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Патент USA US2403567

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July 9, 1946.
“ 2,403,567
Filed Jan. 13, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 9, 1946.
Filed Jan. 13, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
i 2.7
5 ß.
WUw.„noNW@ä M
Patented July 9, 1946
2,403,567 '
Nathaniel B. Wales, Jr., New York, N. Y.
Application January 13, 1942, Serial No. 426,580
4 Claims. (Cl. 13B-90)
The present invention relates to projectiles and
more especially to projectile fuses actuated
The development of electric fuses for projec
use occurs, has an unlimited “shelf life,” and
when put into service according to the invention
may be depended upon to supply the required
electric current at its rated voltage regardless
tiles, especially those employing electrically op
of climatic conditions. This invention, conse
erated or electronic devices, has heretofore been
impeded by lack of a satisfactory source of elec
tric operating current. By means of the present
quently, comprises suitable systems and circuit
arrangements employing hot-cathode type elec
invention an adequate source of primary cur
rent may be included Within the projectile with
assurance of complete reliability and safety and
without appreciably increasing the normal size
or weight of the projectile.
It has been proposed to furnish the required
electric current for the purposes above mentioned
from electrostatic condensers which are suitably
tronic devices in connection with time fuses and
proximity fuses in which the required sources of
electric energy are derived from the combina
tion of a primary cell according to the present in
vention and, if required, also a precharged elec
trostatic condenser. As an example of an
application of the invention wherein a condenser
is not required, there is described below an elec
tric contact fuse for which the detonating energy
is derived wholly from a primary cell which is not
charged before the projectile is released. When
such condensers are properly chosen as to type
formed until ñnal release of the projectile.
and when suitable components, circuit connec
A better understanding of the present inven-tions, and mechanical features, are included, 20 tion may be had from consideration of the draw
satisfactory electric fuses may be produced.
ings, wherein:
Such fuses are described in my copending U. S.
Fig. 1 illustrates a cell structure according to
the present invention applied to a contract fuse
patent application Serial No. 405,570, filed Au
gust 6, 1941. However, in certain classes of
especially adapted to shells;
projectiles it has been found desirable to include 25
Fig. 1a is a diagram of the fundamental elec
electric or electronic devices which for their
tric circuit of Fig. 1;
operation require more electric current than can
Fig. 2 is a second form of the invention applied
be feasibly furnished from an electrostatic con
to a time fuse especially adapted for aircraft
denser charged, as it must be, before release of
bombs and for anti-aircraft rockets;
the projectile. To supply this need it has been 30 Fig. 3 is an alternative form of the device of
proposed to employ batteries of the dry-cell type,
Fig. 2 more particularly adapted to aircraft
but these have not proved satisfactory in prac
bombs; and
tice, chieily because of excessive bulk and weight
Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate two diiîerent types of
and because the characteristics thereof change
proximity fuses, each of which is adapted for use
markedly with age and with changes of temper 35 in projectiles of various types such as aircraft
ature and humidity.
bombs, anti-aircraft shells and anti-aircraft
The present invention contemplates the use of
a primary battery cell fundamentally of a well
The contact fuse illustrated in Fig. 1 is shown
known type. The novel features of the present
as applied to a shell, and the construction is such
invention reside in the structure and mechanism 40 that it is adapted for use in shells even as small
by which the battery cell is formed and by which
as those employed with machine guns. The
it is applied to the several different types of ord
drawings represent the nose of such a shell and
nance projectiles.
The term “projectile” as em
shows a copper shell nose I to which a section
ployed in the present specification and claims
of insulating material 2, such as Bakelite, is
is intended to include shells, bombs, rockets and 45 screwed. To the underside of this insulating
like ordnance devices.
By means of this invention it becomes possible
to employ in connection with projectile fuses,
electronic devices of the ñlament or heater type.
these devices frequently being preferred not only 50
because they are more compact than correspond
section is screwed a fuse base 3 which may be
of brass or steel, for example,«and whichcarries
suitable external threads to which a shell casing
may be screwed.
