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Патент USA US2403643

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July_9,`19.46. , .
'A
G. L; DREssER
2,403,643 v
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING GROUT INTO SUBSOIL `
Filed Feb( 25, - 1944
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V»0ral ,
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2 Sheets-sheet 1.
Patented July 9, 1946
* 2,403,643
UNITED STATE S PATE NTÍ~0FF1CE n
2,403,643
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METHOD or AND APPARATUS Fort INTRO-V
nUcmG GnoUT m'rosußsom
,
George L. Dresser, Albany,l N. Y. c I'
Application February 25, 1944, 'serial »10.523,946
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The present invention relates to methods of
and apparatus for introducing grout or the like
into subsoil either for the purpose of `increasing
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vthen be> discontinued and vgrout under ypressure
its bearing strengthor to rprovide an anchoring
massfor a pile.
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below the surface has been cleared of its least de
sirable constituents. The flow of wash water may
introduced, the grout readily finding' . its way'`
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y More particularly stated the invention pertains
to.. a Ynovel method and apparatus by means of
which grout, or other material of generally simi
lar nature, which has lthe capacity to harden or
solidify from a plastic conditionsmay be conven
throughout ’the washed zone and surrounding and''forming a matrix for the remaining and mbre
substantial elements, the method involving as av
matter of> fact, the formation of a body'of con
crete in place, beneath the surface 'of the ground,
by the preliminary Washing of the aggregate and
ientlyintroduced intoy permeable subwsoil of sandy
the introduction of the matrix or groutV there-,
or gravelly nature for the purpose of firmly sup
porting the lower end of a pile or lforincreasing
the bearing strength of such soil, or al body of
after.
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When the> grout hardens the -» zone
into `
which it has been introduced becomes a solid massA
of great bearing strength.
such material established at a desired distance 15
below4 the surface of a bed of `dense soil, such as
clay, such body forming the anchoring means for
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.
In accordance Vwith the method a zone of per
meable subsoil of any desired volume may be
treated and a soil of limited bearing strength con-f
a metallic pile or column the upper end of which
verted, in place, into a solid or body of great bear
may project above the surface of the ground. The
ing strength, in a rapid, economical manner. By>
method and means of the present invention are of 20 causing the washing operation to be carried out
such nature that an adequate foundation for any- `
structure however massive,`may be readily estab
over a considerable area, measured horizontally,
and by washing both deeply and toward the sur
lished at almost any site, even though soil condi
face, _a very- large body of y permeable soil may be
tions are most unfavorable. - The invention is
treated and its bearing strengthincreased, vthe
highly useful in ,establishing adequate foundations 25 washingßandgrouting operation being carriedjout
for new buildings and is likewisev of great value in
over; as wide an area, and as deeply, as maybe
strengthening foundations of structures previous
deemed necessary. The permeable *soily beneath
ly erected. While, in establishing the foundations d existingVv structures may be treated in this „mane
for buildings to be newly erectedit is> quite pos
ner and the structures thus strengthened or, as
sible to use conventional piling, in the event that 30 has been `previously stated, the grouting may beV
the soil is of low bearing strength, it is not alwaysy
possible to use conventional piling in the rein
forcement of the weakened foundations ofstruc
employed as a step preliminary to the erection of
a new structure.
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In dense, hard soil, which ordinarily provides
tures already erected, the weakened foundations
adequate support for building structures, it is
of such structures being quite often unable to 35 nevertheless frequently desirable to establish piles
withstand the vibration or shock incident to the
the upper ends of which project above the ground
placement of piling by mechanical driving
methods.
