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Патент USA US2403577

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July 9, 1946-
c. ‘J. QBREITWIESER
2,403,577
ELECTROMECHANICAL SYNCHRONI Z ING MECHANISM
Fi-ledNov. 23, 1944-
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 9, 1946-
c. J. BREITWIESER
' 2,403,577
ELECTROMECHANICAL SYNCHRONIZING MECHANISM
‘ Filed Nov.- 23, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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PatentedJuly 9, 1946
2,403,577
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
2,403,577
ELECTROMECHANICAL SYNCHRONIZING
MECHANISM
'
'
Charles J. Breitwieser, San Diego, Calif., assignor
to Consolidated Vuitee Aircraft Corporation, -
San Diego, Calii'., a corporation of Delaware
Application November 23, 1944, Serial No. 564,839
9 Claims.
(Cl. 172——-293)
1
2
This invention relates to means for synchro
nizlng the movements of mechanisms inde
pendently operatedand located remote from one
which is simple in construction and e?lcient and
reliable in operation.
Other objects of the invention will appear from
another.
the detailed description.
_ The-invention, as described herein, is directed
particularly to the control of the movements of
‘
The invention consists in the several nove
features hereinafter set forth and more particu
the wing ?aps of airplanes to effect an equaliza
larly de?ned by claims at the conclusion hereof.
In the drawings:
tion of the displacement thereof.
Fig. l is a diagrammatic view illustrating an
The application of the invention to the control
of the wing flaps is by way of example only; it is 10 airplane equipped with ?aps. motors and the re
duction gearing for shifting the flaps. respec
understood that the invention is adapted to con—
tively, and including a perspective view ‘of the
trol the movements of independently-operated
automatic synchronizing mechanism.
mechanisms generally.
Fig. 2 is a view, partly in section and partly in
During the extension or retraction of ?aps on
elevation of the phase changer and the differential‘
opposite sides or wings of an airplane for land
couple for controlling the phase changer.
ings andltakeoffs it is essential that equal dis
' Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of the armature
placement of such flaps be held within close limits
and the ?elds and coils of the phase changer illus
to prevent dangerous rolling movement of the
trating the armature in its normal position when
airplane. These landings and take-offs usually
occur at low altitudes where recovery from such 20 the motors are equally loaded.
The invention is exempli?ed in an airplane
rolling movement is most di?lcult or impossible
which comprises a right side wing it and a left
and therefore equal displacements on opposite
side wing 0’. Wing a. is equipped with a flap b
sides of the airplane is of importance in opera
which is usually pivotally or otherwise supported
tion. The larger types of airplanes require power—
adjacent the trailing edge of said wing, for move
operated shifting mechanism and a pair of elec
ment from a neutral position to an extended or
tric motors for separately shifting the ?aps are
depressed position, as well understood in the art.
used because space and weight limitations render The wing a’ is similarly equipped with a flap b’.
a positive mechanical couple between the flaps
These ?aps, during landing or take-oil, are shifted
undesirable. In practice it has been found that
the relative loads imposed upon the motors for 30 to extend rearwardly and downwardly for in
creasing drag or lift, and for stabilized operation
shifting the ?aps vary as the result of interference
should be positioned at the same angle of inci
31 ice or dirt or by the jamming of a flap or the
dence.
shifting mechanisms so that the desired equal
Separate electric motors iii, in’ are provided
displacement of the flaps by the motors will then
not be attained.
36) for operating the flaps b, h’, each motoroperating
the mechanism for shifting one of the flaps.
