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Патент USA US2403600

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.Fy 9, 1946.
R. s. HOLMES ET AL
I
2,403,600
RECEIVER FOR PULSE POSITION INDICATING SYSTEMS
File'd Nov. 29', 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet' l
Snoentorä
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July 9, 1946.
R. s. HOLMES ET AL
2,403,600 .
RECEIVER FOR PULSE POSITION INDICATING SYSTEMS
Filed Nov. 29, 41941
2 sheets-*sheet 2
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Patented July 9, 1946
2,403,600
Unirse STATES vmTENT"o1-'FICE
RECEIVER FOR PULSE POSITION
INDICATING SYSTEMS
Ralph S. Holmes, Haddonñeld, and John P.
Smith, E_rlton, N. J., assignors to Radio Cor
poration of America, a corporation of Delaware
Application November 29, 1941, Serial No. 420,928
12 Claims.
(Cl. Z50-11)
l
2
This invention relates to improvements in re
ceivers for a pulse position indicating system, and
Referring to Fig. 1, a radio pulse receiver I
is connected through a diiierentiator 3 to the ra
more particularly to a receiver and associated
cathode ray pulse timing tubes which are pro
dial deflecting electrodes 5, 1 and `Ii of the cath-V
ode ray tubes II, I3 and I5, respectively. The
voltages for rotating the cathode ray beams are
vided with means for blanking undesired portions
of the timing traces.
In a copending application Serial No. 420,944,
filed November` 29, 1941, by Irving W011i and
Ralph S. Holmes, a system is described for indi
cating position by means of radio pulses.
The ‘
pulses are radiated in predetermined time rela
tion Áfrom a plurality of transmitters at known
locations.
obtained as follows: A master oscillator I'I, which
is frequency controlled as hereinafter described, ~
The pulses are received at an un
known point. By observing the relative times of
arrival of signals from three transmitters, the
location of the point of reception can be iixed
with respect to the pulse signal sources. In the
described system cathode ray tubes are used as
decade timing indicators. The cathode ray
beams of the several tubes are rotated at high
angular velocities; for example, 100, 10 and 1
kiloeycle per second. Since the pulse duration
is 0f the order of a microsecond or less, and the
is connected through an ampliñer I|9 and variable
resistor to a deñecting circuit. The deñecting
circuit includes a conventional phase splitter 23,
which proves a two-phase output. The two
phase output currents are applied to the deflect,
ing elements 25 of the ñrst cathode ray tube II.
'I'he master oscillator amplifier I9 is also con
nected to a 10 to 1 counter circuit 21 which re-‘
duces the initial frequency by a factor of 10, if
the timing devices are to belof the decade type.
The output of the counter circuit 21 is applied
through a variable resistor 2'9 and a deñecting
circuit 3l, which includes a phase splitter, to the
deflecting` elements 33 of the second cathode ray
tube I3. The output of the counter circuit 21 is
applied to a second 10 to 1 counter circuit 35. The
pulse repetition frequency is relatively low, it fol
output of the second counter circuit is applied
lows that the beam rotating at 100 kilocycles per 25 through a variable resistor 31 and a de?lecting
second will make many revolutions for a single
circuit 39, which includes a phase splitter, to the
radial deflection corresponding to an applied
pulse. Therefore, the resultant radial trace can
be distinguished from the circular trace only with
diñiculty.
In a similar manner the more numerous cir
deflecting elements 4I of the third cathode ray
tube I5.
l
Although not claimed as part of the instant
30 invention, it is necessary to describe the nature of _
the received pulses because components thereof
cular or timing traces in any of the timing tubes
are combined withlocal currents, derived from
tend to obscure the less frequent radial or signal
the master oscillator and the successive count
traces. One of the objects of the instant inven
ers terminating in counter 45, which are actu
tion is to provide improved timing means for 35 ated by the master oscillator’I‘I, to control the
indicating the reception of radio pulses. Another
master oscillator frequency and to synchronize n
object is to provide an improved cathode ray
the master oscillator with the incoming pulses
pulse timing system in which the cathode ray
from one of the transmitters. The transmitters
timing traces are .blanked out except during the
are each arranged to radiate pairs of pulses. AFor
interval including the signal trace. Another ob 40 example, the ñrst transmitter radiates two pulses
ject is to provide an improved decade type of
with a. ?lve microsecond spacing; the second
cathode ray pulse timer in which the cathode
transmitter radiates two pulses With a ten mi
ray timing sweeps may be applied to the fluo
croseconds spacing; and the third transmitter
rescent screen during any desired portion of each
timing sweep and biased oiî during undesired
portions of the sweep whereby the signal traces
may be readily discerned.
