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Патент USA US2403626

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l. woLFF ET AL
July 9, 1946.
Filed Nov. 29, 1941
memes July e, lme
m10 “ILSE
N. I.,
, to Radio corporation of
America, a corporation of lDelaware
, -
'application November ze. 194i.
No. 420,944
l0 Claims.
' different courses coulduse the same relays'with
This invention relates to improvements in radio
pulse position indicating systems and particularly
n out confusion.
-» ,
One of the objects of the present invention is
to a radio puise position indicating system in
which pulse signals radiated from a plurality of
to provide improved> means for indicating posi
differences in pulse propagation timesindicate
"a plurality of
tion 'as a function of the differences in times of
synchronized pulse transmitters are received and
j I reception of a plurality of pulses radiated simul
timed with respect to each other so that the . taneously or in predetermined time relation from
radio pulse transmitters located .
the position of the receiver. position by? measuring
at predetermined points. Another object is to
A system for indicating
provide an improved positionA indicating system
the propagation times of pulses radiated from . in vwhich the transmitted signals are pulses of
an aircraft receiver (located at an unknown
radio vfrequency energy radiated in synchronism
point) and relayed from two ñxedly positioned
from points- of known location. Another object
relay transmitters back to a receiver on the >air
is -to provide a 'decade type off-pulse timer in
craft, has been described in an allowed applica- v _„ which‘one group of theincoming puisésto be
tion Serial No. 329,434, med April 13, 1940, vby >lil- timed is used t'o synchronize the timer.
. .
Stuart Seeley. An improvement of the> Seeley
The invention will be' described by referring
device is described
» to the- -accompanying drawing in which- the
Serial No. 384,323, filed March 20. 1941, by Irving
Woll! for improvements in Position ilnders.- The ' 2u
Wolff improvement describes a decade type of
schematic' diagram represents
one _ embodiment
of the invention.
Referring to the figure of the drawing, radio
transmitters are located at known posi
In the Seeley device, a moving vehicle. such
-tions A, B and C. The transmitters are> pref- ’
as a plane, is equipped withv a pulse transmitter . erably connected by a synchronizing line, al
and receiving apparatus including~ a _cathode ray .25 though anymeans may be used to control the
radiation of pulses D, D' and D" in predeter
indicator. Pulses t
ytteti from the plane
mined time relation. The pulses are sharply de
are received at two ground stations _at known
cathoderay timer.
radio relay which re-radiates the pulses at a
nned,and are radiated at high and, ify desired,
diilerent, carrier frequencies and at relatively
pulses are received on the plane and compared on
By way '_of example, the carrier frequency may
the cathode ray indicator to provideindications
of the distance and position of the plane with
respect to the known locations of the ground
maybe radiated. These pulses are received on
locations. Each ground station coin-prises , a
slightly different frequency. The re-radiated 30 low pulse frequencies’for long range operation.
be~500 megacycles and 335/3 -pulses per» second
an -aircraft E at the same time if the aircraft
a5 receiver, ‘indicated generally as F is equally dis
tant from »the three transmitters. >Iiî the re
The Wolff device describes a system similar
ceiver F is equally distant from A and B but
to that of the Seeley device with the addition
at some other distance from C, the pulses D and
of a decade vernier type of cathode ray indicator
D' will reach E at the same time. while the
for providing accurate indications, of the dis
tances of the relay stations from the plane. The 40 puise D" will reach E at an earlier or later time
dependent upon whether the distance from E
Vernier scales are produced by utilizing a plu
to C is less than or more than the distance from
rality of cathode _ray indicators in which the
to B. While several pulses'
respective cathode ray beams are rotated at ~ E to'A or from E
'nave been shown between the transmitter and
relative speeds of 1:10:100.
receiver, it should be kunderstood that> the pulse
While the Seeley device and the Wolif improve 445À
is designed for the maximum range and for
ment thereof are accurate and practical, there 1 rate
the prevention of' »pulse repetition within the
may be two objections: First, in time of war the
range, which would be confusing.` Actuallyv only
signals from aircraft transmitters may be re
f a single pulse would appear. between any of the
ceived by the enemy who will be able to locate
and the receiver at any instant, if
the signal source by conventional radiogoni 50 transmitters
the receiver is within the maximum range for '
ometric methods and thereafter destroy the air-fv
the systemisdesigned.