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In the event that a body of permeable subsoil is
level, vand Ywhichvmay constitute supporting or
anchoring elements which may neither be with:
drawn from _the ground or forced downwardly by
to; be treated >in order that its bearing strength 40 pressure. In accordance with the invention av
may be increased this may be readily accom
body of'groutor concrete may be readily estab
plished, in accordance with the present invention,
lished `.inv subsoilof dense or clayey nature, to
by causing a jet or jets of a washing liquid such
serve v»as a submerged anchor for a pile, or forr
as water to be delivered`Y` into the body of per-v Y anyother purpose, all without the aid of vibration'`
. meable soil at a selected point below the surface
or shock creating instrumentalities. A Hence if, for
and the washing effect of a ñowing stream utilized " ' any reason. it is necessary to introduce a body of
to remove from the permeable body a substan
tial proportion of its lighter and weaker elements,
leaving the denser and, stronger elements such as
grout orconcrete into the earth near an‘CXÍSting
structure this may be readily yaccomplished with-`
stones behind, the wash water with its suspended
50 anchoring apile in dense soil a, combinedrpile and
waste matter being brought to the surface, bysuc
tion means if desired, and disposed of. The wash--
ing is continued until it is perceived, by inspecting
the wash liquid which reaches the surface, that at
least‘a substantialbody of the permeable material
out danger to such structure. In placing „and
jetting-or earth penetrating device is Vintroduced
into’the earth by the action of a jet of Wash liquid
unclerpressurey which issues from the end of the
devicefandA a shaft' belngthus created as the de->
vice moves. ,dcwnwardlm the downward rnßvementl f
2,403,643
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pumps II and I2 respectively to the elongated
being halted only after it has penetrated the de
sired distance. The washing action of the jet is,
however, continued after its downward movement
has ceased for the purpose of dislodging and
element II), are indicated at I5 and I6, and a
y conduit for leading wash water with its suspended
solid matter from the element I0 to the reservoir
R is indicated at I'I. Where a suction pump is
employed the conduit I'I is caused to terminate
at the intake port of pump I3', as indicated in
dotted lines in Figure 4, and a further offtake
bringing to the surface a body of the dense sub
soil and thus creating at the bottom of the shaft
a considerable cavity in the earth.
Suction means may be employed to Withdraw
the wash ‘waterfrom the earth and, inany event,
conduit I'I’ 'leading' from the suctionpump to the
reservoirRis employed ifnecessary.
the washing out action will be continued until it
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„ The details of the element for penetrating
is estimated, by observing the character and exe
tent of the solids withdrawn, that a cavity of de- 'A " -the soil may most readily be perceived in Figure
sired size has been formed.’ The how 'of wash> ` _2 -of the drawings.v -It comprises essentially a
water is then interrupted and grout forced-"clown~` - 'tubular cas-ing Y2li which may be relatively long
v
wardly through the jetting device,v_~whichr_.l also
in the -event that deep soil penetration is desired
' ’ or' relatively short when shallow penetration only
pletely iills the cavity formed `bythe eroding ac- l ~ i-is‘necessary. - `Disposed within and coaxial with
serves as a grout conduit, until the grout com
thecasing 20 is a pipe or conduit 2l. The lower
end ofthe casing 2!) is connected to a cast steel
jetting or earth penetrating device is allowed to 20 tip 22 and the lower end‘of the pipe or conduit 2|
is likewise connected-to this tip. The lower end
remain while the body 'of lgrclut'V is harden-ing so
of the casing is received within the upper-.end 4of
that, when _the grout has hardened, the’jetting
a sleeve 23 which -sleeve is in the nature ‘of a
device isñrmly bound and may lnot be moved. Its
tion of the stream of wash water, a substantial
body of artiñcial stone or the like resulting'. TheM `
upper Vend Imay >`project "above the ground> andbe
employed as a` stable-point `forthe attachment “of
any structure vto 'be securedagainst 'movement' in
any direction.
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'Cine> apparatus is Vemployed for> carrying out
either method and‘one VformV of this app-aratusis
illustrated; by wayy o?example, in the‘accompany- .
