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Патент USA US2403618

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52,403,618
Patented July 9, 1946
STATES PATENT OFFICE
LIQUID CLEANING comosmous I
George M. Skinner,‘ Kenmore, N. Y., asslgnor to
National Carbon Company, Inc.,,a corporation
of New York
. No Drawing. Application April 8, 1942,
Serial No. 438,077
5 Claims.
(Cl. 252-118)
The invention relates to the cleaning of metal . .- solvents are di-isobutyl ketone, methyl isobutyl'
surfaces, arid is particularly concerned with liquid
’ ' cleaner compositions for removing sludge deposits
from the interior parts of internal combustion
engines. I
-
_ . Under ordinary operating conditions of an.in
ternal combustion engine there is usually formed
in the crank case, on the surfaces of the com
bustionv chamber, and on other interior working
parts, a precipitate or deposit commonly referred
to as sludge, This sludge is formed in large part
of ‘decomposition products of oil and fuel used
in the engine, and may be composed of heavy
hydrocarbons,~ asphaltenes, gums, ,?ne carbon,
ketone,.methyl amyl ketone, mesityl oxide, and
isophorone.
Where two or more solvents are
used, the most suitable proportions of each can.
be readily determined by test, but the total sol
vent quantity in the ‘cleaner should preferably
be from about 50% to 80% by volume.
Water in the cleaner formula substantially aids
in loosening tightly bound sludge, and causes
?aking off of lacquer-type deposits, which might not otherwise be attacked by the solvent. At
least 5% water is necessary vto improve the cleaner
performance, and it preferably should not ‘exceed
25% by volume. The purpose of an oil addition
road dirt and other solid deposits. The sludge 15 is to afford lubricating properties, and prevent
accumulates on, and becomes tightly bound to,
rusting of the metal surfaces after cleaning.
the piston head and rings, the valve stems and
Ordinary mineral lubricating oils are satisfactory
the bearings, and in sufficiently large amounts
for this use, and the oil proportions preferably
it may markedly interfere with satisfactory engine
vary from about 15% to 25% by volume.
- operation. The removal of this sludge occasion 20
A coupling agent is necessary to render the
' ally is, therefore, desirable, and. while efforts have
oil-water-solvent mixture homogeneous, and
been made to accomplish this by means of various
types and kinds of solvent cleaners, the matter of
satisfactorily cleaning engines in a quick and easy
manner remains a ditllcult ‘and important
problem.
.
'
It is an object of this invention to provide im
proved metal cleaner‘ compositions, adapted more
thereby insure proper functioning of the cleaner
both as initially formulated and after storage in
containers. Some of the solvents above men
tioned'may in themselves assist in coupling of the "
completed mixture, butv a further additive speci?
cally for this purpose is usually desirable.\_ Many
compounds are available whichmay be suitable
eifectively, more readily, and more conveniently
in their homogenizing eifect, among which 'amine '
to‘ remove sludge deposits from internal combus 30 soaps are preferred,- since these compounds also
have ‘certain detergent action, and thus further
‘The new cleaner is composed of a plurality of
improve the solvent e?iciency. Morpholine soaps,
components, in controlled volume proportions to
suchas morpholine oleate and morpholine ricin
produce a homogeneous liquid mixture of ex,
oleate have proven especially effective as coupling
ceptionally rapid and effective cleaning action.
and detergency agents. Certain free amines, in
As the essential loosening and dissolving agent for
addition to the amine soap, may also be added,
the sludge deposits, one or more organic solvents
if desired, and compounds'like morpholine, octyl
are used in an amount comprising at least 50%
amine and xylidine-may aid in softening the
by volume of the total mixture. Water in an
lacquer-like hard deposits on valve stems, piston
amount from about 5% to 25% of the whole, and . heads and rings. The amine soap proportions
oil in quantities preferably‘not exceeding about
are generally between about "5% and 20% .by
30% by volume are mixed with the solvent, and
volume, and the‘ free amine, if used, preferably
a coupling agent is then added to producev a stable
should not exceed about 10%. .
and homogeneous liquid composition. A deter
Complete cleaner formulas representative of
gent may also be included, but by preference the
the invention, which have proven particularly.
coupling ‘agent selected is one which also will
effective in the cleaning of automobile engines,
tion engines.
exert a detergent action.
‘
>
>
.
‘
-
Suitable solvents for this cleaner may be
are shown in the following table:
selected from organic ketones, ethers, esters ‘and
chlorinated compounds, and the best results have
Percent by
volume
.
been obtained with mixtures of two or. more ‘sol-~
vents of different types. The heterogeneous
nature of the sludge deposit appears to account
for the fact that a single solvent does not usually
dissolve or loosen the deposit as well as a mixture
of two or more of them. Glycol monoalkyl ethers
l
Mineral lulu-loath; oil 8. A. E. 2)................... __
2
3)
Waimr
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether ................... ._
8
12
Met
48
lamyl L ‘
._
-.-
are good solvent components, and the cleansing
Di-iso
action of these compounds can be further im
Morphollne oleote ............... -.~ .................. --
8
Morplioilne.