craft before it can reach its objective; and v which
The transmitters are preferably not sym
second, the described system is designed to
metricallylocated in the same'straight line, be
relay stations.
tion a single aircraft or other vehicle and it is
not apparent how a large number of vehicles on es cause such location would result in 180° am
biguity which may be avoided by the less regular
spacing shown. It should be understood that
the system may be designed to indicate the posi..
tion of an aircraft with respect to an object
on the earth and that a suitable correction should
be made for distance and altitude, if extreme
The output of the third frequency divider 43 is
applied to the balanced modulator and rectifier
3. The output of the balanced modulator and
rectifier is applied to an automatic frequency
_ control device 45.
‘to’ syii‘clironize,gthe localj'foscilllatic with the in
tance is' great; with respect to` the -altitude,
the error will be very small.
It is desirable to
calculate in advance the differences in pulse
propagation times which willexist at any pre- „
determined location so that the aircraft opere '
ator may simply ily a course which tends to bring
the several differences in pulse propagation times
to the predetermined values.
The output of the frequency
control device 45 is applied to the first oscillator
accuracyisrequired. In the event‘thatthe dis
llfhe mode of operation is as follows: 'I'he local
oscillator may be operated at 100 kilocyclesper
second. A'Iv'heä„currents from the local oscillator
I1 ’are ‘applied’ through theI phase shifter 2|
'which permits the first received pulse to be
phasedto correspond to the zero of the cathode
¿ A.
15 ray tube scale 41:"- The suitably phased currents
For example, if the distances AE=300` kilo
' are split into currents of quadrature phase and
meters; BE=310 kilometers; and CE=295 kilo
are applied to the deflecting elements 25 to pro
meters, the several propagation times in micro
duce a rotating field. The rotating field causesV
seconds will equal the velocity of light (which
the cathode ray to rotate‘at 100,000 revolutions
is 300,000 kilometers per second) divided into 20 per second. The oscillator currents of a fre
the distance. Thus the pulse propagation time
quency of 100 kc. are divided to establish cur
from A to E will equal .001 second or 1000
rents of a frequency-,of l0 kc. The currents
ì of i
microseconds, B to E pulse propagation time will
10 kc. are phasedby, the second phase shifter
equal 1033.3 microseconds; and C to E pulse
29 so that the zero of the second cathode ray
` propagation time will equal 983.3 microseconds. 25 tube scale 49 may bemade to correspond with
Therefore, lthe dilïerences in pulse propagation
the first received pulse. The currents of 10 kc.
times will be as follows: BE minus AE will be
are split into two phase currents, which are ap
33.3` microseconds; BE minus CEV will be 50
plied to the deñecting elements 33 of the second
microseconds; and> AE minus CE will be 16.7
cathode ray tube to produce a rotating field.
microseconds. With the irregular >positioning 30 Thisiield rotates the ray of the second cathode
of the transmitters there is only one map posi
ray tube 10,000 times per second. The `local
tion which will correspond to these differences
vcurrents are further divided in frequency and,
in time. An aircraft pilot can ilythe aircraft
after phasing and phase splitting, are applied
until these time differences.v are indicated on the
to rotate the ray of the third cathode raytube
aircraft pulse receiver and then the aircraft will 35 I5 at the rate of 1000 revolutions per second.
