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July 9, 1946. \ a. w. RUDA 2,403,554 METHOD AND DEVICE FOR DETERMINING THE DEFLECTION 0F ROTATING BODIES Filed Sept. 21., .1943 ' Wyn/m? LWM 03m Patented July 9, 1946 2,403,554 UNITED’ STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD DEVICE FOR DETERMINING THE DEFLECTION OEROTATING BODIES Gustaf Wilhelm Ruda, Stockholm, Sweden, as signorto Aktiebolaget Separator, Stockholm, Sweden, a corporation of Sweden Application September 21, 1943,'Serial No. 503,228 In Sweden November 5, 1942 10 Claims. 1 (CI. 73-66) ., 2 , > ., _ it For balancing bodies rotating at high speed made in the form of a point or a line along the a considerable number of auxiliary devices have been brought into existence. None of these, how ever, has proved reliable and simple enough re periphery of the body. A line will stand forth more conspicuously in the '?eld'of vision of ‘the microscope than a point of identical height and, therefore, a line is preferably. chosen in practice. It must not, however, cover any considerable por tion of the periphery of the body, as: the main point is the sharpness of the-image and same depends on the distance of the mark from the garding its design to have been made use of more than to a limited extent.v Anyway, this applies to centrifugal'technics. '' ' " ' ' The balancing of a centrifugal bowl is as a rule carried out in such a way that the bowl is brought into rotation at a high speed, where 10 object glass and, consequently,~from'the axis of upon the operator holds a colored crayon pencil against that part of the bowl or the bowl spindle, where’ at the same distance‘ from the axis'of roe the de?ection of which is to be determined. " In tation and, consequently, from themicroscope, rotation. Only a short line is practically every this way is produced a remaining mark indicat when the body is rotating eccentric‘ally or makes ing the direction of the de?ection and, in a cer 15 a de?ection respectively. ‘ain‘degree, also its magnitude. ‘Guided by the By observing in the'microscope a mark in the rank or marks, heavy material in the 'form of‘ tin ~»olderings' is ?xed to the bowl'after it has'been taken to pieces. As, however, ‘the place or places in which to ?x the materialas ‘well as the size of 20 and reading olT the radial position of the objec tive, thedistance'of the mark from the objective the‘ method does not imply more than a rather however, the balancing fault has not been indi cated, neither with regard to'it's 'magnitude'nor the salme'is determined by means of estimation, form of a stroke on the side of the rotating body can thus be exactly determined. By so doing, rough correction of the imperfect balancing. In toits position. With the object in" view, a series practice, the process Will therefore have to be re of marks are applied ‘along the'periphery of the peated several times in vorder to give “a ‘satisfac 25 body. If these were on the same axial level, they tory result. Nevertheless, the balancing accord would ?oat together in the microscope‘ and ap ing to this method will not‘be' so accurate as pear as a vsingle'line, ‘and it would thus be impos would be desirable. A chief cause of ‘the not quite sible to' distinguish them fronrohe another. In satisfactory result lies in the imperfectmi'ndica order to make'it possible to‘ distinguish the dif- - tion' of the balancing fault. 'The magnitude of ' ferent marks, they should‘ be placed on different axial levels, and advantageously along a helical line. Each of the marks will then form a line in the ?eld of vision of the microscope, so that the same is divided" into a numberof‘p'arallel lines corresponding to the marks." Aseach line has a given vertical position, a given level of altitude the state of non-equilibrium may certainly be estimated to, a certain extent by the length of the line made by the crayon, but ‘chie?y this is possible only ‘in the case of small faults in-the equilibrium and, besides, the‘length of the line also depends on the pressure exerted ‘by the , pencil. . in the ?eld of vision corresponds to'each of the _ According to the present invention‘ an‘ exact, indication of the unbalance as regards its mag marks on the body. By gradually focussing the different lines to attain maximum sharpness of nitude'and location is obtained bymeans'iof a 40 the image and reading off the radial position of microscope.‘ The principle consistsin applying marks to-the ‘side of vthe rotating body and in ob serving these thru’ a microscope: adjusted so as _ to give a sharp optical image.