ing ldrawings in which," -
-:Figure 1 is a Side view of the elongated element
for-sinkingl the necessary Ishaft,~~and transmitting
wash water and grout intolthe subsoil;
formed upon the >outer surfaceof the lower end
of the casingZß. The :inner-»pipe orffconduit 21|
` vFigure -2 yis an axial 'section thru this element,
likewise projects, 'at Íits lower lend, into the upper
end of a »sleeve or-standard coupling member 25,
the conduit and sleeve --having inter-engaging
partly _;broken away in 4order that the remainder
may'be'shown ona largerscale;
short standard coupling, thelower »end of this
coupling projecting into a downwardly tapering
recess 22a, formed in the rearend--of the tip 22,
in which position it >is permanently secured as
by a weld 274. Due to »the fact that the recess 22“
tapers downwardly, as stated', there will- «be no
difñculty in assembly :despite minor variations in
coupling diameter.> Thefinner face-of the »sleeve
23, at the upperend thereof, -is interiorly threaded
and this thread receivesa corresponding thread
^
' A"Figure 3- is a diagrammatic view showing, in
threads. The lower lend vof sleeve -or coupling-25
verticalsection, `a body of subsoil into which 'grout'
is-~to be introduced, Ytogether with the various 40 projects into a »tapered cylindrical recess 22h
formed in thevbase of tip 22,fthe diameterof this
essential pumps, etc.A Aof the yimproved 'apparatus
recess -being substantially less than'that of the
grouped together upon `the surface;
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recessíZZa-which recel-ves sleeve23,~sleeve 25 being`
- 'Figure 4 is ~a top` pla-n View of ‘the apparatus
shown
i-nFigure
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likewise permanently Aattached to »the tip- `by
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l Figures'ö to 9, inclusive, are of diagrammatic 45 means oftheweld 2»S.« .A-jcentral channel through
the -tip 22 is indicated -at 21 »thiscentral channel
terminating vvin-` a port »28 yformedy in `an -earth-~
engaging outer »surface Aof the tip, 'at the smaller
endY ori-point thereof; Preferably this »earth
paratusas used AinA the treatment »of a body -of
permeablesoil, such aslg-ravel, »to give itincreased 50 eng-aging outer surface'is lfrusto-conica-l -as 'shown
and the -tip may advantageously >be fabricated
of cast steel. The wash liquid to be used in sink
Figures 10 to 14, inclusive, are also of diagram#
ing the earth-penetrating element, or to be intro
matic nature and show, in sequence, the several
duced into the body-of »earth'to be excavated or
steps involved >in the establishment‘of -a pile in a
nature-and successively indicate the various ~posi
tions -ofthe jetting or earth-penetrating element>
offthewash liquid land g-rout-transmitting ap
bea-ring
strength;
body ,of .Clayey
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washed, passes downwardly through pipe‘ZI and
'The «apparatus includes the elongated earth
penetrating device villustrated in'Figures 1 and 2,
by lmeansof which wash water and «grout may
be introduced into ~thesubsoil, together with suit
issues as a jet from port 28.
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for «providing a supply >of »water -underpressura
issuing from'branch 30a-of the ‘lf-member passes
air under pressure, and grout under pressure, to»
gether with a suction pump. A settling basin or
thru fa nipple -I-PI and» then thru the -casing >of a
valve V. The valve V may-'beef «any suitable type
wash water and washed out solids- at Rl »Suitable
engagement with'the upper _endof the 'casing 20“l
andithe 'downturned>- flange rof the -cap >'3l has
-I-t will be observed that -the casing 20 has -a
short upper section 2l)a which is connected to
the lower section by lmeans of a ’If-»member A3l!
able- vmeans such as indicated `in Figures 3 and 4« 60 having a laterally extending branch 30a. Liquid
provided that it vmaybe adjusted to interrupt or
reservoir for the- reception of washr liquid which
issues from the earth after having been utilized 65 perm-it, as desired, yflow >of liquid from the casing
2i! to the offtake tube -34, '-to which tube the vinlet
for'soil washing -or excavating »purposes is also
end of‘a ñexible hose or conduit, such as indi
preferably utilized, In Figures 3 and lithe elon
cated at »I1 in Figures `3 and 4, maybe attached.