The invention will be described by referring to
the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a
schematic diagram of one embodiment of the in
vention; Fig. 2 is a diagram of the blanking cir
cuits used in the invention; and Fig. 3 is a cir
cuit diagram of. a delay network and discrimina..
tor circuit. Similar reference characters are ap
radiates two pulses .with a ñfteen microseconds
spacing. It should be understood that .the pairs
-of pulses are radiated continuously from each
transmitter at a rate of 331/3 pairs per second.v
These pulses are represented as pairs A, B and C
at the receiver.
50
These pairs of pulses are fed from the receiver
I through a delay network 41 to a discriminator
49 which is responsive only to'pulses applied coin~>
cidentally. The delay network is tapped at three'
points, 5I, 53 and 55, so that any o-ne of three
plied to similar elements in the several figures. 55 time constants may be selected. vThe ñrst time
2,403,600
3
4.
back or trailing edge of the rectangular wave to
constant is chosen to bring together at the dis
initiate or start a second multivibrator, the time
criminator 49 the pulses forming pair A; the sec
delay may be adjusted by adjusting the length
ond time constant brings together the pulses of
of the ñrst rectangular wave. The means for se
pair B; and the third time constant brings t0
and adjusting the delay includes the re
gether the pulses of pair C. The discriminator (Il lecting
sistors
13,
15 and the conductor 14 and the sig
49 may be operated by any pair of coinciden
nal selector switches 61, 69 and 1 I. The currents
tally applied pulses, which are selected by the
from the counter 45 are also applied through a
delay network switch 51. The output from the
capacitor 9! and resistor 93 to a second pair of
discriminator consists of single pulses 59 which
occur at the 331/3 per second repetition rate of 10 tubes 95, 91 which are also connected as a multi
vibrator. The second multivibrator is used to
the pairs.
produce a wide pulse. The output of the second
A balanced modulator or differential bias cir
multivibrator is applied through lead 99 and ca
cuit SI is connected to an automatic frequency
pacitor Iûl to a pair of mixer tubes |93, |95
control circuit which is a part of the local master
which may also serve as amplifiers.
oscillator I1. Pulses 59 from the discriminator
Narrow pulses are obtained by applying the
49 and currents from the counter 45 are applied.
output from the delay tubes 81, 89 to a third
to the inputs of the differential bias circuit. If
multivibrator which includes a pair of thermionic
the phase or frequency does not shift, the out
tubes Iû1, |99 andthe adjustable resistor 11. The
put of the diñerential circuit will be Zero. If the
resistor 11 controls the width of the blanking
phase of the local 331/3 cycles per second current 20 pulses.
The narrow pulses are app-lied through a
changes with respect to the pulses, the differen
lead I I3 and a capacitor I I5 to one of the mixer
tial circuit output will be of a polarity and of
ampliiier tubes IGS. The wide and narrow pulses
an amplitude suitable to increase or decrease, as
are combined in the mixer amplifier and are ap
may be required, the master oscillator frequency.
