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July 9, 1946- c. ‘J. QBREITWIESER 2,403,577 ELECTROMECHANICAL SYNCHRONI Z ING MECHANISM Fi-ledNov. 23, 1944- 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 July 9, 1946- c. J. BREITWIESER ' 2,403,577 ELECTROMECHANICAL SYNCHRONIZING MECHANISM ‘ Filed Nov.- 23, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 QM, .NzQ‘ MM. . . \WHJF . .@N . QmYLWJ O PatentedJuly 9, 1946 2,403,577 UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE 2,403,577 ELECTROMECHANICAL SYNCHRONIZING MECHANISM ' ' Charles J. Breitwieser, San Diego, Calif., assignor to Consolidated Vuitee Aircraft Corporation, - San Diego, Calii'., a corporation of Delaware Application November 23, 1944, Serial No. 564,839 9 Claims. (Cl. 172——-293) 1 2 This invention relates to means for synchro nizlng the movements of mechanisms inde pendently operatedand located remote from one which is simple in construction and e?lcient and reliable in operation. Other objects of the invention will appear from another. the detailed description. _ The-invention, as described herein, is directed particularly to the control of the movements of ‘ The invention consists in the several nove features hereinafter set forth and more particu the wing ?aps of airplanes to effect an equaliza larly de?ned by claims at the conclusion hereof. In the drawings: tion of the displacement thereof. Fig. l is a diagrammatic view illustrating an The application of the invention to the control of the wing flaps is by way of example only; it is 10 airplane equipped with ?aps. motors and the re duction gearing for shifting the flaps. respec understood that the invention is adapted to con— tively, and including a perspective view ‘of the trol the movements of independently-operated automatic synchronizing mechanism. mechanisms generally. Fig. 2 is a view, partly in section and partly in During the extension or retraction of ?aps on elevation of the phase changer and the differential‘ opposite sides or wings of an airplane for land couple for controlling the phase changer. ings andltakeoffs it is essential that equal dis ' Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view of the armature placement of such flaps be held within close limits and the ?elds and coils of the phase changer illus to prevent dangerous rolling movement of the trating the armature in its normal position when airplane. These landings and take-offs usually occur at low altitudes where recovery from such 20 the motors are equally loaded. The invention is exempli?ed in an airplane rolling movement is most di?lcult or impossible which comprises a right side wing it and a left and therefore equal displacements on opposite side wing 0’. Wing a. is equipped with a flap b sides of the airplane is of importance in opera which is usually pivotally or otherwise supported tion. The larger types of airplanes require power— adjacent the trailing edge of said wing, for move operated shifting mechanism and a pair of elec ment from a neutral position to an extended or tric motors for separately shifting the ?aps are depressed position, as well understood in the art. used because space and weight limitations render The wing a’ is similarly equipped with a flap b’. a positive mechanical couple between the flaps These ?aps, during landing or take-oil, are shifted undesirable. In practice it has been found that the relative loads imposed upon the motors for 30 to extend rearwardly and downwardly for in creasing drag or lift, and for stabilized operation shifting the ?aps vary as the result of interference should be positioned at the same angle of inci 31 ice or dirt or by the jamming of a flap or the dence. shifting mechanisms so that the desired equal Separate electric motors iii, in’ are provided displacement of the flaps by the motors will then not be attained. 36) for operating the flaps b, h’, each motoroperating the mechanism for shifting one of the flaps. One object of‘ the invention is to provide appaa These motors are of the plural-phase type, for ratus which includes plural phase electric motors example 120 volts per phase and 400 cycles per for shifting the flaps at the opposite sides of the phase, with one phase which may be termed phase airplane, respectively, and automatic phase “A" being supplied directly from the supply line ' changing means for the motors for relatively vary ing the torque produced by the motors and syn to the motor, and the other termed phase “B" chronizing the movement of the flaps on opposite being supplied to the motors through a phase sides or wings of the airplane when the ?aps or changing transformer for effecting synchronized their shifting mechanism unequally load the operation of the flaps when the motors are equally 45 loaded by the flaps. Phase “A" current is sup Another object of the invention is to provide plied to each of the motors by line conductors apparatus of this type which includes an auto I‘! and it}. matically controlled phase changer for the elec Electric motor it is connected to shift the flap b tric motors for synchronizing or equalizing the movements of the flaps on opposite sides of the 50 by any suitable mechanism, for example a reduc tion gear ii, the input of which is connected to the motor, a’gear l3 on the output shaft [2 of the Another object of the invention is to provide motors. airplane. ' ' . ' i , reduction gear Ii meshing with gear it on a shaft I5 which is pivot-ally supported to swing the flap b separate electric motors vwhich includes means for synchronizing the movements of the ?aps 55 relatively to the wing a from its neutral position improved flap-shifting mechanism operableby 2,403,577 3 ~4 to varying depressed positions or angles', as well understood