In the center of the shell nose I a chamber is
formed of suitable dimensions to receive the'com
ponents which make up the primary cell in ac
cordance'with the present invention. This cell
comprises a rupturable vessel or vial 8, of suit
being unformed until the occasion for its actual 55 able material to contain an electrolyte 9 such as
ing devices of the cold-cathode type for the same
output, but also because they are more uniform
and reliable. 'I‘he electric cell of the invention,
2,403, 587
dilute sulfuric acid of specific gravity of approx
electrolyte is absorbed due to capillary action by
imately 1.2 for example. Glass and lead are suit
the spacing sleeve II and thus is conveyed to be
able materials for such a vial. Surrounding the
vial 8 is a cylindrical sleeve I0 of electronegative
in electro-chemical contact with a surface of zinc
sleeve I0 and a surface of copper shell nose I ,
forming an electrical cell which generates approx
imately 1 volt.
As shown in Fig. la, the electric detonating cir
trode of the cell. Surrounding sleeve IIJ is a cy
cuit includes electric cell I--I0, detonating device
lindrical sleeve of absorbent or capillary mate
I5 and switch I-5 connected in series. Hence,
rial which is a non-conductor-when dry. Suit
able materials for this absorbent sleeve are glass 10 even though the cell may be formed as above de
scribed, detonation cannot occur until this switch
fabric and soft blotting paper. The absorbent
is closed. The construction illustrated provides
sleeve II, which may be perforated if desired, is
a sensitive, yet safe, inertia switch. The spacing
in contact with the walls of the chamber formed
between the upper surface of annulus 5 and the
in the copper shell nose I which, being electro
positive metal thus forms the other electrode of 15 opposite surface of nose I is such that when the
forward motion of the projectile is suddenly im
the electric cell.
peded, as by coming into contact with or pene
Below the vial 8 is a rupturing pin I1 mounted
trating a fairly dense substance, the inertia of
on a suitable metallic base I9. Around the pin
material such as zinc, perforated to form aper
tures therethrough, which comprises one elec
annulus 5 will cause it to move forward, as indi
I1 is a retaining compression spring I2 suñicient
ly strong to hold the vial 8 away from the pin 20 cated by the arrows, until it contacts the surface
of the nose I indicated at the heads of the arrows.
I1 during normal handling or accidental drop
to close the detonator circuit. The contacting
ping of the device after assembly. Below the
surfaces may be silver plated to reduce contact
base I9 is a detonating cup 4 of insulating mate
resistance, and, if necessary, spring or self-lock
rial, such as Bakelite, which holds a detonating
or explosive compound I6 in its cavity, as shown. 25 ing contacts may be here employed.
Fig. 2 illustrates an electric cell generally simi
This cavity is closed by a combustible retaining
lar to that of Fig. l, but modified so as to be
disc or diaphragm I3. A screw or rivet I4 elec
adapted for use in connection with an electric
trically connects to the metallic base I9 suitable
time fuse. The drawings illustrate a time fuse
lengths of detonating or heater ñlament I5 which
pass through the detonating compound, thence 30 such as may be employed in an aircraft bomb
or in an anti-aircraft rocket, for example.
around the edge of the retaining disc I3 to make
In this ñgure the projectile casing 38 is shown
contact with the fuse base 3 as illustrated.
to support an end bushing 2| of suitable metal,
Above the cup 4 is provided a space accommo
dating a metal annulus 5 in which a groove is
such as brass, which screws into a hole through
the case. To this bushing is screwed a cylin
formed around the outside surface. A corre
drical copper casing 20 which encloses the ele
sponding groove is also formed on the inside sur
ments of the velectric cell according to the inven
face of fuse base 3 as -shown. In these two
tion, and which acts also as one electrode (pos
grooves is placed a ring of spring wire 5 which
itive) thereof. As before, the negative electrode
tends to retain the annulus in its normal posi
40 comprises a perforated zinc cylinder I0' in which
tion as shown.