Thus the frequency of the master oscillator is 25 plied through the lead 8| to the grid of the cath
ode ray tube I5, whose beam is rotated most
locked in to the incoming pulse frequency. The
slowly. The narrow pulses of adjustable width
range of lock-in may be indicated on a meter 63
are applied by means of the lead G3 to the grids
of the cathode ray tubes I! and I3, whose beams
In the arrangement thus described the cathode 30 rotate more rapidly than the beam blanked by
wide and narrow pulses.
ray beams of the three cathode ray tubes Ii, i3
In practice, three pairs of spaced pulses are
and I5 are rotated by the currents derived from
received. A pair of signal pulses A is applied
the master oscillator. The last tube i5, because
to deiiect radially the beams of the cathode ray
of its low timing rate of .5 kilocycle per second.
tubes as the beams pass the Zero or other refer
will indicate only large diiferencee in the times of
ence marks of the tube scales I2I. Since this
arrival of the pairs of pulses A, B and C. The
requires no delay, the switch 69 is closed to blank
second tube I3, ‘because of its intermediate timing
the beams for all but the region nea-r Zero. The
rate of 5 kilocycles per second, will indicate inter
width of the narrow blanking pulses is controlled
mediate time differences. The Vernier tube Ii.
because of its relatively high timing rate, will 40 by adjusting the width control resistor 11. In
asinuch as the blanking pulses are synchronized
indicate slight or Vernier differences in the pulse
with the low frequency current derived from the
arrival times.
master oscillator I1, it follows that the blanking
As pointed out above, the low pulse frequency
pulses will be synchronized with the incoming
and the relatively high timing frequency make it
pulses because the incoming pulses also control
45
diiîcult to observe the radial traces produced by
the master oscillator. Thus the blanking, local
the pulses. This difficulty is overcome by apply
master oscillator, and received pulses are locked
ing the local currents of the pulse repetition ire
in synchronism.
quency of 331/3 cycles per second to a multivibra
When the pulse signals B from the second sta
tor blanking circuit 65. The multivibrator circuit,
which will be described hereinafter, incîudes 50 tion are to be indicated, the switch G1 is opened;
the switch 61 is closed; and the resistors 13 are
switches 51, 69 and 1I for connecting adjustable
connected to the AFC and master oscillator cir
cuit I1.
resistors 13, 15 or a short circuit connection “It
across elements of the circuit to vary its time
or delay characteristic. Another resistor ‘i1 is
used to vary the width of the bianking pulse.
The output currents of the multivibrator are ap
adjusted until the required amount of delay is
obtained. In a similar manner, when the pulse
signals C from the third station are to be re
ceived, the switches 61 and 69 are opened; the
switch 1I is closed; and the resistors 15 are ad
justed until the proper delay is obtained. The
described blanking pulse delay should not be
confused with the delay which is obtained in the
except during a brief interval including the re
ceived pulses. While it is customary to describe GO delay network 41 to make the pulses of a pair
coincide. The blanking pulse delay is used to
the pulses as blanking pulses, it should be under
apply the cathode ray >beams to the fluorescent
stood the blanking is effected by a combination
screens of the cathode ray tubes during the in
of a steady grid biasing potential plus an addi
stant when a particular pair of pulses is received
tional potential which, when applied to the grid,
plied through leads 8I and 33 to the grids of the
several cathode ray tubes to blank out the beam
and to bias off the beam during all other pe
allows the cathode rays to reach the fluorescent
riods.
In the instant arrangement, the operator
screen. As used herein, the term blanking ap
selects the signals by closing any one of the sig
plies to the effective combination of cathode ray
nal selector switches 61, 59 and 1I, and adjusts
biasing forces.
manually the delay which corresponds to the dif
Referring to Fig. 2, the output of the counter
45 of Fig. l is applied through a capacitor S5 to 70 ferences in the time required for the pulses to
travel from their respective transmitters to the
a pair of thermionic tubes 81, 89 which are con
receiver. A circuit for automatic operation is
nected as a multivibrator. These tubes serve as
described and claimed in application Serial No.
delay tubes. The manner of using a multivibra
420,919,
filed November 29, 19'41, by John P.
tor as a delay tube is to make the output rectan
gular wave of any desired length. By using the 75 Smith, for Cathode ray pulse indicator. ‘
5
2,403,600".