in the art. Electric motor i0’ is connected to shift the flap b’ by similar mechanism, which includes a reduction gear H’, the input of which is con of either of the gears 31, 38 relatively to each other will, throughplanetary pinions 3G, rotate I the gear ring 35 which will rotate the. gear 34 and the armature 21 directionally and proportionately to the relative rotation of shafts 39 and 40. The nected to motor III’, a gear 13' on the output shaft 12’ of the reduction gear Ii’ and a gear l4’, meshing with gear l3’ and ?xed to a shaft l5’ apparatus for rotating shaft 39 correspondingly varying depressed positions or angles. In practice, it frequently occurs that the flaps ductors 43 to a “Selsyn" receiver 44 whichis con~ to the movements of the right ?ap b comprises a gear M which meshes with gear l4 on the shaft which pivotally supports the flap b’ to swing rela 15 of flap 2) for driving an electrical “Selsyn” tively to the wing 11', from its neutral position to 10 transmitter 42 which is connected by three con nected and adapted ‘to rotate shaft 39 and gear _ 31. Similarly, the shaft 40 is operated respon .or their operating mechanism are, retarded or sively to the movements of the ?ap b’ by gear 4|’ obstructed by ice, dirt or from other causes, which impose unequal loads on the electric motors l0, 15 which meshes with gear I4’ on the shaft ii’ of the Ill’ which normally produce equal torque. This flap 2)’. a “Sclsyn" transmitter 42’, three conduc tors 43' and a “Selsyn” receiver 44'. Each of the results in the operation of one of the motors at Selsyn receivers 44 and 44' is connected by a pair a differential speed relatively to the other motor of conductors 50 to a single phase alternating cur and corresponding differential displacement of the flaps or stoppage of one of the flaps. This 20 rent power source, as well understood in the art. differential displacement of the flaps may cause The motors ll], ID’ are of the reversible type rolling of the airplane during landings or take and their operation for shifting the flaps may be _ oifs. In some instances one ?ap or its shifting controlled by suitable switch mechanism for ex tending and retracting the ?aps, as well under mechanism may become jammed to such an extent that it will not be displaced by its operating 25 stood in the art. The several parts of the phase motor. changer and differential couple are mounted in»a A phase changer, generally designated 20, is suitable frame 50. provided for selectively controlling the supply of In operation, when the ?aps b, b’ are in their retracted or raised position, the armature 21 of phase “B” current to the motors ill and i0’, and for relatively varying the voltage and/or phase 30 the phase changer 20 will be in its normal position, as illustrated in Fig. 1. When the ?aps are to be ' supplied to, and the torque produced by, said mo- I tors. This phase changer is automatically con extended or lowered and the flaps b and b’ im pose equal loads upon the motors l0, l0’, respec trolled by the relative displacing movements of tively, the differential couple 33 will remain in the flaps b and b’ through a differential gear couple which is- electrically controlled by the active, the armature 21 of the phase changer will remain in its normal position, and phase “A” cur- ' movement of the flaps, respectively. Phase “13" rent of the same voltage from line conductors l1 current is supplied to the winding of the rotat and I8 will be supplied to both motors, and phase able armature 21 of changer 20 via conductors 22 , "B" current of equal voltage and phase will be and 23 which are connected respectively to line conductors I9 and I8, Conductors 22 and 23 are 40 supplied via the winding of the armature 21, which is connected to conductors I8, 23, ?elds 25, 30, connnected to the winding around armature 21 and coils l8 and 29 to both motors. The motors by brush and ring contactors 22’ and 23’ on the will then supply equal torque for shifting the flaps shaft 21’ of said armature to permit rotation of b, b’, respectively, and the latter will move at the armature 21. The phase changer comprises equal speed. If and when the loads imposed on a coil 24 which is wound around a ?eld 25, and one of the motors Ill, Ill’ by the flaps should be connected by conductors 26 and 28 to supply relatively increased from any cause, the increased phase "B" current to the electric motor 10. The load will tend to reduce the speed of or retard phase changer comprises a second coil 29 which the motor for shifting it, and the differential is wound on a ?eld 30 and connected, by con loads imposed on the motors tend to cause the ductors 3| and 32, to supply phase “B” current operation of the flaps at differential speeds. The to the electric motor I0’. Each of the ?elds 25 motor with the increased load and the ?ap shifted and 30 comprises a pair of diametrically opposite thereby will tend to lag behind the other motor arcuate terminals adjacent the periphery of ar~ and the flap operated thereby. The differentially mature 21. The pole faces of ?eld 25 are dispc sed moving ?aps, through the gear connections with at right angles to the pole faces of ?eld 3B. The the flaps, will cause the actuation of the “Selsyn” armature 21 is normally positioned, as illustrated transmitters and the “Seisyn” receivers to pro in Fig. _1, to deliver current of equal voltage and duce relatively opposite rotation of the shaft 39, phase to both of the ?elds 25 and 30 and to supply 40 proportionately to the unequal loads, so that phase "B" current of equal voltage to, and pro duce equal torque in, the motors l0 and ill’, for their synchronous operation when under equal loads. , 60 the gear 31, 38 will be rotated relatively to each other and operate