is inserted a sealed vial or vessel 8' filled with an
A thick washer I8 of insulating material sep
electrolyte 9', such as a dilute sulfuric acid solu
arates the lower portion of the copper shell nose
tion. A plug or cushion 1’ of insulating material
I from the opposite surface of the metallic base
separates the end of the vial from the end of the
I9. Another piece of insulating material 1, such
as suitably shaped rubber, is inserted in the 45 cell proper. In the construction shown in Fig. 2
the zinc electrode cylinder is formed with one end
closed end of the central chamber of the copper
closed, this being a convenient construction for
shell nose I before the electric cell is inserted,
the present modification because it enables a con
in order to cushion the end of the vial and to pre
nection from the negative electrode to be made
vent a shortcircuit across the end of the electric
50 through a hole in the end of the copper casing
cell when formed.
20 by means of a rivet or screw 30 passing through
The operation of the electric cell according to
an insulating terminal disc 21 which serves to
the invention as illustrated in Fig. 1 is as fol
separate the end of the casing 20 from the end
lows: When the shell is released, thus initiating
of the zinc cylinder I0'.
its path of flight, the force of inertia or “set
On the opposite end of the electric cell is a
bac ” forces vial 8 back against the pressure of 55
spring I2 to collide with rupturing pin I1. 'I'he
plunger 25 on one side of which is a rupturing
rupture of the vial allows electrolyte to flow
therefrom and to pass through the apertures or
perforations in zinc sleeve Ill. The electrolyte is
pin I1' normally spaced away from the end of the
projectile. Due to the construction of the de
vice, such force is sumcient to be entirely inde
pendent of gravity and positively controls the
bushing 2I and against the bottom of plunger 25,
urging plunger 25 and rupturing pin I1' toward
the vial 8’. Plunger 25 terminates in a shaft 3|
direction of flow of the electrolyte into electro
chemical contact with both electrodes irrespec
which slides through a suitable hole in bushing
2I. Two holes are shown to have been drilled
vial, as shown. Surrounding the plunger 25 is a
cylindrical insulating spacer 39 which serves to
forced to flow positively and very quickly through 60 retain the vial in position and also functions as
a cylinder wall for the plunger 25.
these perforations due to the centrifugal force
A coil spring 31 acts against a shoulder on end
acting upon it as the result of the rotation of the
tive of the position of the projectile during flight.
diametrically through the end bushing 2| and
shaft 3|. Through one of these holes 46 a cotter
The means cooperating with the rotation of the
shell to apply this force on the electrolyte and 70 pin 23 is inserted, after assembling of the device
as a safety measure. Hole 45 receives an arm
thus to control its direction of flow, include the
ing wire which is commonly employed in con
base I9 which closes the end of sleeve I0 to form
nection with aircraft bombs, such an arming wire
a chamber, the dimensions of the chamber per
being withdrawn just before or at the instant the
mitting the electrolyte to rotate away from the
axis, and the perforations in the sleeve III. The
bomb is released from the aircraft. At the time
the bombs are loaded on the aircraft, and after
the arming wire is inserted in place, the cotter
pin would be removed. Pin 24 which passes
through a suitable hole in shaft 3| and presses
against the end of bushing 2| is use_d in connec
tion with the assembly of the device, and would
be removed after cotter pin 23 is inserted, pre
vious to shipment.
Operation of the electric cell illustrated in Fig.
across condenser C1 should be variable to control
the quantity of the charge in C1. This is the
timing voltage. 'I’he voltage En applied across.
condenser Cz may usually be fixed so long as it
charges Cz with sufiicient energy to furnish anode
potential to the tube 43, and also to furnish igni
tion energy to actuate the electric device I5, here
represented as an ignition element or detonator.
