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Патент USA US2403554

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July 9, 1946.
\
a. w. RUDA
2,403,554
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR DETERMINING THE DEFLECTION 0F ROTATING BODIES
Filed Sept. 21., .1943
'
Wyn/m?
LWM
03m
Patented July 9, 1946
2,403,554
UNITED’ STATES PATENT OFFICE
METHOD
DEVICE FOR DETERMINING
THE DEFLECTION OEROTATING BODIES
Gustaf Wilhelm Ruda, Stockholm, Sweden, as
signorto Aktiebolaget Separator, Stockholm,
Sweden, a corporation of Sweden
Application September 21, 1943,'Serial No. 503,228
In Sweden November 5, 1942
10 Claims.
1
(CI. 73-66)
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2
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it
For balancing bodies rotating at high speed
made in the form of a point or a line along the
a considerable number of auxiliary devices have
been brought into existence. None of these, how
ever, has proved reliable and simple enough re
periphery of the body. A line will stand forth
more conspicuously in the '?eld'of vision of ‘the
microscope than a point of identical height and,
therefore, a line is preferably. chosen in practice.
It must not, however, cover any considerable por
tion of the periphery of the body, as: the main
point is the sharpness of the-image and same
depends on the distance of the mark from the
garding its design to have been made use of more
than to a limited extent.v Anyway, this applies
to centrifugal'technics.
''
'
"
' '
The balancing of a centrifugal bowl is as a
rule carried out in such a way that the bowl
is brought into rotation at a high speed, where 10 object glass and, consequently,~from'the axis of
upon the operator holds a colored crayon pencil
against that part of the bowl or the bowl spindle,
where’ at the same distance‘ from the axis'of roe
the de?ection of which is to be determined. " In
tation and, consequently, from themicroscope,
rotation. Only a short line is practically every
this way is produced a remaining mark indicat
when the body is rotating eccentric‘ally or makes
ing the direction of the de?ection and, in a cer 15 a de?ection respectively.
‘ain‘degree, also its magnitude. ‘Guided by the
By observing in the'microscope a mark in the
rank or marks, heavy material in the 'form of‘ tin
~»olderings' is ?xed to the bowl'after it has'been
taken to pieces. As, however, ‘the place or places in
which to ?x the materialas ‘well as the size of 20
and reading olT the radial position of the objec
tive, thedistance'of the mark from the objective
the‘ method does not imply more than a rather
however, the balancing fault has not been indi
cated, neither with regard to'it's 'magnitude'nor
the salme'is determined by means of estimation,
form of a stroke on the side of the rotating body
can thus be exactly determined.
By so doing,
rough correction of the imperfect balancing. In
toits position. With the object in" view, a series
practice, the process Will therefore have to be re
of marks are applied ‘along the'periphery of the
peated several times in vorder to give “a ‘satisfac 25 body. If these were on the same axial level, they
tory result. Nevertheless, the balancing accord
would ?oat together in the microscope‘ and ap
ing to this method will not‘be' so accurate as
pear as a vsingle'line, ‘and it would thus be impos
would be desirable. A chief cause of ‘the not quite
sible to' distinguish them fronrohe another. In
satisfactory result lies in the imperfectmi'ndica
order to make'it possible to‘ distinguish the dif- -
tion' of the balancing fault. 'The magnitude of '
ferent marks, they should‘ be placed on different
axial levels, and advantageously along a helical
line. Each of the marks will then form a line in
the ?eld of vision of the microscope, so that the
same is divided" into a numberof‘p'arallel lines
corresponding to the marks." Aseach line has a
given vertical position, a given level of altitude
the state of non-equilibrium may certainly be
estimated to, a certain extent by the length of
the line made by the crayon, but ‘chie?y this is
possible only ‘in the case of small faults in-the
equilibrium and, besides, the‘length of the line
also depends on the pressure exerted ‘by the ,
pencil.