the planetary gears 36 to rotate .gear‘ ring 35, gear 34, and the armature 21 of the phase changer. The armature will be rotated in the direction which will increase the phase “B” Armature 21 of the phase changer 20 is rotat able for changing phase “3" current to motors l0 and I0‘ and its rotative movements in either 05 voltage to the field and coil of tie phase changer which are connected to the lagging motor and si direction are controlled by the differential gear multaneously proportionately reduce the phase couple which is generaly designated 33 and is re “B” voltage supplied to the other motor through sponsive to relative movements of the flaps b and the other ?eld and coil of the phase changer. b’. This couple comprises a gear 34 ?xed to the shaft 21' of armature 21; a gear ring 35 which The increase of phase “B" voltage and/or phase carries studs for a set of four planetary bevel angle to the lagging motor and the decrease of pinions 36; and gears 31 and 33 which mesh with voltage and/or phase angle of the same phase to opposite sides of the planetary pinions; a shaft the other motor will cause the motors to produce 39 fixed to and for rotating gear 31; and a sep additional torque for operating the lagging ?ap arate coaxial shaft 4|! fixed to gear 38. Rotation and decreased torque to the other motor so as 2,403,577 5 6 to compensate for the varying loads and operate the flaps at substantially the same speed until movement in both directions; unbalanced loading on the flaps is automatically compensated for; the compensating force is constantly increased proportionately to relieve displacement of the the flaps are equally extended or lowered. This differential supply or voltage and phase to the flaps; there will be no substantial overtravel if motors will continue so long as the differential loads upon the motors continue and until the differential couple 33 and armature 21 have been the ?aps become jammed; the apparatus is light in weight and compact; and no adjustments are necessary after installation. shifted to their normal position by the equalized While the apparatus is herein shown and movement of the flaps. The rotation of the armature 21 may continue through 360°. For 10 described as applied to use in equalizing the movement of the wing ?aps of aircraft, it is to example, assuming the load of ?ap b on motor be understood that such apparatus may also be I!) has been increased so that it is greater than employed for synchronizing the movement of the load on the motor l0’, and motor W, as a correlated movable elements or mechanisms of result, lags or operates at a lower speed than the motor 90’, the “Selsyn” transmitters 42, 42', 15 various machines; which are responsive'to ?ap b, b’, respectively, Furthermore, the invention is not to be understood as restricted to the details set forth, will actuate receivers 44, 44' to'produce relative since these may be modi?ed within the scope of opposite rotation of gears 31, 39 which, through the appended claims without departing from the planetary gears 36, will rotate ring 35 and gear 34 and armature 21, proportionately’ to the‘ in 20 spirit and scope of the invention. Having thus described ‘the invention, what I creased load in that direction which will cause said armature to increase the voltage and phase ‘ claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: angle of phase “B” current through coil 24 to the 1. Apparatus for operating a pair of corre motor In and increase its torque and speed. Simultaneously, armature 21 will reduce the 25 lated movable members, comprising: a pair of plural phase electric motors, means for shifting phase “B” voltage and phase angle supplied to one of the members from one of the motors and motor [0' through field 30 and coil 29 which will the other members from the other motor, and proportionately reduce the torque and speed of means, responsive to relative variations in the op motor i0’ through ?eld 30 and coil 29 and the movement of the flap 1)’. Proportionately to the 30 erating loads in shifting both members, for pro ducing relative variation in the torque of the overload on the motor I0, the armature 21 will motors and compensating for said variations in be successively rotated: to supply the maximum the loads to substantially equalize the displace phase “B” voltage via coil 24 to motor 10 and ment of the members. _ substantially no current of the same phase to the motor l0, during rotation of the armature 35 2. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated members, comprising: a pair of plural phase 45° from its normal position; to displace the electric motors, means for shifting one of the phase “B” voltage from coil 24, and motor Ill members from one of the motors and the other with voltage of reversed polarity to the coil 29 member from the other motor, and means, re and motor I0’ during the succeeding 90° rota tion of the armature 2'! in the same direction; 40 sponsive to relative ‘variations in the operating loads in shifting the memberspfor producing rel to displace the phase “B” voltage of reversed ative variation in the torque of the motors and polarity from coil 29 to the coil 24 and motor 50 synchronizing the movement of the members un upon an additional 90° rotation of the armature der said variations in the loads. ‘ 2?; upon an additional 45° rotation of the armature 27 to supply equal voltage to coils 24 45 3. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated movable members, comprising: a pair of plural and 25. phase electric motors, means for shifting one of In like manner, if the motor II)’ is overloaded, ‘ the members from one of the motors and the the di?erential couple 33 will operate armature 2? of the phase changer 20 to increase phase other member from the other motor, and means, responsive to'relative variations in the operating “B” voltage and phase angle from coil 29 for an loads in shifting the members, for controlling increase of torque in said motor and simulta the relative supply of one phase to said motors neously decrease the phase “B” voltage and for producing relative variation in the torque of phase angle from coil 24 to motor iii to com the motors and compensating for said variations pensate for such variation in the loads and to successively displace the voltage and reverse its 55 in the loads to substantially equalize the dis polarity in the coils 29 and 24 in the manner last placement of the members. 4. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated described. ’ movable members comprising: a pair of plural If one of the ?aps should become jammed, the differential couple will operate the phase-shifter phase electric motors, means for shifting one of until a complete ,reversal of the phase "3” the members from one of the motors and the voltage to the free motor occurs and this will other member from the other motor, a phase changer for relatively varying the phase and cause the free ?ap to hunt about the position of the jammed ?ap, so that the free ?ap will move voltage of the current to said motors, and means only .a very limited degree relatively to the responsive to relative variations in the operating jammed flap on the opposite side of the airplane. 65 loads in shifting the members, for actuating the The invention exempli?es simple, e?lcient and automatic means for controlling electric motors for shifting flaps to compensate'for conditions which cause the flaps to impose unequal loads phase changer to produce relative variation in the torque and speed of the motors and com pensating vfor said variations in the loads to sub stantially equalize the displacement of the mem on the motors and to equalize and synchronize 70 bers. the displacement‘ of the ?aps at the opposite sides of the airplane. - The apparatus described provides for sub stantially complete and uniform synchronization _ > 5. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated movable members, comprising: a pair of plural phase electric motors, means for shifting one of ' the members from one‘ of the motors and the or the movements or the ?aps during their-entire 75 other member from the other motor, a phase 2,403,577 changer for relatively varying the voltage phase of the current to said motors, and means respon sive to relative variations in the operating loads in shifting the members and including a differ ential couple, for actuating the phase changer to produce relative variations in the torque of the motors and compensate for said variations in the loads to substantially equalize the displace ment oi’ the members. 8 and direction of rotation of the motors and com pensating for said variation in the loads to sub stantially equalize the displacement of the mem here. 8. Apparatus for operating a pair of flaps on opposite sides of an airplane, comprising: a pair of plural phase electric motors, means for shift ing one 01' the ?aps from one of the motors and , the other ?ap from the other motor, and means, 6. Apparatus for operating a pair or correlated 10 responsive to relative variations in the operating movable members, comprising: a pair of plural loads in shifting the flaps, for producing relative ‘phase electric motors, means for shifting one of variation in the torque of the motors and com the members from one of the‘ motors and the pensating for said variations in the loads to sub other member from the other motor, a phase stantially equalize the displacement 01' the ?aps. changer for relatively varying the phase, voltage 9. Apparatus for operating a pair of flaps on and polarity of the current to said motors, and opposite sides of an airplane, comprising: a pair means responsive to relative variations in the op or plural phase electric motors, means for shitt erating loads in shifting the members, for actu ing one of the ?aps from one of the motors and ating the phase changer to control the relative the‘ other ?ap from the other motor, a phase supply and polarity of one phase to said motors, 20 changer for relatively varying the phase, voltage and producing relative variation in the torque and polarity of the current to said motors, and and speed oi‘ the motors and compensating for means responsive to relative variations in the said variation in the loads to substantially equal operating loads in shifting the flaps, for actuating ize the displacement of the members. the phase changer to control the relative supply 7. Apparatus for operating a pair of correlated 26 and polarity of one phase to said motors, and movable members, comprising: a pair of plural producing relative variation in the torque and phase electric motors, means for shifting one of speed ‘of the motors to compensate for said var the members from one of the motors and the iation in the loads and substantially equalize the other member from the other motor, a phase displacement oi’ the flaps, said phase shifter op changer tor relatively varying the phase, voltage 30 erating, when one ?ap becomes jammed, to shift and polarity of the current to said motors, and the phase of the motor, which operates the freely a difi'erential couple controlled by relative move movable flap, through 360° whereby to e?fect al ments or the members, responsive to relative var ternate reversals out this motor to maintain the iations in the operating'loads in shifting the freely movable ?ap in substantially the same members, for actuating the phase changer to plane as the jammed ?ap. produce relative variation in the torque, speed ' C. J. BREITWIESER.