gated earth penetratingelement is indicated at
The inner duct or vconduit v'2-I` projects upwardly
IiU, Va water pump by meansof which water under
pressures vup to 300 pounds Yper square `inch canv TO beyond the upper end of the upper portion »20B
of the casing and this projecting portion is en
be supplied, is indicated at II, a compressor vfor
circled by annular vflanged caps 35 and 31. The
air is indicated at I2, a suction pump at I3, a>
downturned flange~of the >cap 3G has threaded'
grout pump- at I4, and a reservoir for receiving
flexible conduits connecting the water' and air
2,403,64fr
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the? surface"` of 'the ground. 'Due to the eroding>
effect of the water jet the soil immediately below
the cast steel tip 22 will be displaced and the'
threaded engagement with the'o‘utersurface' of
the upper end of a tube or sleeve 38 welded, as;
atl 39,'tov the upper‘surfaceof 'cap 36.1 In the
element `||l will begin to settle into the ground,î
vduring this preliminary stage the wash water
simply passingupwardly around the outer surface
narrow space ofY annular cross section deñned ~by
thecaps 36 and 31 andthe tubular member or
sleeve v38 there is contained a body 4|]4 of packing
ofthe tip 22 and flowing away over. the surface-v
material.. This packing materialprevents, when
of the ground. The action of the jet is continued
placed under pressure by suitably adjusting the`
position of capf31, leakage from thecasing 20
and the downward movement of the elementY I0
upwardly past cap 36 aroundvthe outside of the 10 likewise ~ continues, the downward` movement
being aided somewhat by pressure from- above
pipe or conduit 2|. The upper end of pipe 2'I
if necessary.
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projects into the lower end of a T-member .4|
j After the elementl |0 has sunk part way towardand, into the upper end of this T-member, there
projects a nipple 42 to. which is connected a valve
its final position, t0 such rextent that the aper; -
casing` 43. The movements of thevalve within
the casing are controlled by handwheel 44. A
tures.20b:in the casing 20 are beneath the ground.
level, the wash‘water will either wholly or in part
passwthrough these ports or apertures into the»
taperednipple 45 is Aconnected tothe upper end
of the valve body and to this nipple may be con
interior of the casing, Atogether with substantial
amounts of suspended matter, and then pass
nected the end of a flexible hose for the trans
mission, from` a vsuitable source of supply, of a 20 upwardly throughA the` casing until it reaches the
compressed gas such-as compressed air.
level ofthe T-member 30, then through-the 'body
of valve V and into the oiîtake conduit | 1. ïIf»
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vThe lateralbranch 4|a.of»the T-member 4|
desired the suction pump |3 may be connected to
is connected by means of a nipple 46 to the outlet
end of a valve body 41 which valve body is like
the oi’ftake conduit |1 so that therekis larposi'tive
wise `provided Vwith a. valve the movements of 25; lift ‘applied to the column'of outflowing'wash-v
which are controlled by a handwheel 48 and with
water.l .Theraction may be continued Auntil the
an inlet'nipple 49 which maybe connected by
element-lll has -penetrated >`into the permeable
means of’a ‘flexible hose toy asuitable source of
soil tothe desired extent, for instance to the p'osi-'
tion diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 6.
wash >liquid under pressure. As shown in Figures
3 and`4 the nipple 45 is connected to the air hose
|6,-the nipple '49 to the hose |5 leading from the
water pump | | and the nipple 34>to the discharge
conduit or hose |1.
The vflow of wash water ymay be continuedY after
full penetration has been obtained, however, in
order .that 'further- washing of the permeable>
body of earth around the lower end of element
' ID' may be effected, preferably at reduced pres
`
` The lower end of the casing 28 has formed
therein a plurality of relatively small apertures
sure. If desired, the ñow of water »may'bevdis
or ports 2|!b which are‘provided to permit Wash
continued and air under pressure allowed to flowliquid which »has been discharged through the
to the> dischargeport 28 of the tip and thence
'port 28‘, and has moved'upwardly, to re-enter
into the surrounding soil, to further prepare the
the> element I0, carrying with it the lighter and
soil for the grout which is to follow, or air and
smaller particles of the soil which is being sub 40 water allowed to flow together to and out of
port 28.
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jected to the washing operation. The .Water thus
entering the casing 20 from without passes up
> -Afterv such washing' has -been l'completed T`
wardly, rwith its contained suspended matter, and
member 30and associated parts‘are removed fromL
outwardly through theA nipple 3|, valve V, nipple .
the upper >end of the casing >2|), the lower end ‘of
34 and offtakefconduit |1 to a point where it may s LA pipe 2| being unscrewed from the coupling mem
be wasted or collected in a pond or settling basin
ber y25 and the pipe 2| with caps 36-and` 31,*and
such as that indicated diagrammatically at R.
parts 38l and2ll‘aL lifted upwardly. A further cap.'
