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Патент USA US2403595

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July-9, 1946-
Y
H. K. GRowALD
-2,403,595*
AIRCRAFT
FiledyDec. 51, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
July 9, 1946`~
VH. K. GROWALD
2,403,595 .
AIRCRAFT
Filed. Dec. 51, 1942_
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
'K ë Je 77
/Mú
U- «
July 9, 41946~
H. K. GRowALD
'
2,403,595
AIRCRAFT
Filed nec'. 51, 1942
4 sheets-sheet 4
I
2,403,595
Patented July 9, 1946
uNiTED STATES - PATENT oFF-ICE
f:
Application December 3l, 1942, Serial No.1470,843
>14 Claims.
1
(Cl. 244-118)
2,
_
Fig. l is a plan of an airplane embodying-the
'I'he invention relates to aircraft, and more
_ particularly to aircraft provided with airtight
invention.
compartments which are adapted to be pres
surized or supercharged when flying at high alti-v
tudes-
-
_
Fig. 2 is a section taken on line 2--2 o'f Fig. l.
Fig. 3 is'a side elevation of the conduit.
_
5
Fig. 4 is a section of the conduit taken on une
such aircraft it is desirable to provide pres-
4_4 of Fig. 3.
surizable compartments in different. portions of
the body or fuselage, for example, a front cabin
for the pilot. _C0-P11013, navigator and other com-
Fig.’5 is a perspective of the flexible section of
the conduit.
Fig. 6 is a sectional perspective of a portion of
_ mand personnel, and a rear cabin or compart- l0 the conduit.
I
ment for other members’of the crew, with an inFig. 'l is a vertical section through one end por
termediate space or 'compartment for carrying
tion of the conduit.
bombs or other cargo which does not require presFig. 8 is a sectional view showing one of the
surizing or supercharglng. Insueh aircraft it' is
fasteners for the iiexible section.
'
deslrablß t0 Provide for the transfer ofl personnel 15 Fig. 9 is a sectional perspective showing a seam>
or supplies between the pressurized compartments >
in the ilexible section of the conduit.
during travel at high altitude. Without IOSS of
'
Fig. 10 is a transverse section of another form
pressure in these compartments. 'It .is also desirable to provide a communicating conduit between
~
of the invention.'
Fig. -11 is a section taken on line li-ii of Fig.
the fore and aft pressurized compartments which, 2° 10 illustrating one end portion of the conduit.
when the airplane is being serviced on the ground,
will occupy the minimum space in order to avoid
interference with loading and such operations,
and a structure which forms a conduit which is
light in Weight#
'
The invention is exempliiied as applied to an
airplane comprising a body or fuselage a; a pilot's
i cabin or _compartment b in front of a bulkhead
c; a compartment d at the rear of bulkhead e; a
»
25 bay or compartment f between the bulkheads c
One object oi’ the invention is to provide, in air-
and e; and a conduit gbetween the compartments
_craft having pressurizable compartmentsl which
b and d. The compartments b and d for the crew
are separated from each other, a'communicating
are sealed so they can be pressurized or super
conduit which extends between said compart- 1 „o charged as, vand by any suitable means. Well
ments and through the intermediate non-»pres- ' known in the art. The conduit g provides a com
surized area. in the fuselage, and comprises a flexible section which is collapsible when it is not in _
use, and can be readily expanded for use when
the compartments are pressurized.
'~ _
,
'municating passage between the pressurized com
partments b and d and is open to the pressure in
said compartments. The compartment f between
,_ compartments b and d usually contains bomb
Another object of the invention is to' provide a 3" racks, hoisting and loading equipment 0r other
conduit for this purpose which has a lower rigid
mechanisms, and havinglarge doors or hatches,
or metallic section which functions as a platform
therefore is not adapted for pressurization.
or floor for anexible collapsible section between
The conduit a comprises a lower rigid or me
the pressurized compartments.
'
40 tallic section which is adapted to serve as a door
or platform over which a person can pass ‘ne->
Another object of the invention is to provide ß
light-weight construction for an aircraft com ' t
munication conduit.
>Another object of the invention is toprovide a
communication conduit between pressurized com- ¿5
partments which comprises a iiexible tubular
member and a carriage for transporting a load
through the conduit and from one compartment
y to the other.
tween the pressurized compartments b and d and
a flexible member which forms a collapsible clo
sure for the portion of the passage above the plat
form.