One object of‘ the invention is to provide appaa
These motors are of the plural-phase type, for
ratus which includes plural phase electric motors
example 120 volts per phase and 400 cycles per
for shifting the flaps at the opposite sides of the
phase, with one phase which may be termed phase
airplane, respectively, and automatic phase
“A" being supplied directly from the supply line
' changing means for the motors for relatively vary
ing the torque produced by the motors and syn
to the motor, and the other termed phase “B"
chronizing the movement of the flaps on opposite
being supplied to the motors through a phase
sides or wings of the airplane when the ?aps or
changing transformer for effecting synchronized
their shifting mechanism unequally load the
operation of the flaps when the motors are equally
45 loaded by the flaps. Phase “A" current is sup
Another object of the invention is to provide
plied to each of the motors by line conductors
apparatus of this type which includes an auto
I‘! and it}.
matically controlled phase changer for the elec
Electric motor it is connected to shift the flap b
tric motors for synchronizing or equalizing the
movements of the flaps on opposite sides of the 50 by any suitable mechanism, for example a reduc
tion gear ii, the input of which is connected to
the motor, a’gear l3 on the output shaft [2 of the
Another object of the invention is to provide
motors.
airplane.
'
'
.
'
i
,
reduction gear Ii meshing with gear it on a shaft
I5 which is pivot-ally supported to swing the flap b
separate electric motors vwhich includes means
for synchronizing the movements of the ?aps 55 relatively to the wing a from its neutral position
improved flap-shifting mechanism operableby
2,403,577
3
~4
to varying depressed positions or angles', as well
understood in the art.
Electric motor i0’ is connected to shift the
flap b’ by similar mechanism, which includes a
reduction gear H’, the input of which is con
of either of the gears 31, 38 relatively to each
other will, throughplanetary pinions 3G, rotate
I the gear ring 35 which will rotate the. gear 34 and
the armature 21 directionally and proportionately
to the relative rotation of shafts 39 and 40. The
nected to motor III’, a gear 13' on the output
shaft 12’ of the reduction gear Ii’ and a gear l4’,
meshing with gear l3’ and ?xed to a shaft l5’
apparatus for rotating shaft 39 correspondingly
varying depressed positions or angles.
In practice, it frequently occurs that the flaps
ductors 43 to a “Selsyn" receiver 44 whichis con~
to the movements of the right ?ap b comprises a
gear M which meshes with gear l4 on the shaft
which pivotally supports the flap b’ to swing rela
15 of flap 2) for driving an electrical “Selsyn”
tively to the wing 11', from its neutral position to 10 transmitter 42 which is connected by three con
nected and adapted ‘to rotate shaft 39 and gear
_ 31.
Similarly, the shaft 40 is operated respon
.or their operating mechanism are, retarded or
sively to the movements of the ?ap b’ by gear 4|’
obstructed by ice, dirt or from other causes, which
impose unequal loads on the electric motors l0, 15 which meshes with gear I4’ on the shaft ii’ of the
Ill’ which normally produce equal torque. This
flap 2)’. a “Sclsyn" transmitter 42’, three conduc
tors 43' and a “Selsyn” receiver 44'. Each of the
results in the operation of one of the motors at
Selsyn receivers 44 and 44' is connected by a pair
a differential speed relatively to the other motor
of conductors 50 to a single phase alternating cur
and corresponding differential displacement of
the flaps or stoppage of one of the flaps. This 20 rent power source, as well understood in the art.
differential displacement of the flaps may cause
The motors ll], ID’ are of the reversible type
rolling of the airplane during landings or take
and their operation for shifting the flaps may be _
oifs. In some instances one ?ap or its shifting
controlled by suitable switch mechanism for ex
tending and retracting the ?aps, as well under
mechanism may become jammed to such an extent that it will not be displaced by its operating 25 stood in the art. The several parts of the phase
motor.
changer and differential couple are mounted in»a
A phase changer, generally designated 20, is
suitable frame 50.