At the time of release o_f the projectile, or as a
2 is generally similar to that of Fig. 1. It differs 10 result thereof, the arming wire 22, or its equiva
from the operation of the cell of Fig. l in that
lent, is withdrawn and the electric cell is auto
upon release of shaft 3|, plunger 25 is urged to
matically formed as above described. The re
ward the vial 8' by spring 31 with suiiicient force
sulting current heats the cathode of thyratron
to cause pin I1’ to rupture the vial. The piston
tube 43 and this tube 43 is then capable of ther
action of plunger 25 tends to force the electrolyte
mionic conduction.
through the apertures or holes in sleeve |0' to
It will 'be seen that the voltage of Ci initially
be absorbed by absorbent spacer i I' and thus con
biases the control electrode of tube 43 negatively.
veyed to and held in contact with the electrodes
this bias being sufñcient to prevent discharge of
l0' and 20 to form an electric cell. Thus the
the tube. Upon expiration of a time period pre
action of the plunger 25 in combination with the 20 determined by the product of R1 and C1 and by
perforated sleeve Ill and the spacer Il is equiva
the preselected val-ue of AE1, the ratio of thev de
lent to the above-mentioned action of the rota
caying negative grid voltage to the positive anode
tion of the projectile in combination with the
voltage reaches a value 4which permits the dis
base I9, perforated sleeve I0 and spacer || in the
charge of condenser Cz through the ignition ele-A
form of Fig. 1, because in both forms of the in
ment I5 and the discharge path of tufbe 43. This,
vention the direction of flow of the electrolyte is
of course, will occur after C1 has discharged itself
automatically and positively`controlled so as to
suñiciently through the leak resistor R1. The
be in electrochemical contact with both elec
timing action commences at the instant the sep
trodes irrespective of the position of the pro
arable connectors 40 are detached from the
jectile during flight. More specifically, when 30 charging source 32.
plunger 25 is forced to move into vial 8, the re
The modification of the invention shown in
sulting piston action positively and quickly forces
Fig. 3 is- particularly adapted for use with air
the electrolyte out of the vial, through the holes
craft bombs and flares, and is so constructed
or perforations in sleeve I0, as above described,
that the electric cell is formed automatically a
and thus replaces the similar effect of centrifugal
predetermined interval after release of the pro
force as described in connection with the form of
jectile and during its trajectory. To this end the
Fig. 1.
bomb, for example, is ñtted with a mechanism
The elements comprising the time fuse of Fig. 2
driven by an airvane which begins to operate
are shown diagrammatically below the electric
immediately upon release from the aircraft.
cell just described, and comprise a gaseous dis
This mechanism, known inthe art as an arm
charge tube 43 of the Thyratron type which in
cludes the usual heated filament type cathode.
anode and control electrode or grid. The timing
ing vane, is here arranged to rupture a vessel
holding electrolyte as in Fig. 2 and thus to form
an electric cell in accordance with the invention.
resistance R1 and timing condenser C1 are con
The elements of the cell of Fig. 3 being similar
nected in parallel between the control electrode 45 to those correspondingly numbered in Fig. 2, re
and cathode. The output circuit of tube 43 in
quire no further description. In the device of
cludes in series a safety switch S1 and ignition
Fig. 3, however, the plunger 3| and rupture point
element I5. It is not necessary that a switch be
I1’ are caused to move toward the vessel 8' by
included in the cathode circuit because the cell
the force initially derived from an air driven
is not formed and hence no current flows in the 50 propeller usually mounted on the nose of the
cathode circuit until the vessel 8' is ruptured.
bomb. This propeller includes two airvanes' 33
secured to bushing- 34 which is journaled ax
However, as an added safety precaution switch Si
actuated after release of the projectile, is included.
ially in casing 35 so that thrust bearing balls
36 receive the thrust of air pressure on the vanes.
Such a safety switch may be operated, for in
stance, by means of an airvane and gear reduc 55 Rotation of vanes 33 due to the free fall of the
tion mechanism as shown in my mentioned co
bomb or flare to the nose of which they are at
pending application.
tached rotates a driving spur gear 4| which is
secured to bushing 34.