Thevwash water entering the soil penetrating ele
indicated diagrammatically at 50, is then affixed
to the upper end of casing 20, this cap having
ment,v of course, `passes through valve body 41
and downwardly through pipe 2|.' During thel
connected'theretol the end of a flexible duct ’orv
hose 5| leading to the delivery port of the grout
washing operation the valve controllingv the flow
pump diagrammatically indicated’ at |4.V The
of compressed air into pipe 2| will normally be
pump is then operated to deliver grout under
in closed position. If at any time, however, it isv
desired to‘project a stream of air under pressure
into the subsoil the valve within casing 41 will be
closed and lthat within valve casing 43 opened.
Hence the element l0 may be employed either
to project a stream of wash water into a body of
soil, or a current of compressed air or, in some
cases, both wash water and compressed air, for
purposes hereafter to be mademore clear.
~- Two preferred methods of use of the apparatus
as so far described may be most readily perceived
from an inspection of Figures 5 to 14, inclusive.
Where it is' desired to- increase the load bearing
strength of a body of Vpermeable soil the 'appa-_
?atus is moved into position and the soil pene
trating element |_0 disposed vertically just above
the zone or body which is to be strengthened with
grout, the apparatus being shown in this initial
position in Figure 3.' Handle 48 is then manipu
lated v'to open the associated valve and permit
the inflow of _water under pressure into the inner
duct 2|. The jet of water will be projected from
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substantial pressure tothe casing 20, the grout
passing downwardly through the casing and out
wardly through the discharge port 28 and through
the ports 2|)b formed in the casing and which have
. previously been employed as Water inlet ports.
A’substantial body of grout may thus be delivered
into the zone immediately adj acent the lower end
of the element I0. In some instances, when de
sired,'the grout may be caused' to penetrate con
siderable distances in all directions from the
lower' end of the element I0, finding its way
through the spaces between the stones,‘gravel,\y
sand and` particles of soil. Y
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' When a sufiîcient amount of grout has beenv
delivered in this manner the element I0 VYmay be
removed. If desired grout may be forced into the
Í body of `soil surrounding the lower end of ele
ment I0 at higher elevation, the element I0 be
ing halted from time to time in its upward move
ment, one such more elevated grout delivery point
bein-g indicated in Figure 8. Figure 9 illustratesl
the tip 22, through'fluid discharge port 28, against 75 diagrammatically' a body of earth >into which.A
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grout has been forced from a point well below the
and while vit is hardening. The .grouthose 5l is
surface .all‘the way up to the surface so that this
body lhas been transformed into a relatively deep
then 'removed and `a solid casing cap applied,
such :as indicated at 54. The vcasing is thusndeñ
body 'of concrete, in place, the aggregate .having
been present originally and having been washed,
nitelyanchored toa body Yof artificial stone 55well
in place, to eliminate its Vmore `undesirable con
stituents and to make room .for the grout which
forms the matrix for the concrete. While this
method .is particularly -useful where the lsubsoil
contains many >stones and rocks it is nevertheless
useful even where the subsoil contains large quan
tities of vegetable matter. Washing v'operations
may be >conducted from points closely adjacent
- the surface to `points far below the surface :and
grout injected under heavy pressure to fill the
voids created and to force its way into and
below the surface. I-n Figure 14 there is;.indi-.-cated in dotted lines,'at 56, 'an «alternative ‘position
for the body -of grout .and it will be appreciated
that the apparatus disclosed Ymay be employed :in
esta-blishi-ng a grout body close to the surface asv
well ‘as one well below the surface.
It vnot infrequently happens that the .soil into
which the ¿grout is to be introduced vis of such
character that 'no cavity of adequate size, the
walls of which are self-sustaining, 4can be >estab
lished, thus making it'essential to provide‘a means
for and 'method of supporting such walls Aduring
the period of time following interruption of the
through the interstices of the earth. 4Any char
flowof water under ,pressure and'before the cavity
acter of subsoil, however poor, can be given
has been `filled with grout. It has been îfound
greatly increased bearing strength by the method
of grout application which has just been de 20 that, in numerous instances, collapse of the walls
of the cavity resulting inits complete elimination
scribed. If itis desired to establish a permanent
immediately follows `stoppage of the water pump,
pile instead of simply increasing the bearing
unless the fluid pressure in the Vcavity is main
strength of the porous soil, and it is frequently
so desired, the pumping of grout may be halted
when a sufficiently large anchoring body has been
established, such for instance as indicated in Fig
ure '-7. The casing 20 and tip 22 are left in place,
the pump disconnected, and-a suitable cap placed
upon the upper end of the casing, if desired.