provided for selectively controlling the supply of
In operation, when the ?aps b, b’ are in their
retracted or raised position, the armature 21 of
phase “B” current to the motors ill and i0’, and
for relatively varying the voltage and/or phase 30 the phase changer 20 will be in its normal position,
as illustrated in Fig. 1. When the ?aps are to be
' supplied to, and the torque produced by, said mo- I
tors. This phase changer is automatically con
extended or lowered and the flaps b and b’ im
pose equal loads upon the motors l0, l0’, respec
trolled by the relative displacing movements of
tively, the differential couple 33 will remain in
the flaps b and b’ through a differential gear
couple which is- electrically controlled by the
active, the armature 21 of the phase changer will
remain in its normal position, and phase “A” cur- '
movement of the flaps, respectively. Phase “13"
rent of the same voltage from line conductors l1
current is supplied to the winding of the rotat
and I8 will be supplied to both motors, and phase
able armature 21 of changer 20 via conductors 22
, "B" current of equal voltage and phase will be
and 23 which are connected respectively to line
conductors I9 and I8, Conductors 22 and 23 are 40 supplied via the winding of the armature 21, which
is connected to conductors I8, 23, ?elds 25, 30,
connnected to the winding around armature 21
and coils l8 and 29 to both motors. The motors
by brush and ring contactors 22’ and 23’ on the
will then supply equal torque for shifting the flaps
shaft 21’ of said armature to permit rotation of
b, b’, respectively, and the latter will move at
the armature 21. The phase changer comprises
equal speed. If and when the loads imposed on
a coil 24 which is wound around a ?eld 25, and
one of the motors Ill, Ill’ by the flaps should be
connected by conductors 26 and 28 to supply
relatively increased from any cause, the increased
phase "B" current to the electric motor 10. The
load will tend to reduce the speed of or retard
phase changer comprises a second coil 29 which
the motor for shifting it, and the differential
is wound on a ?eld 30 and connected, by con
loads imposed on the motors tend to cause the
ductors 3| and 32, to supply phase “B” current
operation of the flaps at differential speeds. The
to the electric motor I0’. Each of the ?elds 25
motor with the increased load and the ?ap shifted
and 30 comprises a pair of diametrically opposite
thereby will tend to lag behind the other motor
arcuate terminals adjacent the periphery of ar~
and the flap operated thereby. The differentially
mature 21. The pole faces of ?eld 25 are dispc sed
moving ?aps, through the gear connections with
at right angles to the pole faces of ?eld 3B. The
the flaps, will cause the actuation of the “Selsyn”
armature 21 is normally positioned, as illustrated
transmitters and the “Seisyn” receivers to pro
in Fig. _1, to deliver current of equal voltage and
duce relatively opposite rotation of the shaft 39,
phase to both of the ?elds 25 and 30 and to supply
40 proportionately to the unequal loads, so that
phase "B" current of equal voltage to, and pro
duce equal torque in, the motors l0 and ill’, for
their synchronous operation when under equal
loads.
,
60
the gear 31, 38 will be rotated relatively to each
other and operate the planetary gears 36 to rotate
.gear‘ ring 35, gear 34, and the armature 21 of the
phase changer. The armature will be rotated in
the direction which will increase the phase “B”
Armature 21 of the phase changer 20 is rotat
able for changing phase “3" current to motors
l0 and I0‘ and its rotative movements in either 05 voltage to the field and coil of tie phase changer
which are connected to the lagging motor and si
direction are controlled by the differential gear
multaneously proportionately reduce the phase
couple which is generaly designated 33 and is re
“B” voltage supplied to the other motor through
sponsive to relative movements of the flaps b and
the other ?eld and coil of the phase changer.
b’. This couple comprises a gear 34 ?xed to the
shaft 21' of armature 21; a gear ring 35 which
The increase of phase “B" voltage and/or phase
carries studs for a set of four planetary bevel
angle to the lagging motor and the decrease of
pinions 36; and gears 31 and 33 which mesh with
voltage and/or phase angle of the same phase to
opposite sides of the planetary pinions; a shaft
the other motor will cause the motors to produce
39 fixed to and for rotating gear 31; and a sep
additional torque for operating the lagging ?ap
arate coaxial shaft 4|! fixed to gear 38. Rotation
and decreased torque to the other motor so as
2,403,577
5
6
to compensate for the varying loads and operate
the flaps at substantially the same speed until
movement in both directions; unbalanced loading
on the flaps is automatically compensated for;
the compensating force is constantly increased
proportionately to relieve displacement of the
the flaps are equally extended or lowered. This
differential supply or voltage and phase to the
flaps; there will be no substantial overtravel if
motors will continue so long as the differential
loads upon the motors continue and until the
differential couple 33 and armature 21 have been
the ?aps become jammed; the apparatus is light
in weight and compact; and no adjustments are
necessary after installation.
