, a vector solver
having one component input directly actuated
by the ‘means settable in accordance with a hori
zontal range value and a second component input
actuated ‘by the means for setting the height com
ponent member and having a vector member
angularly positioned in accordance with the set
ting of the said component inputs, means asso
ciated with the target speed indicating means
for indicating the time required by the target ,
to traverse the increments of movement of the
target represented by the indicating means asso
ciated with the second of said pair of component
members, means for combining the resulting an
gular positions of the vector member with the
means for angularly setting the ?rst mentioned
vector analyzer, and ballistic computing means
todetermine' the time of ?ight of the projectile,
said computing means having input elements 7
connected to the means for setting the height
target speed including target speed indicating
component member and the means settable in
means, means for actuating the other of the said
accordance with a horizontal range value.
input members in accordance with the time of
6. In apparatus for use in the aiming of guns,
?ight of the projectile, a vector solver having one 30 a vector analyzer settable to represent the posi
component input directly actuated by the means
tion of a target, means for initially setting said
settable in accordance with a horizontal range
vector analyzer in accordance with the observed
value and a second component input actuated by
angular relation of a target from an observing
the means for setting the height component
station, a pair of rectangular component mem
member and having a vector member angularly 35 bers associated with the said vector analyzer one
positioned in accordance with the setting of the
of said members having a single indicating wire
said component inputs, means associated with the
for indicating the height of the target from the
target speed indicating means for indicating the
observing station and the second ofv the said
time required by the target to traverse the incre
members having a plurality of indicating Wires
ments of movement of the target represented by 40 spaced to represent increments of movement of
the indicating means associated with the second
the target, means for setting the height compo
of said pair of component members, and means
nent member in accordance with the height of
for combining the resulting angular positions of
a target, means for setting the second compo
the vector member with the means for angu
nent member to bring the wires selectively into
45
larly setting the ?rst mentioned vector analyzer,
agreement with the horizontal range correspond
whereby the output of the combining means rep
ing to the setting of the said vector analyzer,
resents the angular movement of the target dur
said last mentioned setting means including
ing the time of ?ight when the ?rst mentioned
means settable in accordance with a horizontal
vector analyzer is set in accordance with the
range value and the output of a multiplying
50
intersection of the height component wire and a
mechanism having two input members,‘ means
second of the plurality of indicating wires rep
for actuating one of said input members in
resenting a desired increment of movement of
accordance with the target speed including tar- ,
the target from the observed position.
get speed indicating means, ballistic ‘computing
5. In apparatus for use in the aiming of guns, I
a vector analyzer settable to represent the posi
tion of a target, means for initially setting said
vector analyzer in accordance with the observed
angular relation of a target from an observing
station, a pair of rectangular component mem
bers associated with the said vector analyzer one
of said members having a single indicating wire
for indicating the height of the target from the
observing station and the second of the said
members having a plurality of indicating wires
spaced to represent increments of movement of
the target, means for setting the height com
ponent member in accordance with the height of
a target, means for setting the second component
member to bring the wires selectively into agree
ment with the horizontal range corresponding
to the setting of the said vector analyzer, said
last mentioned setting means including means
settable in accordance with a horizontal range
means controlled jointly by the means settable
in accordance with a horizontal range value and
the means for setting the height component for
actuating the other of the said input members '
in accordance with the timejof ?ight of the pro
jectile, and means connected with‘the target '_
speed indicating means for indicating the times
required for the target to traverse the several in
crements of movement of the target represented
by the spacing of the plurality of indicating
wires associated with the second of said pair of
component members, thereby enabling theyoper
ator to select the proper indicating wire to denote f
the horizontal range of the target at the ob
served position set into the vector analyzer so
that the position of the target after a prede
termined increment of movement will be indi- ~
cated by the intersection of a second indicating
wire with the height wire. .
WILLIAM H. NEWELL,
_
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