-be at the specified or predetermined position.
y WfIjhe yincoming pulses are applied tothe several
One suitable aircraft receiver is indicated in
radial deflecting electrodes 5, 'I and 9 to deflect
the figure of the drawing. A radio pulse re
radially thel rotating cathode rays. Since the
ceiver `I is connected to a balanced modulator
rays are rotating relatively slowly in the third
and rectifier 3 which may be of the type de 40 tube I5 only large differences in the _times of
scribed in U. S. Patent 2,234,587 having any
arrival of the pulses from the three transmitters
conventional rectifier connected in its output
will .be indicated. For example, a complete ro
circuit, and to the radial defiecting electrodes 5, 1,
tation of the ray corresponds to 1000 micro
9 of three cathode ray indicators II, I3, I5. The
seconds. The second tube I3 has a ray which
function of the balanced modulator will be de 45 rotates ten times as fast so that one complete
scribed later. The cathode ray indicators form
rotation will correspond to 100 microseconds.
decade timing indicators which are connected as
The first tube, with its ray rotating one hundred
follows: A~ stabilized oscillator I‘I, preferably
times faster than the ray of the third tube, will
arranged within a temperature controlled com
have a scale in which one complete rotation cor
partment I9, is connected through a phase shifter 50 responds
to l0 microseconds. Since the scale 4l
2l to a phase splitter 23. The two phase out
into 100 parts, it follows that a
put of the phase splitter is applied to the de
time difference of .1 microsecond may be indi
fiecting elements 25 of the first cathode ray tube
cated without diiliculty. The pulses travel 300
I I to produce a rotating field. The current from
the stabilized oscillator Il is next applied to a 55 meters in one microsecond, therefore 30 meters
in .1 microsecond, so that distances may be
frequency divider 2l to lower the frequency ten
readily determined to within 30 meters or better.
fold. The currents of reduced frequency are
In order that the local oscillator I 'I may be
applied through a second phase shifter 29 and
synchronized with the incoming pulses, the local
a second phase splitter 3l to the defiecting ele
currents are frequency divided until a current
ments 33 of the second cathode' ray tube I-3 60 -of the pulse frequency is derived. For example,
to produce a rotating field of one tenth the an
331/3 cycles per second, which corresponds to a
gular velocity of the ñeld in the first tube. The
maximum range of nearly 10,000 kilometers, has
output of the ñrst frequency divider 21 is also
been chosen as‘ the pulse frequency. The in
applied to a second frequency divider 35 which
coming pulses are detected and are applied at
again divides the frequency by ten. The out 65 the pulse rate of 33%; C. P. S. to the balanced
put of the second frequency divider 35 is ap
modulator 3, to which the alternating current
plied through a third phase shifter 31 and a
obtained by frequency division at the rate of
third phase splitter 39 to the deiiecting elements
331/3 C. P. S. are also applied.- -As long as'the
4I of the third cathode ray tube I5 to produce
two currents are of identical phase or frequency,
a rotating field having an angular velocity equal- 70 no output is obtained fromv the balanced modu
to one tenth of the angular velocity of the field
lator. If the frequency or phase of the local
in the second tube.
. ,
oscillator varies, a. current will appear in the
The output of Vthe second frequency divider
of the balanced modulator. The output
35 is applied to a third frequency divider` 43,
.which reduces the frequency to the pulse rate..75 current, if not already rectified in the balanced
modulator, may be rectified and applied through
amm. '
tively'nmedrdiscreœ pulses
of radio energy from l
~ apluralltyfo'f predetermined locations. remotely `
located receiving> means including means for re- »f
or decrease the frequency ofthe local oscillator
I1. The local oscillator is >thus locked-in with
local oscillatio
.- '
the transmitter pulse frequency. The locking-in
may be aifected by the pulses arriving at dif
ferent times from the several transmitters. In
ceiving said pulses, a source of
this event the carrier of one of the transmitters
stant angular rate, means connecting said re
a timing indicator, means connecting said source
to said »indicator _for applying- said oscillations` .
to drive said indicator at a-substantially‘con
is made slightly diiferent. The pulse receiver,
ceiver and `localsource -for synchronizingl vsaid «f
which is preferably a superheterodyne. is made v
y .
local oscillationsI and said pulses, and means vfor i
applying said ,-received'pulses to saidv indicator -
with an intermediate frequency ampliner re->
sponsive to both carriers, which are then sep-`
arated by filtering the currents of the‘carrier to
to indicate the diilerences in times of said pulse
.reception thereby to indicate the distance of said
be applied to the balanced modulator. v Thus
receiver from each of
filtered only the pulses of the selected carrier
are used to lock-in the local oscillator. « It should
said predetermined loca,- _.