shifted to their normal position by the equalized
While the apparatus is herein shown and
movement of the flaps. The rotation of the
armature 21 may continue through 360°. For 10 described as applied to use in equalizing the
movement of the wing ?aps of aircraft, it is to
example, assuming the load of ?ap b on motor
be understood that such apparatus may also be
I!) has been increased so that it is greater than
employed for synchronizing the movement of
the load on the motor l0’, and motor W, as a
correlated movable elements or mechanisms of
result, lags or operates at a lower speed than the
motor 90’, the “Selsyn” transmitters 42, 42', 15 various machines;
which are responsive'to ?ap b, b’, respectively,
Furthermore, the invention is not to be
understood as restricted to the details set forth,
will actuate receivers 44, 44' to'produce relative
since these may be modi?ed within the scope of
opposite rotation of gears 31, 39 which, through
the appended claims without departing from the
planetary gears 36, will rotate ring 35 and gear
34 and armature 21, proportionately’ to the‘ in 20 spirit and scope of the invention.
Having thus described ‘the invention, what I
creased load in that direction which will cause
said armature to increase the voltage and phase ‘ claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
angle of phase “B” current through coil 24 to the
1. Apparatus for operating a pair of corre
motor In and increase its torque and speed.
Simultaneously, armature 21 will reduce the 25 lated movable members, comprising: a pair of
plural phase electric motors, means for shifting
phase “B” voltage and phase angle supplied to
one of the members from one of the motors and
motor [0' through field 30 and coil 29 which will
the other members from the other motor, and
proportionately reduce the torque and speed of
means, responsive to relative variations in the op
motor i0’ through ?eld 30 and coil 29 and the
movement of the flap 1)’. Proportionately to the 30 erating loads in shifting both members, for pro
ducing relative variation in the torque of the
overload on the motor I0, the armature 21 will
motors and compensating for said variations in
be successively rotated: to supply the maximum
the loads to substantially equalize the displace
phase “B” voltage via coil 24 to motor 10 and
ment of the members.
_
substantially no current of the same phase to
the motor l0, during rotation of the armature 35 2. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated
members, comprising: a pair of plural phase
45° from its normal position; to displace the
electric motors, means for shifting one of the
phase “B” voltage from coil 24, and motor Ill
members from one of the motors and the other
with voltage of reversed polarity to the coil 29
member from the other motor, and means, re
and motor I0’ during the succeeding 90° rota
tion of the armature 2'! in the same direction; 40 sponsive to relative ‘variations in the operating
loads in shifting the memberspfor producing rel
to displace the phase “B” voltage of reversed
ative variation in the torque of the motors and
polarity from coil 29 to the coil 24 and motor 50
synchronizing the movement of the members un
upon an additional 90° rotation of the armature
der said variations in the loads.
‘
2?; upon an additional 45° rotation of the
armature 27 to supply equal voltage to coils 24 45 3. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated
movable members, comprising: a pair of plural
and 25.
phase electric motors, means for shifting one of
In like manner, if the motor II)’ is overloaded, ‘
the members from one of the motors and the
the di?erential couple 33 will operate armature
2? of the phase changer 20 to increase phase
other member from the other motor, and means,
responsive to'relative variations in the operating
“B” voltage and phase angle from coil 29 for an
loads in shifting the members, for controlling
increase of torque in said motor and simulta
the relative supply of one phase to said motors
neously decrease the phase “B” voltage and
for producing relative variation in the torque of
phase angle from coil 24 to motor iii to com
the motors and compensating for said variations
pensate for such variation in the loads and to
successively displace the voltage and reverse its 55 in the loads to substantially equalize the dis
polarity in the coils 29 and 24 in the manner last
placement of the members.
4. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated
described.