- the objective, the difference between "the radial distance of the marks can be determined, .In this way is obtained a method of determin This means an ing which portion of the periphery of the'rotat exactly determined distance between the objec 45 ing body is farthest away from‘the aXis of‘rota tive of the‘ microscope and that’ portion of the tion and which portion nearest. Thus, the surface of thebody which forms the mark. ‘ direction of the de?ection‘ relative to‘ the rotating ‘As, with a body rotating at high speed, the body is determined. At the same time a meas mark appears to the observer as a line, crossing the ?eld of visionand havingthe same thickness as the extension of the mark in the direction of the axis of rotation, the image of the mark can be iocussed sharply only regarding its upper and lower outlines, (in the; case -of-a vertical axis of rotation). The mark is therefore advantageously ure of the magnitude of the de?ection is obtained, as this is half the difference between the greatest andrthe smallest distance from the axis. " . 'It is true that no exact determination of the magnitude and the direction of the deviation has been made as yet, as the direction does not,.of course, always pass thru one or some of the marks 2,403,554: 5 6 ?ection of a cylindrical body having onits sur face a set of marks arcuately spaced around the vtating ‘body by microscopical observation along radii of said body, which comprises applying at body at different axial positions coincident with each end of a zone between two substantially the spaced apart sections of one turn of a con tinuous helix comprising means, including a re axially displaced circumferences a set of arcu ately spaced apart marks around the periphery of said body at different axial levels substantially coincident with the spaced apart sections of one siliently supported rotatable shaft, for support ing and rotating the body, a ?xed support, a mi- I croscope adjustably mounted on said support and having its axis radial to the body, said microscope turn of a continuous helix, adjusting the micro scope axially to ?rst one and then the other of being adjustable radially relative to the body for said sets of marks and, while in each position, and with the body rotating, adjusting it radially successive focusing upon said works, and a cali brated scale by which the radial movement of the microscope between successive focusing po sitions can be accurately determined. '7. A device for the determination of the de previously graduated scale’ attached to the micro 15 ?ection of a cylindrical body having on its sur scope from which its movement may be read, the face two sets of marks substantially axially difference between the maximum and minimum spaced apart and arcuately spaced around the radial distances from marks to the microscope. to give sharp optical images of one after another of the successive different marks in the set be ing observed, and determining, by means of a body at different axial positions coincident with 3. The herein described method of determin- , ing the degree of deflection of a not precisely 20 the spaced apart section of one turn of a con tinuous helix comprising means, including a re balanced rotating body by microscopical obser siliently supported rotatable shaft, for support vation along a radius of said body, which com ing and rotating the body, a fixed support, a mi prises applying a plurality of marks arcuately croscope adjustably mounted on said support spaced around the body and in planes at different and having its axis radial to the ‘body, said mi axial levels, altering the adjustment of the micro croscope being adjustable radially relative to the scope while the body is rotating to give sharp body for successive focusing upon said marks, a calibrated scale by which the radial movement of images of the marks on the periphery of the body spaced the greatest and least distance from the axis of rotation of the body, measuring the distances between the positions of said micro scope from which sharp images were observed, tions can be accurately determined and means noting the vertical positions of the marks on the periphery which were brought into sharp set of marks to the other. the microscope between successive focusing posi for adjusting the microscope axially from one a. rotating body comprising, a ?xed frame, a re focus and therefrom determining the circum ferential location of the marks, and calculating the de?ection from the different distances be tween the microscope and the periphery of the .body to give sharp images. 