The conduit g extends longitudinally between
the bulkheads c and e, preferably adjacent one
side of the fuselage about and slightly above the `
level of the usual door in the cabin b. This lo
Other objects of the invention will appear from 50 cates the conduit where it willoffer minimum
interference with operations in the. intermediate
the
The
detailed
invention
description.
consists in` ‘the several novel fea-_
space l. The conduit comprises a substantially
'rigid arcuate lower section 2l of sheet metal and .
I tures which are hereinafter set forth and are
a circumferentially extending flexible member 3l
more particularly deiined by claims at the con
clusion hereof.
I_n the drawings:
_
-
lwhicl'iris-formed of thin Ahighly flexible material,
55 Vvsuch >as impregnated or rubberized fabric or other
2,403,595
suitable material which is adapted to retain air.
A corrugated member 26 of sheet metal extends
under and reinforces the plate 24. The contact
ing crests of the corrugations are spot-welded or
riveted to the floor-plate. `Plates 24 and 26 form
a substantially rigid lower section of the conduit
for supporting a person in transit between com
partments b and d. The flexible member 3| when
extended or inflated to approximately cylindrical
contour, forms-the upper portion of the conduit. 10
The sections form an airtight tubular or substan
of ribs or arched members 21 are shaped to extend
circumferentially around the flexible member 3|
when it is extended and to support said member
in approximately cylindrical contour when not
pressurized. Ribs 21 are U-shaped in cross sec
tion. Each of the lower ends of ribs 21 is secured
by screws 29 to a gusset plate 28, which is secured
by some of the rivets 38 to the plates 24, 2G and
the lower margins of the flexible section 3|. In
this manner these ribs are fixedly supported from
the lower fixed section of the conduit.
,
The flexible member 3| is adapted to »be held
to approximately cylindrical contour from the
`c `and e. The adjacent longitudinal margins of
ribs 21 by straps or tabs 44 which are adapted to
flexible member 3| and plates 24 and 26 are se
cured together by airtight joints. For this pur 15' be lapped around ribs 21 when'the conduit is to
be and is pressurized, and to be disconnected from
. pose, each longitudinal margin of flexible member
the ribs when it is desired to collapse the flexible
3| is looped around a reinforcing cord or rope
memberl 3| Vso that the space occupied by it when
31 and lapped upon itself to form a marginal
tially cylindrical conduit between the bulkheads
portion of double thickness of material. This I v inflated will be rendered available so far as pos
marginal portion fits between the longitudinal 20 sible for operations in the compartment f. Each
strap 44 has one of its ends suitably secured, as
at 35, to the fabric of member 3| and is adapted
to extend around the outside of a ring 21. Each
and double thickness of the member 3| outwardly
strap is provided at its free end with a member
of the cord 31 to form a sealed or airtight closure
between the lapped longitudinal margins of the 25 48 of a snap-fastener. 'The other member 41 of
each snap-fastener is secured to the fabric of
flexible and rigid sections of the conduit.
member 3|. The inside of member 41-fis covered
Each end 0f the flexible and rigid sections of
the conduit is secured to a ring 2| of angular . with rubberized fabric 48 to form an airtight
seal between the member 41 of the snap-fastener
cross-section. which is secured by bolts 2z to one
of the bulkheads c, e. Each ring 2| has a vertical 30 and the fabric of member 3|. When it is desired
ñange 2|a through which the bolts 22 pass. A , to j'collapse the fabric of member 3| the straps
44 will be disconnected at the snap-fasteners so
n packing ring or gasket 25 of rubber or other suit
that member 3| will be free to collapse and rest '
able packing is clampedbetween each flange 2|l `
in folds on the rigid section of the conduit. The
and one of the bulkheads to form airtight seals
fullness in the fiexible member 3| permits the
between the rings and the bulkheads. Each ring
portion between its ends to collapse so it can be
2| has a horizontal flange 2|b to which the ends
folded to rest on the floor-plate 24, as indicated
of the flexible and rigid sections of the conduit
margins of plates 24 and 26. Rivets 38 extend
through said plates and the marginal portion
by dotted lines in Fig. 4.
are secured.
`
In the use of the conduit, the flexible member,
Bottom-plate 24 is arcuate conformably to the
outer periphery of flange 2|b and its ends under 40 while the compartments b and d are super
charged, can be held in approximately cylindrical
lie the flanges 2 |h on the rings 2|. The end por
contour by the straps 44, which will support thetions of the reinforcing plate 26 also underlie the
member between its ends, from the ribs 21. The
end-portions of plate 24 and the flanges 2lb of
supereharge pressure in said compartments will
one of the rings 2|. Rivets 24|'L extend through
flanges 2 l” and plates 24 and 26 so that said plates 45 hold the flexible member extended and a person
can readily pass through the conduit supported
will be supported from the rings 2|. An elastic
by the plate 24 when it is desired to pass from
sealing strip 24h between the outer periphery of
one of the pressurized compartments to the other.
flange 2|b and the plate 24 provides- an airtight
When said compartments are not pressurized and
seal between the ring 26 and the plate 24.