Those skilled in the art will appreciate the ad
vantage of .a reliable and stardardized voltage
Axially threaded in the bushing 34 is a shaft
supply for furnishing heating current for the 60 42 which is integral with a driven gear 43. This
cathode. Inasmuch as the timing of the timing
driven gear differs by one tooth from driving
spur gear 4|. Pinion gear 44 engages both of
circuit depends in part upon the electron emis
gears 4| and 43 and is arranged to revolve freely
sion from the cathode, it is necessary that the
heating current be in excess of a minimum value.
on a fixed axis. Thus the rotation of bushing
'I'his requirement is met by means of the present 65 34 will slowly revolve screw shaft 42 by reason
of the epicyclic gear action resulting from the
invention which furnishes current from a stand
gear train just described. Since this screw shaft
ardized electric cell which, because it is formed
immediately before use, is always fresh and re
42 ls threaded into bushing 34, as shown, the '
rotation of the -sleeve will progressively move the
The operation of the fuse system of Fig. 2 is 70 shaft downward, causing rupture point I1’ to
as follows: Shortly before the projectile is to be
, collide with vessel 8' and release the electrolyte.
released, voltage sources E1 and E2 (here repre
Further movement of the plunger 25 tends to
sented as batteries 32) are connected through
force the electrolyte thro-ugh the perforations in
separable connectors 40 to charge condensers
sleeve I0', as in Fig. 2, independent of other forces
Cr and Cz, respectively. The voltage impressed 75 such as gravity, for example.
The control and ignition circuits connected to
be energized by the rupture cell just referred to
potential is impressed on the control electrode of
may, for example, be those of the time fuse of
Fig. 2 or those of the proximity fuses of Figs. 4
As in Fig. 2 the anode circuit of discharge tube
43 includes in series a safety switch l, ignition
element I5 'and energy storage condenser Cz.
and 5. In employing a device like that of Fig. 3
it is usually not necessary to include a safety
switch S1 shown connected in the ignition cir
cuits of Figs. 2, 4 and 5 because of the fact that
this electric cell is not formed until an appreci
able interval after release of the projectile, before 10
which time there is no energy available by which
tube 43 with respect to its cathode.
The safety switch should be arranged to close
automatically after discharge of the projectile.
In the case of an aircraft bomb this switch may
be operated by an airvane as shown in my men
tioned copending application.
The distributed capacity C3 effective across the
dipole 5|, 38 is that measured in free space. This
the fuse can operate. However, in my mentioned
capacity effectively connected across inductance
copending application Ser. No. 405,570, there is
In determines the natural frequency of the cir
shown and described an arming vane capable of
15 cuit Cs, L1 which may be termed an “absorption
actuating a safety switch S1.
circuit.” Such frequency may be of the order
Figs. 4 and 5 illustrate the electric cell of Fig. 2
of the present invention employed to energize
proximity fuses for projectiles, the form of cell
represented being especially adapted to use with
of magnitude of 100 megacycles, for example, and
the natural “free space” frequency of C3, L1 may
be, say, 105 megacycles.
The proximity fuse of Fig. 4 operates as fol
bombs. When applied to a, anti-aircraft shell 20
lows: Assuming that oscillator tube 50 is tuned
or rocket the form of electric cell shown in Fig.
by condenser C4 to a frequency slightly lower
1 is more suitable. The proximity fuse of these
than the frequency of the absorption circuit, when
ñgures is housed in a part of the case thereof.
the projectile approaches an object such as the
The case includes a metallic nose 5I spaced and
surface of the earth, a building, or an aircraft,
insulated from the remainder of the case portion
the elîective capacity C3 (sometimes known as the
38 by insulating section 52. The nose portion 5|
“phantom capacity”) increases, and the absorp
and the case portion 38 are utilized as two ele
tion circuit Ca, L1 will fall into resonance with
ments of a dipole which have a fixed free-space
the oscillator tank circuit L2, C4.