’
movable members comprising: a pair of plural
If one of the ?aps should become jammed, the
differential couple will operate the phase-shifter
phase electric motors, means for shifting one of
until a complete ,reversal of the phase "3”
the members from one of the motors and the
voltage to the free motor occurs and this will
other member from the other motor, a phase
changer for relatively varying the phase and
cause the free ?ap to hunt about the position of
the jammed ?ap, so that the free ?ap will move
voltage of the current to said motors, and means
only .a very limited degree relatively to the
responsive to relative variations in the operating
jammed flap on the opposite side of the airplane. 65 loads in shifting the members, for actuating the
The invention exempli?es simple, e?lcient and
automatic means for controlling electric motors
for shifting flaps to compensate'for conditions
which cause the flaps to impose unequal loads
phase changer to produce relative variation in
the torque and speed of the motors and com
pensating vfor said variations in the loads to sub
stantially equalize the displacement of the mem
on the motors and to equalize and synchronize 70
bers.
the displacement‘ of the ?aps at the opposite
sides of the airplane.
-
The apparatus described provides for sub
stantially complete and uniform synchronization
_
>
5. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated
movable members, comprising: a pair of plural
phase electric motors, means for shifting one of '
the members from one‘ of the motors and the
or the movements or the ?aps during their-entire 75 other member from the other motor, a phase
2,403,577
changer for relatively varying the voltage phase
of the current to said motors, and means respon
sive to relative variations in the operating loads
in shifting the members and including a differ
ential couple, for actuating the phase changer
to produce relative variations in the torque of
the motors and compensate for said variations
in the loads to substantially equalize the displace
ment oi’ the members.
8
and direction of rotation of the motors and com
pensating for said variation in the loads to sub
stantially equalize the displacement of the mem
here.
8. Apparatus for operating a pair of flaps on
opposite sides of an airplane, comprising: a pair
of plural phase electric motors, means for shift
ing one 01' the ?aps from one of the motors and
,
the other ?ap from the other motor, and means,
6. Apparatus for operating a pair or correlated 10 responsive to relative variations in the operating
movable members, comprising: a pair of plural
loads in shifting the flaps, for producing relative
‘phase electric motors, means for shifting one of
variation in the torque of the motors and com
the members from one of the‘ motors and the
pensating for said variations in the loads to sub
other member from the other motor, a phase
stantially equalize the displacement 01' the ?aps.
changer for relatively varying the phase, voltage
9. Apparatus for operating a pair of flaps on
and polarity of the current to said motors, and
opposite sides of an airplane, comprising: a pair
means responsive to relative variations in the op
or plural phase electric motors, means for shitt
erating loads in shifting the members, for actu
ing one of the ?aps from one of the motors and
ating the phase changer to control the relative
the‘ other ?ap from the other motor, a phase
supply and polarity of one phase to said motors, 20 changer for relatively varying the phase, voltage
and producing relative variation in the torque
and polarity of the current to said motors, and
and speed oi‘ the motors and compensating for
means responsive to relative variations in the
said variation in the loads to substantially equal
operating loads in shifting the flaps, for actuating
ize the displacement of the members.
the phase changer to control the relative supply
7. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated 26 and polarity of one phase to said motors, and
movable members, comprising: a pair of plural
producing relative variation in the torque and
phase electric motors, means for shifting one of
speed ‘of the motors to compensate for said var
the members from one of the motors and the
iation in the loads and substantially equalize the
other member from the other motor, a phase
displacement oi’ the flaps, said phase shifter op
changer tor relatively varying the phase, voltage 30 erating, when one ?ap becomes jammed, to shift
and polarity of the current to said motors, and
the phase of the motor, which operates the freely
a difi'erential couple controlled by relative move
movable flap, through 360° whereby to e?fect al
ments or the members, responsive to relative var
ternate reversals out this motor to maintain the
iations in the operating'loads in shifting the
freely movable ?ap in substantially the same
members, for actuating the phase changer to
plane as the jammed ?ap.
produce relative variation in the torque, speed
'
C. J. BREITWIESER.
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