7 8. A device for determining the de?ection of silient support mounted on the frame and adapt ' ed to rotatably support a body to be tested, said support including a cylindrical surface concen tric with said body and adapted to rotate there with, said cylindrical surface being provided with 4. A device for the determination of the deflec tion of a rotatable body comprising means,_in 40 marks spaced apart around its periphery in dif eluding a resiliently supported rotatable shaft, ferent planes normal to the axis of said body, a for supporting and rotating said body, a hollow microscope, means to mount the microscope on cylinder mounted on said shaft and having an the frame so that the line of vision through the outer surface concentric with the body, a set of microscope is along a line radial of said axis, marks arcuately spaced around the cylinder, at different axial positions coincident with the ' means to adjust said microscope in a radial di rection to thereby focus it so that maximum sharpness of each of the images of said marks may be attained one after another while the body is rotating and a scalecooperating with the mi radial to the body, said microscope being adjust 50 croscope for determining, the radial movement able radially relative to the body for successive of the microscope and thereby the de?ection of focusing upon said marks, and a calibrated scale the body when rotating. by which the radial movement of the microscope 9. The herein described‘method of determin between successive focusing positions can be ac ing the direction and magnitude of the deflection spaced apart sections of one turn of a continuous helix, a ?xed support, a microscope adjustably mounted on said support and having its axis curately determined. 5. A device for the determination of the de?ec tion of a rotatable body comprising means, in cluding a resiliently supported rotatable shaft, 55 of a not precisely balanced rotating body by mi croscopical observation along radii of said body, which comprises applying at each end of a zone between two substantially axially displaced cir for. supporting and rotating said body, a hollow cumferenees a set of arcuately spaced apart cylinder mounted on said shaft and having an 60 marks around the periphery of said body, at dif outer surface concentric with the body, two sets ferent axial levels, substantially coincident with of marks substantially axially spaced apart and arcuately spaced around the cylinder, at different axial positions coincident with the spaced apart sections of one turn of a continuous helix, a ?xed support, a microscope adjustably mounted on said support and having its axis radial to the body, said microscope being adjustable radially relative to the body for successive focusing upon said marks, a calibrated scale by which the radial movement of the microscope between successive focusing positions can be accurately determined and means for adjusting the microscope axially from one set of marks to the other. ’ 6. A device for the determination of, the de the spaced apart sections of one turn of a con~ tinuous helix, adjusting the microscope axially to ?rst one set of marks and, while the body is rotating, adjusting the microscope radially to give sharp images of the marks on the periph ery of the body spaced the greatest and least dis tance for the axis of rotation of the body, meas uring the distances between the positions of said microscope from which sharp images were ob served, noting the vertical positions of the marks on the periphery which were brought into sharp focus and therefrom determining the circumfer ential location of the marks, then shifting the 92,403, 554 ~micro‘scope ‘ to‘ the planev of the other: set of’ marks wand. repeating the process. -l0. The" herein described; process of determin ing the-‘location and 'magnitude of ‘Weights to :sharpimages ,ofrthe marks on the periphery .of " the sbody;s_paced the 3 greatest and. least “distance .from the axis of rotation-‘of the body, measuring the distances between‘the positions of said mi “correct the unbalance of a ‘rotating body by mi croscope from whichsharp images were observed, croscopical observation along radii of said body, which comprises applying at 'each endof a zone between two ‘substantially axially displaced cir noting the vertical positions of the marks on the periphery which were brought into sharp focus ' and therefrom determining the circumferential location of the marks, then shifting the micro scope to the plane of the other set of ‘marks and repeating the process and, from the data thus cumferences a set of arcuately spaced apart marks-around the-xperiphery of said body, at dif ferent :axial levels, substantially coincident with "the spaced apart sections of one turn of a 'con determined, calculating the locationan'd magni ,tinuous helix,>adjusting themicroscope, axially to tude of a Weight to be added toeach zone. ?rst one set ofrmarksand, while the body is ro Htating, adjusting the >mi'croscope-radia1ly to give 15 GUST-‘AF RUDA. Certi?cate of Correction Patent No. 2,403,554. July 9, 1946. GUSTAF WILHELM RUDA It is hereby certi?ed that error appears in the printed speci?cation of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 6, line 11, claim 6, for the word “Works” read marks; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent O?ice. Signed and sealed this 15th day of October, A. D. 1946. [mm] LESLIE FRAZER, First Assistant Oommz'ssz'oner of Patents.