.
in the ?eld of vision corresponds to'each of the _
According to the present invention‘ an‘ exact,
indication of the unbalance as regards its mag
marks on the body. By gradually focussing the
different lines to attain maximum sharpness of
nitude'and location is obtained bymeans'iof a 40 the image and reading off the radial position of
microscope.‘ The principle consistsin applying
marks to-the ‘side of vthe rotating body and in ob
serving these thru’ a microscope: adjusted so as _
to give a sharp optical image.-
the objective, the difference between "the radial
distance of the marks can be determined,
.In this way is obtained a method of determin
This means an
ing which portion of the periphery of the'rotat
exactly determined distance between the objec 45 ing body is farthest away from‘the aXis of‘rota
tive of the‘ microscope and that’ portion of the
tion and which portion
nearest. Thus, the
surface of thebody which forms the mark. ‘
direction of the de?ection‘ relative to‘ the rotating
‘As, with a body rotating at high speed, the
body is determined. At the same time a meas
mark appears to the observer as a line, crossing
the ?eld of visionand havingthe same thickness
as the extension of the mark in the direction of
the axis of rotation, the image of the mark can
be iocussed sharply only regarding its upper and
lower outlines, (in the; case -of-a vertical axis of
rotation). The mark is therefore advantageously
ure of the magnitude of the de?ection is obtained,
as this is half the difference between the greatest
andrthe smallest distance from the axis.
"
.
'It is true that no exact determination of the
magnitude and the direction of the deviation has
been made as yet, as the direction does not,.of
course, always pass thru one or some of the marks
2,403,554:
5
6
?ection of a cylindrical body having onits sur
face a set of marks arcuately spaced around the
vtating ‘body by microscopical observation along
radii of said body, which comprises applying at
body at different axial positions coincident with
each end of a zone between two substantially
the spaced apart sections of one turn of a con
tinuous helix comprising means, including a re
axially displaced circumferences a set of arcu
ately spaced apart marks around the periphery
of said body at different axial levels substantially
coincident with the spaced apart sections of one
siliently supported rotatable shaft, for support
ing and rotating the body, a ?xed support, a mi- I
croscope adjustably mounted on said support and
having its axis radial to the body, said microscope
turn of a continuous helix, adjusting the micro
scope axially to ?rst one and then the other of
being adjustable radially relative to the body for
said sets of marks and, while in each position,
and with the body rotating, adjusting it radially
successive focusing upon said works, and a cali
brated scale by which the radial movement of
the microscope between successive focusing po
sitions can be accurately determined.
'7. A device for the determination of the de
previously graduated scale’ attached to the micro 15
?ection of a cylindrical body having on its sur
scope from which its movement may be read, the
face two sets of marks substantially axially
difference between the maximum and minimum
spaced apart and arcuately spaced around the
radial distances from marks to the microscope.
to give sharp optical images of one after another
of the successive different marks in the set be
ing observed, and determining, by means of a
body at different axial positions coincident with
3. The herein described method of determin- ,
ing the degree of deflection of a not precisely 20 the spaced apart section of one turn of a con
tinuous helix comprising means, including a re
balanced rotating body by microscopical obser
siliently supported rotatable shaft, for support
vation along a radius of said body, which com
ing and rotating the body, a fixed support, a mi
prises applying a plurality of marks arcuately
croscope adjustably mounted on said support
spaced around the body and in planes at different
and having its axis radial to the ‘body, said mi
axial levels, altering the adjustment of the micro
croscope being adjustable radially relative to the
scope while the body is rotating to give sharp
body for successive focusing upon said marks, a
calibrated scale by which the radial movement of
images of the marks on the periphery of the
body spaced the greatest and least distance from
the axis of rotation of the body, measuring the
distances between the positions of said micro
scope from which sharp images were observed,
tions can be accurately determined and means
noting the vertical positions of the marks on
the periphery which were brought into sharp
set of marks to the other.
the microscope between successive focusing posi
for adjusting the microscope axially from one
a. rotating body comprising, a ?xed frame, a re
focus and therefrom determining the circum
ferential location of the marks, and calculating
the de?ection from the different distances be
tween the microscope and the periphery of the
.body to give sharp images.