electrostatic capacity C3 therebetween. Either
This sudden resonance of the absorption circuit
or both of these metallic portions may be sepa 30
causes a sudden dip in the anode current and in
rated from the case, but it is usually convenient
the accompanying anode voltage of the oscillator
that at least one forms a part of the projectile
case. This free-space capacity increases when
the nose of the projectile approaches af solid
tube 5U. Such sudden change in voltage produces
a transient in the oscillator load resistor Rs, and
this transient is passed through coupling con
object, and it is this change in capacity which
denser Cv to the control electrode of the gas-dis
by changing the frequency of a tuned circuit,
charge tube 43 on which it appears as a positive
ultimately actuates the fuse. A proximity fuse
pulse. This positive pulse on the control elec
of this nature is disclosed in my U. S. application
trode of tube 43 is sufficient to “fire” the tube and
Ser. No. 196,116, ñled March 16, 1938, now
40 to establish a current flow between the cathode
and anode thereof. In other words, the tran
The elements of the electric proximity fuse of
sient effectively closes the cathode-anode circuit
Fig. 4 include an inductance L1 connected to the
two poles of dipole ’5I-_38 and coupled to in
of tube 43 which acts as a relay and allows cur
ductance L2 which.' together with adjustable
rent to flow from ignition storage condenser C2
through ignition element l5 (switch S1 having
tuning condenser C4 connected across it, com
been closed), which energizes the ignition ele
prises an oscillator tank circuit. One terminal
ment and detonates the charge.
each of condenser C4 and inductance Lz is
connected through grid coupling condenser C5 to
Prior to the instant when the positive transient
pulse is impressed on the control electrode of
the grid of thermionic tube 50 which is an oscil
lator tube. A grid leak R2 is connected from the 50 tube 43, as just described, that electrode is biased
to an inoperative point on the characteristic
grid of oscillator tube 50 to the cathode thereof.
curve of the tube, at the anode potential provided
Each leg of the cathode is connected through a
radio-frequency choke coil La to the remainder
by condenser C2 (potential E2), because of the
fact that the grid resistor R4 is connected to the
of the circuit. The two condensers Ce, one con
nected from the anode to the cathode and the 55 ungrounded negative terminal 30 of the cell
2li-»30. It is understood that the potential of
other across the terminals of the cathode, are
radio-frequency bypass condensers. The re
condenser C2 results from a charge given to that
maining terminals of condenser C4 and in
condenser from an external battery 32, or fuse
ductance Le are connected in common to the
setter as described in my .mentioned copending
anode of tube 50, thus completing the anode 60 application, connected through separable connec
tors 40 prior to release of the projectile.
circuit, except for the anode voltage supply
which is furnished to the plate of tube 50 through
The alternative arrangement of the proximity
fuse of Fig. 5 differs from that of Fig. 4 by includ
radio-frequency choke La and oscillator plate
load resistor Rs from a charge impressed on
ing an oscillator, the frequency of which is var
condenser C2 which, functionally, corresponds to 65 ied by changes in the effective capacity Cs of the
condenser C2 of Fig. 2.
'I'he anode of oscillator 50 is coupled to the
control grid of the gaseous discharge tube 43, of
dipole so that, for example, the approach of the
projectile to an object Will lower the oscillating
cathode of tube 43 is a grid leak R4. The polarity
of the connections to the cathode from the
electric cell 20--30 (which is constructed as in
Fig. 2) are such that a negative grid bias sub
ner opposite to that of Fig. 4.
frequency, the frequency of the absorption cir
cuit being fixed. Thus, broadly speaking, the
the Thyratron type, through coupling condenser
Cv. Connected between the control grid and 70 circuit arrangement of Fig. 5 operates in a .man
In the system of Fig. 5 the absorption circuit
L4, C9, of which condenser C9 is adjustable, is pre
tuned to a lower frequency than the “free space”
stantially equal to that of the cathode heating 75 frequency of the oscillator circuit which includes
oscillator tube 50. It will be clear that the fre
quency of this oscillator is determined by a tank
circuit including inductance In in parallel with
which capacity Cs is connected through radio
frequency bypass condenser Ca. Condenser C10
is also a radio-frequency bypass condenser. re
sistor R2 being a grid-leak resistor, as in the case
of Flg. 4.