As for the elements of the' system, the receiver
esciuauons to drive said indicator at a; substan-V
I may be a superheterodyne, tuned-radio fre
tially constantY rate, means connecting said> re‘
quency amplifier or any device responsive to the
ceiver and local source for synchronizing said
pulse transmitters. The-»diirerentiator 3 may be
local oscillations and said pulses, meansfor gen
of the type disclosed vin U. S. Patent No.
erating blanking pulses, means connecting said
2,132,655. The delay network 41 may be a con-,
blanking pulse vmeans to said indicator for ap
Venticnal iilter with taps. at the desired inter
plying said blanking Vpulses to said timingl indi
vals. The delay network 4'I and the discrimi
cat'orfto eliminate all but a predetermined por- n
nator 49 may be of the design shown in Fig. 3. A
tion of saidtiming indications, and means con
suitable form oi' diiïerential bias circuit GI isa 10 necting ìsaid‘receiving means to said indicator
balanced modulator or a circuit of the type clis-`
for applying said received pulses to saidindicator `
closed in U. S. Patent 2,250,284, which issued
to indicate the diiîerences in times of said pulsey
to K. R. Wendt on July 22,1941. The frequency
reception thereby to indicate the position of said
dividers or counters 27, 35, 43 vand 45 maybe of
receiverk with respect to said known locations.
the type described in U. S. Patent 2,258,943, which 15 = 3. A radio pulse position indicating .device in-v
issued to A. V. Bedford on October 14, 1941.
cluding means for receiving pulses of radio energy
The master oscillator, automatic frequency con
radiated in, predetermined relation from a plu-trol, defiecting circuits, and cathode ray tube cir
rality of known locations, a source of local oscil
cuits, which are well known to those skilled in
lations, a timing indicator, means connecting said
theart, do not require anyrdetailed disclosure.
source to said indicator for applying said oscil
In the operation of the described system, the
lations to drive said indicator at a substantially
pairs of pulses, which are transmitted in prede
constant rate, means for generating blanking
termined time relation from a plurality of trans
pulses, means effectively coupling said source of
mitters at known locations, are received. The
local oscillations and said pulse generating means Y~
ñrst pair of pulses to arrive is preferably used
for synchronizing said blanking pulses with said
to synchronize the local oscillator and to indica-te
the reference or zero time of reception. The zero
local oscillations, means connecting said blank-v
ing pulse means to said indicator for applying
said blanking pulses to said timing indicator to
switch 69. On cathode ray tube I5 pulses are
eliminate »all but ar> predetermined portion of said
seen at all times at half brilliancy due to the ap 30 timing indications,_and means connecting said
plication of both wide and narrow selector pulses.
receiving means to said indicator for applying
By properly timing the narrow selector pulse, any
said received pulses to said indicator to indicate
particular pair of pulses may be brought to full
the differences in times of said pulse reception
brilliancy on tube I5 to thus aid in selecting the
thereby to indicate the position of said receiver
corresponding pair on the two vernier tubes II 35 with respect to said known locations.
and I3. On the Vernier of tubes Il and I3 the
4. A radio pulse position indicating device in
beam is blanked for all angular rotations of the
cluding means for receiving pulses of radio energy
beam except at the times including the arrival
radiated in predetermined relation from a plu
of the pair of pulses A. Thereafter, the interval
rality of known locations, a source of local oscil
of time between the arrival of the A and B pairs 40 lations, a timing indicator, means connecting said
of pulses and the interval between the arrival
source to said indicator for applying said oscil
of the A and C pairs of pulses may be indicated
lations to drive said indicator at a substantially
by operating the switches 61 and 1I provided the
constant rate, means connecting said receiver
associated resistors have been adjusted to pro
and local source for synchronizing said local os- y
vide the desired blanking delay. It should be un
cillations and said pulses, kmeans for generating
derstood that, While both pulses of the pairs are
blanking pulses, means effectively coupling said
shown on the screen, the pulses of a pair could
source of local oscillations and said pulse gen
be made coincidental by selecting the deñecting
erating means for synchronizing said blanking ’
pulses after the pairs of signal pulses pass
pulses with said local oscillations, means con
through the discriminator circuit.