7
8. A device for determining the de?ection of
silient support mounted on the frame and adapt
'
ed to rotatably support a body to be tested, said
support including a cylindrical surface concen
tric with said body and adapted to rotate there
with, said cylindrical surface being provided with
4. A device for the determination of the deflec
tion of a rotatable body comprising means,_in 40 marks spaced apart around its periphery in dif
eluding a resiliently supported rotatable shaft,
ferent planes normal to the axis of said body, a
for supporting and rotating said body, a hollow
microscope, means to mount the microscope on
cylinder mounted on said shaft and having an
the frame so that the line of vision through the
outer surface concentric with the body, a set of
microscope is along a line radial of said axis,
marks arcuately spaced around the cylinder, at
different axial positions coincident with the
' means to adjust said microscope in a radial di
rection to thereby focus it so that maximum
sharpness of each of the images of said marks
may be attained one after another while the body
is rotating and a scalecooperating with the mi
radial to the body, said microscope being adjust 50 croscope for determining, the radial movement
able radially relative to the body for successive
of the microscope and thereby the de?ection of
focusing upon said marks, and a calibrated scale
the body when rotating.
by which the radial movement of the microscope
9. The herein described‘method of determin
between successive focusing positions can be ac
ing the direction and magnitude of the deflection
spaced apart sections of one turn of a continuous
helix, a ?xed support, a microscope adjustably
mounted on said support and having its axis
curately determined.
5. A device for the determination of the de?ec
tion of a rotatable body comprising means, in
cluding a resiliently supported rotatable shaft,
55 of a not precisely balanced rotating body by mi
croscopical observation along radii of said body,
which comprises applying at each end of a zone
between two substantially axially displaced cir
for. supporting and rotating said body, a hollow
cumferenees a set of arcuately spaced apart
cylinder mounted on said shaft and having an 60 marks around the periphery of said body, at dif
outer surface concentric with the body, two sets
ferent axial levels, substantially coincident with
of marks substantially axially spaced apart and
arcuately spaced around the cylinder, at different
axial positions coincident with the spaced apart
sections of one turn of a continuous helix, a ?xed
support, a microscope adjustably mounted on
said support and having its axis radial to the
body, said microscope being adjustable radially
relative to the body for successive focusing upon
said marks, a calibrated scale by which the radial
movement of the microscope between successive
focusing positions can be accurately determined
and means for adjusting the microscope axially
from one set of marks to the other.
’
6. A device for the determination of, the de
the spaced apart sections of one turn of a con~
tinuous helix, adjusting the microscope axially
to ?rst one set of marks and, while the body is
rotating, adjusting the microscope radially to
give sharp images of the marks on the periph
ery of the body spaced the greatest and least dis
tance for the axis of rotation of the body, meas
uring the distances between the positions of said
microscope from which sharp images were ob
served, noting the vertical positions of the marks
on the periphery which were brought into sharp
focus and therefrom determining the circumfer
ential location of the marks, then shifting the
92,403, 554
~micro‘scope ‘ to‘ the planev of the other: set of’ marks
wand. repeating the process.
-l0. The" herein described; process of determin
ing the-‘location and 'magnitude of ‘Weights to
:sharpimages ,ofrthe marks on the periphery .of
" the sbody;s_paced the 3 greatest and. least “distance
.from the axis of rotation-‘of the body, measuring
the distances between‘the positions of said mi
“correct the unbalance of a ‘rotating body by mi
croscope from whichsharp images were observed,
croscopical observation along radii of said body,
which comprises applying at 'each endof a zone
between two ‘substantially axially displaced cir
noting the vertical positions of the marks on the
periphery which were brought into sharp focus '
and therefrom determining the circumferential
location of the marks, then shifting the micro
scope to the plane of the other set of ‘marks and
repeating the process and, from the data thus
cumferences a set of arcuately spaced apart
marks-around the-xperiphery of said body, at dif
ferent :axial levels, substantially coincident with
"the spaced apart sections of one turn of a 'con
determined, calculating the locationan'd magni
,tinuous helix,>adjusting themicroscope, axially to
tude of a Weight to be added toeach zone.
?rst one set ofrmarksand, while the body is ro
Htating, adjusting the >mi'croscope-radia1ly to give
15
GUST-‘AF
RUDA.
Certi?cate of Correction
Patent No. 2,403,554.
July 9, 1946.
GUSTAF WILHELM RUDA
It is hereby certi?ed that error appears in the printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 6, line 11, claim 6, for the
word “Works” read marks; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this
correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent
O?ice.
Signed and sealed this 15th day of October, A. D. 1946.
[mm]
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Oommz'ssz'oner of Patents.
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