Each end of the flexible member 3| is folded 50' the conduit is not to be used. the straps 44 can be
vdetached at fasteners 46, 41 so that the flexible
around a reinforcing cord or rope 38 and is over
-member between its ends can sag into folds rest
lapped as at 3|° toprovlde a portion of double
ing on the bottom plate 2'4, as illustrated by dotted
thickness of material which extends circumi eren-L
lines in Fig. 4.
~
.
'
tially around the outer peripheryof the flange
The form of the invention illustrated in Figs.
2lb. A flat band 39 extends around each end 55
10 and 11 comprises a tubular member 3|’ of thin
portion of the flexible member 3| which isseated
flexible material, the ends of which are secured
on a flange 2|”, and inwardly of the reinforcing»
and sealed to horizontal flanges 2|d of end rings
cord 36. Rivets 40 which extend through bands
2|' substantially in the same manner as previ
33, the double thickness of material in member
3|, and the horizontal flanges 2|b of a ring 2|, 60 ously described. The longitudinal margins of the
secure the ends of the flexible member to the
rings 2|, respectively. AThe rubberized material
` tubular member are reinforced as before de
scribed, disposed at the upper portion of the tube,
in member 3| seals the joint between said mem
`ber and the ring 2|. A reinforcing and sealing
and lapped over and secured to flanges 50 of a
äildeâlI portion 3|e of the ñexible material of sec
is welded or otherwise fixed to vertical flanges on
channel-member 5I which extends longitudinally
strip 3|d is cemented around the margin of the 65 and continuously between the end rings 2|’ and
said rings. A beam 52, having channels in its
sides and of H cross-section has its top flange
The flexible member 3|, which must be of con
fixedly secured to the top wall of channel-member
siderable length to cross the span between the
bulkheads c and e, is usually made up of lengths 70 5| and forms a supporting monorail for a port
able carriage adapted to transport a passenger
of fabric 3 |V which are joined together by airtight
or other load longitudinally through the com
Joints which are formed by overlapping and
municatfon tube. This carriage comprises pair
stitching and/or cementing together the sheetsof wheels 53 adapted to travel in the channels in
as at 3|", and cementing rubberized strips 3|b
over the seams, as illustrated in Fig. 9. A series 75 the sides of beam 52 and on the lower flanges of
on
.
.
'
'
2,403,595
s
`
.
iiexible material and a substantially rigid‘ñoor
section, and airtight joints connecting the ends
said beam, a hanger bracket 54 suspended from
wheels 53, suspension bars 55 secured to bracket
54 and curved approximately to conform to the
of the flexible section to said bulkheads, respec
tively, said ñexible section being collapsible trans
tubular member 3|', and a platform or support ,
56 secured on the lower inturned ends of bars 55.
versely ofzthe conduit intermediate said ends and
In this construction, the member 5| and beam 52
over the door section to reduce the area in the
space between the bulkheads occupied by the
conduit when it is not pressurized.
4. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads for
o! the invention, the passenger or load is carried
on the platform 56 and the carriage may be 10 -compartments '_which are spaced apart and
shifted manually by the passenger or may -be
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
pulled through the conduit by ya rope or cable tied
occupancy by personnel; and a tubular conduit
to the carriage. Ribs 51 extend circumferentially
for transportation of loads or personnel extend
around- the member 3|" of flexible material and
ing between the bulkheads of said compartments,
are detachably secured thereto by straps 5_8 pro 15 said conduit including a collapsible section of
provide a rigid overhead support from which the
carriage is suspended. vIn the use of this form
vided with snap fasteners and of the construction
flexible material and a substantially rigid floor -
previously described, for supporting the tubular
section, airtight joints connecting the ends of the
íiexible` section to said bulkheads, respectively,
member when it is pressurized. ì This form of the
invention exemplifies one in which a portable load
carrying platform or carriage is supported by a
rigid member for travel through the conduit and
between compartments to which the conduit is
connected.
The conduit exemplifies a construction which
is lighter in weight than a metallic tube. In the
event of a puncture, the ñexible member 3| can
be easily repaired by a rubber patch, while a
from and for holding the iiexible section expand
ed when the conduit'is not pressurized.
5. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads for`
Ícompartments which are spaced apart and adapt-Í
metallic tube presents diñiculty in making such
,_ ed to be pressurized for altitude ñying and "occu-v
said ilexible section being collapsible transversely '
of the conduit intermediate said ends and over
the iioor section to reduce the area in the space
between the bulkheads occupied by the conduit
when it is not pressurized, and means detachable
a repair. When the ilexible member is collapsed, ^
it oiïers the minimum interference with opera 30
' tions between the bay which is not pressurized.
The invention is not to be understood as' re
pancy by personnel; _and a tubular conduit for
transportation of loads or personnel extending
between the bulkheads of said compartments,
said conduit including a collapsible -section of
stricted to the details s'et forth, since these may
iiexible material, a substantially rigid ñoor-sec
be modiñed within the scope of the appended
` tion, and airtight joints connecting the ends of
claims without departing from the spirit and 35 the ?lexib‘e section to said bulkheads, respectively,
scope of the invention.
.
Having thus described the invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
said iiexible section being collapsible transversely
of the conduit intermediate said ends and over
the floor-section to reduce the area in the space
between the bulkheads occupied by the conduit
l. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads 40 when it is not pressurized and having its side
for compartments which are spaced apart and
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
occupancy by personnel; and a tubular conduit '
for transportation of loads or personnel extend
ing between the bulkheads, said conduit includ
ing a collapsible member of iiexible material, and
airtight joints connecting the ends of the ñexible
member to said bulkheads, respectively. said
margins sealed to the floor-section. \
6. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads for
campartments which are spaced apart and adapt
ed to be pressurized for altitude iiying and occu-`
pancy by personnel; and a tubular conduit for
transportation of loads or personnel >extending
between the bulkheads of said compartments,
said conduit including a collapsible section of
ñexible material; a substantially rigid floor-sec-I
member being collapsible transversely of the con
duit intermediate said ends to reduce the area in 50 tion, airtight joints connecting the ends of the
the space between the bulkheads occupied by the ‘
iiexible section to said bulkheads, respectively, l
conduit when it is not pressurized.
said ilexible section being collapsible transversely
2. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads
of the conduit intermediate said ends and over
-for compartments which arek spaced apart and
the door-section 'to reduce the area in the space
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and 55 between the bulkheads occupied by the conduit
occupancy by personnel; and a tubularconduit
for transportation of loads or personnel extend
ing between the bulkheads, said conduit includ
ing a collapsible member of flexible material, air
when it is not pressurized and having its side
margins sealed to the licor-section; and means
for- detachably holding the ñexible section' ex
panded when the conduit is not pressurized.
tight joints connecting the ends of the iiexible 60
'7._ An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads for
member to said bulkheads, respectively, said
compartments which are spaced apart and ada-pt
member being collapsible transversely of the con
ed to be pressurized for altitude ñying and occu
duit intermediate said ends to reduce the area in
pancy by personnel; and a tubular conduit for
the space between the bulkheads occupied by the
transportation of loads or personnel extending
„ conduit when it is not pressurized, and means 65 between the bulkheads of said compartments, said
detachable from Aand for holding the ilexible
conduit including a collapsible section of ñexible
member expanded when the conduit is not pres
material, a substantially rigid floor-section, air
surized.
„
tight joints connecting the ends of the iiexible
3. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads
section to said bulkheads, respectively, said flexi
for compartments which> are spaced apart and 70 ble section being collapsible transversely of the
adapted to be pressurized for altitude dying and
conduit intermediate said ends to reduce the area
occupancy by personnel; anda tubular conduit
in the space between the bulkheads occupied by
for transportation of loads or personnel extend
the conduit when it is not pressurized and having
ing between the bulkheads of said compartments,
its side margins sealed to the floor-section; sub
said conduit including a collapsible section of 75 stantially rigid ribs secured to the door-section
2,403,595
7
and extending around the flexible section; and
means for detachably holding the flexible section
expanded when the conduit is not pressurized.
8. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads for
compartments which are spaced apart and adapt
ed to be pressurized for altitude flying and occu
pancy by personnel; and a tubular conduit for
transportation of loads or personnel extending
between the bulkheads of said compartments,
saidconduit including a collapsible member of
flexible material,` airtight joints connecting the
ends of the flexible member to said bulkheads,
respectively, said member being collapsible trans
versely of the conduit intermediate said ends to
reduce the area‘y in the space between the bulk
8
its side margins sealed to the side margins of l
the ñexible section, means for sealing the ends
of the flexible section to and supporting the ends
of the door-section on said bulkheads, said flex
-ible section being collapsible transverselyy of the
conduit intermediate its ends to reduce the area
in the space between the bulkheads occupied by
`the conduit when it is not pressurized, and means
for detachably holding the flexible section ex
panded when the conduit is not pressurized. '
12. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads
for compartments which are spaced apart and
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
for occupancy by personnel; and a tubular con
duit for transportation of loads or personnel ex
heads cccupiedby the conduit when it is not
tending between the bulkheads,- said conduit in
cluding a collapsible section of flexible material,
around the flexible memberl and means between
a floor-section of arcuate cross-section having
pressurized, substantially rigid ribs extending
its side margins sealed to the side margins of the
the ribs and the flexible member for holding said
member expanded when the conduit is not pres 20 flexible lsection, .including a corrugated re-in
surized.
'
9. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads for
compartments which are spaced apart and
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
forcement, means for sealing the ends of th'e'flex- l
ible section to and supporting the ends of the
floor-section on said bulkheads, said flexible sec
tion being collapsible transversely of the conduit
for occupancy by personnel; and a tubular con
duit for transportation of loads or personnel ex
tending between the bulkheads, said conduit in
cluding a collapsible section of flexible material,
intermediate its ends to reduce the area in the
space between the bulkheads occupied by the con
duit when itis not pressurized, and means for
for occupancy by personnel; and a, tubular con
duit for transportation of loads or personnel ex
section to the bulkheads and its longitudinal
margins to the overhead member, said flexible
ends of the floor-section on said rings, said flexi
for occupancy by personnel; and a tubular con
detachably holding the flexible section expanded
when the conduit is not pressurized.
a substantially rigid floor-’section having its side
13. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads
margins sealed to the side margins of the flexible 30
for compartments which are spaced apart and
section, and rings at the ends of the conduit
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
and secured to the bulkheads, means for sealing ’
for
occupancy by personnel; and a tubular con
the ends of the flexible-section to and supporting
duit for transportation of loads, or personnel ex
the ends of the floor-section on said rings, said
flexible section. being collapsible transversely of 35 tending between the bulkheads, said conduit in- cluding a collapsible section of flexible material,
the conduit intermediate said ends to reduce the
a substantially rigid overhead member extending
area in the space between the bulkheads occu»
between the bulkheads and provided with a rail
pied by the conduit when it is not pressurized.
for supporting a portable carriage-for transport
10. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads for
compartments which are spaced apart and 4.0 ing a 1oad longitudinally through the conduit,
and means for sealing the ends of the flexible
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
section being collapsible transversely of the con
tending between the bulkheads, saidconduit in
cluding 4a collapsible section of flexible material,y 45 duit intermediate its ends to reduce the area in
the space between the bulkheads occupied by thev
a substantially rigid floor-section having its side
conduit when it is not pressurized.
margins sealed to the side margins of the flexible
14. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads
section, rings at the ends of the conduit and se
cured to the bulkheads, means for sealing the ' for compartments which are spaced apart and
ends of the ilexible section to and supporting the 50 adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
ble section being collapsible transversely of the
duit for transportation of loads or personnel'ex- .
tending between the bulkheads, said conduit in
conduit intermediate its- ends to reduce the area
cluding a collapsible section of flexible material,
in the space between the bulkheads occupied by
the conduit when it is not pressurized, substan 55 a substantially rigid overhead member extendingbetween the bulkheads and provided with a rail
tiall‘y rigid ribs extending around the flexible sec
for supporting a portable carriage for transport
tion and supported 0n the floor-section, and
ing a, load longtudinally through th‘e‘condvuit,
means between the ribs and the flexible section
means for sealing the ends of the flexible section
for detachably holding the flexible section ex
to the bulkheads and its longitudinal margins to
` panded when the conduit is not pressurized.
the overhead member, said ilexible section being
1l. An airplane comprising: rigid bulkheads
collapsible transversely of the conduit interme
for compartments which are spaced apart and
diate its ends to reduce the area. in the space
adapted to be pressurized for altitude flying and
between the bulkheads occupied by the conduit
for occupancy by personnel; and a tubular con
duit for transportation of loads or personnel ex 65 when it is not pressurized, and means for de
tachably holding the flexible section expanded
tending between the bulkheads, said conduit in
when the conduit is not pressurized. _
.
cluding a collapsible section of flexible material,
‘
'
HENRY K. GROWALD,
a floor-section of arcuate cross-section having
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