3. .A radio pulse position. indicating system in
be understood that the filter 53 may include
vcluding means for radiating pulses of'radio energy -
tuned intermediate frequency. ampliilerjstages _
from v`a plurality of "predetermined locations, '
means for synchronizing the radiationv vofsaid
pulses so'that all pulses are radiated in prede,
for distinguishing the pulses from the several
termined phase relation, remotely:located receiv--.
transmitters. It is not essential that _the .pulses
means fora receivingl
a main
timing indicator,
vernier timing'
be distinguished because they aircraft carrying the ' _ing
In the system described no means are provided
receiver may be flown along a course and, by l . indicator, a source of oscillations, means connect?
observing whether the pulses are- approaching
»ing said source to each of said indicators, for I
each other or receding from each- other, the 25 driving said indicators at different substantially .
operator may determine i-f-the course is bring
ing the craft toward or away from the several.
transmitters. If more precise information is desired, a radio goniometer may be used to indi
. -
constant rates, and means connecting said receiving means to said indicators for applyingre
ceived pulses to. said indicators to denote their-
relative times of reception whereby the distance i
cate the bearing of any one of the transmitters. .30 of said receiver fromv each 'of said locations may
if their carriers are distinguishable. «It should
be understood that three separate receivers may
be used to receive three different carriers there
.be indicated as functions of said relative times.
4. A radio pulse rposition indicating 4system in_
cluding'means for radiating pulses of radio energy»l
by making continuous identiilcation practical.
from a plurality »of predetermined locations,
In place of three separate receivers a single re 35 means for synchronizing the radiation of said
ceiver may be successively tuned to the several
pulses so that all pulses `are radiated in a prede
carriers. Another method of distinguishing the
transmitted ypulses is described in the copending
applications hereinafter cited.
Inasmuch as the slowest ray rotates ten times
for each pulse and the fastest a thousand times
for each pulse, it will be diillcult to observe thel
pulses if the rotating ray is continuously applied
termined phase -relation, remotely located receiv- Y
ing means including means for receiving said
pulses, a timing indicator, asource of oscillations,
means~ connecting said source to said indicator.
for driving said indicator-ata substantially con--V
- ’
stant rate, ‘ means connecting said receiving
said indicator for applying received
to the fluorescent screen of the cathode ray tubes. . means-to
to said indicator to denote their relative
One method of avoiding the diiliculty is to mask 45 pulses
times of reception whereby the distance of said
the rotating ray at all times except during the
receiverfrom each of said locations may be in
radial deflection. »
dicated as functions of said relative times, and
by optical or electrical means. If electrical means
means_connecting said source of oscillations and
are used, the ray is biased of! for all but one or
said receiving means for synchronizing said local
two rotations which include the received pulse. 50 oscillations and said pulse transmission.
Suitable means for blanking manually _or auto
5.' A radio pulse position indicating system in»
matically are disclosed in copending applications
Serial No. 420,919, nled November 29, 1941, by
John P. Smith, and Serial No. 420,928, filed
cluding means for radiating distinguishable pulses
from a plurality of predetermined
locations, means for synchronizing the radiation
» of radio energy
November 29, 1941, by Ralph S. Holmes and John 55 of said pulses so that all pulses are radiated in
P. Smith.
predetermined time relation, remotely> located re- ,
We claim as our invention:
ceiving means including means for receiving said
1. A radio pulse position indicating system in.
cluding means for radiating synchronously _dis
pulses, a timing indicator, a source of oscillations, '
means connecting said source to said indicator
crete pulses of radio energy from a plurality of 60 for driving said indicator at a substantially con
predetermined locations, remotely located receiv
stant rate, means connecting said receiving means
ing means including means for receiving said
to said indicator for applying received pulses to
pulses, a source of
said indicator to denote their relative times of
dicator, means-connecting said source> to said
`reception whereby the distance of said receiver
indicator for applying said oscillations to drive es from >each' of said locations may be indicated as
said indicator at a, substantially constant rate, „ functionsof said relative times, and means con
means connecting said receiver and~ local source
ne'cting said source of oscillations and said re,
for synchronizing said local oscillations and said
pulses, and means for applying said received
means for synchronizing said local oscil
with one of said plurality of distinguish
' lations
pulses to said indicator to indicate the differences 70 able pulse radiations.