4
proved by mixing them with liquid aliphatic
ire?ones. Especially effective among the letter W
tyl L ‘
20
10
a0
ao
_
. 10
In the manner or use and application of these
2,408,818
3
.
‘cleaner compositions, norestrictions are intended
by the present disclosure, but a distinct advan
tage lies in the ease and convenience with which
satisfactory cleaning can be e?ected. With an
engine still in .running order, a cleaning treat
ment may consist in slowly adding a pint or so of
and that numerous modi?cations in the variousv
components-and their proportions, maybe made
with the advantages described. Such modi?ca
tions are intended to be included within the
broader scope of the invention.
-
I claim:
,,
-
'
'
the sludge remover through the carburetor air '
1. A cleaning composition for removing sludge
This is accomplished by draining the crank case ~
methyl-amyl ketone, ‘in appreciable component
intake while operating at {speed Just su?lcient _ from internal combustion engines consisting of a
homogeneous liquid mixture of a solvent com
to prevent stalling. In this process the, cleaner
is carried directly into the combustion chambers 10 posed oi‘ a glycol monoalkyl ether and a higher
molecular weight aliphatic ketone, in appreciable
and is later expelled through the exhaust mania
component proportions and in total amount of
Iold. Thus, the valves, pistons, piston rings and _
about 50% to 80% by volume; a lubricating oil
combustion chambers are exposed to the cleaner,
in an amount from about 15% to 25%; about 5%
and the very small quantities of the cleaner
which may pass the piston rings into the crank 15 to 25% of water; and about 5%‘ to 20% of a
,morpholine soap coupling agent.
case, are not su?lcient to cause any deleterious
2. A cleaning composition for removing sludge
action on,‘ or dilution of, the crank case oil,
'
from
internal combustion engines consisting of a
Where the sludging is very severe and the most
homogeneous liquid mixture ‘of 'a solvent com
,' eilective cleaning action is desired, the treatment
above can be augmented by crank case cleaning. 20 posed oi’ ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and
and re?lling it to normal level wtih the concen
trated cleaner formula. before starting addition
of cleaner to the carburetor. At the conclusion
of the carburetor treatment, the crank case is 25
again drained, and may be flushed with light oil. >
'I'h'is combination treatment effects excellent
cleaning of the crank case, inner engine surfaces,
bearings and oil passages, as well as all parts of
the combustion chambers. In case of complete
engine seizure by heavy sludge, introduction of
the cleaner into the spark plug holes, followed
proportions and in total amount ‘of at least 50% '
by volume; a mineral lubricating oil in an amount
not exceeding 30%; at least 5% of water; about
5% to 20% of morphollne oleate; and not more
than 10% of morphollne.
'
_
3. "A cleaning composition for removing sludge
from internal combustion engines consisting-oi a
homogeneous liquid mixture or a solvent com
posed of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and
dis-isobutyl ketone, in appreciable component
proportions and in total amount or at least 50%
by volume; a mineral lubricating oil in an amount I’
by a. period of soaking, is usually e?ective in 100s
.not exceeding 30%; atleast 5% cl water; and
ening the deposits. Where overhauling or dis
mantling of the engine is necessary, the cleaner 35 about 5% to 20% of morphollne oleate. .
4. A-cleaning composition !or removing sludge
composition can, of course, be used in the ordi
from internal combustion engines comprising a’
nary way, and will be found rapidly effective in
homogeneous liquid mixture, in proportions by
cleaning all metal surfaces.
volume, of about 12% ethylene glycol monobut'yl
In the particular liquid mixtures shown in the
ether, about 48%.methyl amyl ketone, about 20%
above table, consideration has also been given to
mineral lubricating oil, about 8% water, about
factors such as toxicity and odor, ?ash point, cor
8% morpholine oleate and about 4% morphollne.
rosiveness, and attack on gasket materials.
5. A cleaning composition‘ for removing sludge
These formulae are satisfactory in such respects,
from internal combustion engines comprising a
having no odor that is obnoxious, and being en
tirely safe to handle under the ordinary precau 45 homogeneous liquid mixture, in proportion; by
volume, of about.30% ethylene glycol mcnobutyl
tions used in handling common solvents. They
ether, ,about 30% dieisobutyl ketone, about 20%
are not irritating to the skin, and they do not
mineral lubricating 'oil,' about 10% water and
readily corrode‘ metals or attack gasket'material.
about 10% morphollne oleate.
It will be understood, however, that the speci?c
GEORGE M. BKINNER.
cleaner formulas given are merely representative, 50 ~
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