50 -necting said blanking pulse means to said indi
We claim as our invention:
cator for applying said blanking pulses to said
1. A radio pulse position indicating device in
timing indicator to eliminate all but a predeter
cluding means for receiving pulses of radio energy
mined portion of said timing indications, and
radiated in predetermined relation from a plu
means connecting said receiving means to said
rality of known locations, a source of local os- ,
indicator for applying said received pulses to said
cillations, a timing indicator, means connecting
indicator to indicate the diiîerences in times of
said source and said indicator for applying said
said pulse reception thereby to indicate the posi
oscillations to drive said indicator at a substan
tion of said receiver with respect to said known
may be checked by operating the signal selector
tially constant rate, means for generating blank
ing pulses, means connecting said blanking pulse 60
locations.
Y
5. A device according to claim l including
means to said indicator for applying said blank
means for adjusting the width of said blanking
ing pulses to said timing indicator to eliminate
pulses.
`
all but a predetermined portion of said timing in
6. A device according to claim 1 including
dications, and means connecting said receiv
means for delaying the application of said blank
ing means to said indicator for applying said 65 ing pulses so that said timing indications are
received pulses to said indicator to indicate the
discernible at the times oi:`_ reception of said
differences in times of said pulse reception there
pulses.
~
by to indicate the position of said receiver with
7. A radio pulse position indicating device in
respect to said known locations.
cluding a pulse receiver, a cathode ray timing
2. A radio pulse position indicating device in 70 device including a ñuorescent screen, a source of
cluding means for receiving pulses of radio en
oscillations, means connecting said source to said
ergy radiated in predetermined relation from a
Vtiming device for applying said oscillations to
plurality of known locations, a source of local
drive said cathode ray as a timing indicator,
oscillations, a timing indicator, means connect
means for blanking said ray from said screen,
ing said source to said indicator for applying said 75 means connecting said receiver and said device
8
7
for deilecting said ray upon reception of pulses,
and means for applying a biasing force to said
ray thereby to apply said ray to said screen dur
tube ior applying said ray to saidv screen during
the interval ìncludingthe radialdeflection of «said
ing the deñection of said ray.
applying' means with said local oscillations.
> .
8. A radio pulse position indicating device in
cluding a pulse receiver, a cathode ray tube in»
alud-ing a fluorescent screen and deñecting ele
ments, a source of oscillations, means connecting
said source to said tube for applying said oscil
lations to said deflecting elements to deilect said
ray in synchronism with said oscillations, Ameans
connected to said tube for normally .biasing said'
ray oil’v said screen, means connected to said tube.
and said receiver tofurtlier deflect said ray, bias
ing means connected to Said tube for applying 15
ray, and meansy for synchronizing said ray bias
,
l0. A device of the character of claim 9 includ
ing means for adjusting the length of the inter
val during which said ray> is applied to said
screen.
.
.
'
1l. A radio Vpulse position indicating device
including a pulse zreoeiver, a cathode ray tube
including a fluorescent screen and deñecting ele
ments, a source of oscillations, means forv apply
ing said oscillations to said deflecting elements
to deñect said rayV in synchronism With said
oscillations, means connected to said receiver and
to said tube for further deflecting said ray ’to
said ray to said screen during the interval includ
indicate reception of said pulses, and cathode ray
ing said further deflection, and means for syn
blanking means connected to said tube» and said
chronizing said ray bias applying means with
source of oscillations 'including delay tubes con
said local oscillations.
9. A radio pulse position indicating device in 20 nected together as multivibrators and controlled
by said oscillations Vwhereby said ray may be
cluding a pulse receiver, a cathode ray tube in
biasedonto said screen during said further ‘de
cluding a iluorescent screen and deflecting ele
ments, a source of oscillations, means connecting
l2. A device according to claim 1l including a
said source to said tube for applying said oscil
second pair of tubes connected together as a mul
lations to said deñecting elements to rotate said
tivibrator and connected to said delay tubes for
ray in synchronism with said oscillations, means
controlling the width of said blanking pulses.V
connected to said tube for normally biasing said
rotating ray oí said screen, means connected to
RALPH S. HOLMES;
said tube and said receiver to radially deflect
JOHN P. SMITH.
said rotated ray, biasing means connected to said
ilection.
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