in times of said pulse reception thereby to indi
6. A pulse receiver and indicator for a position
cate the distance of said receiver .from each of
.indicating system including means for receiving Y
said predetermined locations. '
system- in- . said pulses. aplurality of cathode ray tubes. a
2. A radio pulse position indicating
substantially con
cluding means for radiating predetermined relaf> 76 source of local oscillations of
314031690 L
stant frequency, means vconnecting-said source to
one or said tubes :or appyling said oscillationsto
rotate its ray at said constant frequency, means
for dividing said oscillations of constant . fre
quency into oscillations ofV a lower frequency.
means connecting said frequency dividing means
claim 7 including means connecting said receiver
and said source for' phasing the oscillationsl ap
pliedto rotate the rays of _said cathode ray tubes
so that said rotating rays may be synchronized
with a selected received pulse.;
9. A radio4 pulse position indicating system in'
Ato another of said tubes for applying said oscilla
tions of lower frequency to rotate its ray at said
cluding `meansïi'or radiating synchronously dis»
crete `pulses of‘radio energy from a plurality of
lower frequency, means connecting said pulse re- io predetermined
locationsfremotely located receiv
ceiving means to said-tubes for applying said >re
ceived pulses to produce visual indications on said tubes to indicate differences in the times of re-l
ception of said pulses, and means connecting said
receiving means and said source for synchronizing
said local oscillations with the received pulses.
7. A pulse receiverand indicator for a radio po
sitioning system including a pulse receiver re- ,
ing means including means for receiving saidv
pulses, asource of local oscillations.r a timing in
dicator, means connecting said source to said 1n
dicatorl for applying said oscillations to drive said
indicator at ‘a ,substantiallyconstant rate, means
connecting said receiverand local source for syn
chronizing said localA oscillations andèsaid pulses.
and means for applying said received pulses to
said indicator to indicate the diil’ereríces in times l
local oscillations> of substantially constant fre- :- .
sponsive to position indicating pulses, a source of'
quency, means connecting said receiver to said
source for applying the received pulses to control
of said pulse'reception thereby to indicate the dif
ference in the .distances between each of said lo- l
cations and said remotely located receiving means.
10. A radio4 pulse position indicating system in-`
of cathode ray tubes, means connecting said
cluding means for radiating pulses of radio energy
source to onelof said tubes for, applying said oscil
from >a. plurality of predetermined locations,
lations of constant frequency to rotate its ray at 25 `means
A‘for synchronizing the radiation of said
said constant frequency, means for dividing said
that all pulses are radiated in predeter
oscillations of constant frequency to produce.
mined phase relation, remotely located receiving
oscillations of frequencies of one tenth-V and one
means including means for receiving said pulses, a
hundredth of said constant frequency, means con
necting said frequencyv dividing means to a sec 30 timing indicator,'a source of oscillations, means
for adjusting the frequency of said oscillations,
ond `of said tubes for applying said oscillations of
means connecting said source to said indicator
one tenth frequency to rotate the ray of said sec
for driving said indicator at a. substantially con
ond tube, means connecting said frequency di
stant rate, and means connecting said receiving
viding means to a third of said tubes for applying
means to said indicator for applying received
said oscillations of one hundredth frequency to 35 pulses
to said indicator to denote the relative
rotate the ray of said vthird tube, and means con- .
times of reception of said pulses whereby the dii’
necting said receiver to said tubes for applying
ference in the» distances between said locations
pulses derived from the output of said receiver to
and said remotely located receiving means may be'
deflect radially the rays of said cathode ray tubes
and hence to indicate the relative times of recep 40
said substantially constant frequency, a plurality
tion of said pulses.`
8. A pulse receiver and indicator according to
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