A rupturable cell 2li-»30, as in Figs. 4 and 2, is
connected, as shown. to furnish heating current
for the cathodes of tubes 50 and 43, the connec
during ilight, a sealed vessel containing an elec
trolyte, a perforated metallic sleeve surrounding
said vessel forming a first electrode of a certain
polarity, a second electrode of opposite polarity
surrounding vsaid iirst electrode, a spacer of ab
sorbent material separating said electrodes and
in contact therewith, means operable by the ini
tiation of the flight of said projectile for rupturing
said vessel thereby permitting said electrolyte
to be released within said sleeve, and means utiliz
ing centrifugal force resulting from the rotation
of said projectile to force said electrolyte through
tions ib'eing such that a negative bias substan
said perforations and thence to said spacer to be
tially equal to that of the cell is impressed on the
conveyed thereby into electrochemical contact
control electrode of the discharge tube with re
spect to its cathode, rendering it inoperative un 15 with said electrodes irrespective of the position of
said projectile during night, whereby to form an
n til the instant of intended operation. The cir
cuits of discharge tube 43 are similar to those
electric cell.
3. In a fused projectile adapted to be rotated
above described in connection with Fig. 4, except
during iiight, a sealed vessel containing an elec
that the input to tube 43 if, effected through tuned
absorption circuit L4, Cs as above indicated.
20 trolyte, a metallic sleeve adjacent said vessel
When a projectile including a. proximity fuse in
forming a first electrode of a certain polarity, a
second electrode of opposite polarity adjacent
accordance with Fig. 5 approaches an object, the
frequency of the oscillator is decreased, bringing
said flrst electrode, a spacer» of absorbent mate
it into resonance with >the iixed frequency of ab
rial separating said electrodes and in contact
sorption circuit L4, C» which, as above noted, has 25 therewith, means operable by the initiation of
the ñight of said projectile for rupturing said
previously been tuned to a lower frequency than
vessel and thereby releasing said electrolyte, and
the “free space” frequency of oscillator 50. This
means utilizing centrifugal force resulting from
oscillator frequency may, for example. be of the
order of magnitude of 105 megacycles, in which
the rotation of said projectile to force said elec
case the natural "free-space” frequency of Ca, La 30 trolyte into said spacer to be conveyed and re
may be, say, 100 megacycles. 'I'his resonance rela
tained thereby in electrochemical contact with
said electrodes irrespective of the position of lsaid
tion impresses a high-frequency voltage on the
projectile during iiight, whereby to forni an elec
control grid of discharge tube 43, which, as be
fore, has been biased to an inoperative point on
tric cell.
4. In a fused projectile adapted to be rotated
_its characteristic curve. The result of thus ener
during flight. a sealed vessel containing an elec
gizing the control electrode of tube 43 is, as
trolyte, a metallic element forming a _iirst elec
previously explained, to “ñre” the tube and
trode of a certain polarity, a second electrode of
effectively to close the anode circuit thereof,
which results in operation of the ignition or det
onating device i5.
opposite polarity adjacent said first electrode,
40 a spacer of absorbent insulating material separat
ing said electrodes and in contact therewith,
means operable by the initiation' of the flight of
said projectile for rupturing said vessel and there
by releasing said electrolyte, and means positioned
tainer therefor, electrodes adapted to form an
electric cell when in electrochemical contact with 46 between said vessel and said spacer to constrain
said electrolyte to ñow into said spacer under the
said electrolyte, means responsive to the force
pressure on- said liquid resulting from centrif
of inertia incident to the discharge of said pro
ugal force due to the rotation of said projectile,
jectile for rupturing said. container whereby said
.What is claimed is:
l. In a fused projectile, adapted to be rotated
during flight, an electrolyte, a rupturable con
electrolyte may ñow therefrom, and means utiliz
said electrolyte being- conveyed and retained by
ing centrifugal force resulting from the rota 50 said spacer in electrochemical contact with said
electrodes irrespective of the position of said pro
tion of said projectile eil’ectively to force said elec
jectile during ñight. in order to form an electric
trolyte into electrochemical contact with said
electrodes irrespective of the position of said pro
jectile during flight.
2. In a fused projectile adapted to be rotated 65
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