Where the soil is dense vand particularly where 30
it is desired to restablish one or more piles, a, some
what different procedure is followed, as diagram
matically indicated in Figures »10 to 14, The soil
penetrating element t0 is -connected up as before
tained vby the use of other means.
In actual practice I prefer to employ air under
pressure as a medium for supporting the walls
of the cavity .after the flow of water under pres
sure .has been cut olf. To `effect this desired
result air under desired pressure from pump `l2
is conducted to pipe 2| through ‘conduit I-B and
valve 43, simultaneously with or immediately
after the closure `of valve 61 Compressed air
then issues from the aperture 28 in the tip 'and
into the cavity, where it >displaces the water, the
and it is sunk vertically downwardly by jetting, as 35 water being forced through the perforations 20D
into the casing 28 and escaping through valve V.
before,_ being shown in Figure 10 to have pene
After all of the water has been .thus driven #from
trated the dense soil for a short distance and in
the cavity and air under pressure begins to escape
Figure 11 to have penetrated the soil to the full
through offtake conduit -lfl the valve V is closed.
extent desired. Naturally the element lll may 'be
caused to penetrate to any desired depth within 40 Pressure of the air is maintained sufficiently high
to insure adequate support to the walls ‘of the
the limits of the apparatus. Initially the jetting
cavity.
fluid, which is usuallyl water under high pressure,
The water conduit l5 is then disconnected `'from
escapes to the surface of the rground 'along the
nipple 49 and a connection to the grout pump M
outer wall of the casing but later, »as the element
established. Valve 443 may then be vclosed and
l0 descends, the earth encircling the upper por
valve 41 'opened so that grout under pressure will
tion of the velement tends'to “back-fill” -and to
be forced downwardly through pipe 2l and caused
closely engage the outer surface of the casing so
to loe-discharged into the cavity, the flow -of Ygrout
that there is an increasing tendency for the wash
water toenter the casing through the ports »20h
under >pressure being continued until the cavity
provided .for such entry, as the casing descends,
has been filled. After 'this pipe `2|, 'lf-member
and to pass upwardly through the casing and
30, and all associated 'parts are removed from
outwardly through the offtake to the reservoir or
the 'casing :20. The Ycap '50 rmay then be attached
pond
When the jetting element has descended
to the top of casing »20 and 4grout caused to
as far as desired a holding clamp 53 of any
flow :into the casing until it is completely ñlled.
suitable type is applied »at the ground level to 55 In this manner the walls of any cavity formed by
prevent its further downward movement, but the
washing may be fully supported until the cavity
flow of wash water is continued, the action being
is completely filled andobviously the` method may
such that a. considerable cavity is gradually
be employed even though the casing be removed
formed by washing, »at the lower end ¿of the »earth
after the introduction of the grout instead of
penetrating element IG, as indicated in Figure 12. Gil being 'allowed to remain in the ground as a pile.,
.By closely observing the wash water discharged
The method _just described has the further, >and
into the pond or basin R and estimating or actu
very substantial, advantage of avoiding the neces
ally measuring the rate at which solids are being
sity of introducing grout directly into a body of
brought to the surface, the size of the cav-ity
water within a newly .formed cavity, which is'un
thus formed by washing during any _period of 65 desirable, and -air under pressure may be utilized-`
time can be estimated, and the washing »action
to free the cavity of water even where there .is
may be halted after this cavity has become as
little >danger 'of collapse 'of the walls of the 'cavity
large as >thought to be necessary -or desirable.
if unsupported.
Grout may then be forced downwardly as before,
By the `use -of suitably placed pressure gauges
after removal of the inner Apipe 2i, `and caused lto 70 the air pressure existing in the cavity at any
ñll the cavity which has been previously washed
time may be ascertained 'and `if necessary to do
in the dense soil. A cavity thus .filled with grout
so to obviate the need to pump in grout `against
is shown in Figure 13. The casing 2U is allowed
an excessive air pressure, `the Apressure may be
reduced by allowing air to -escape through valve
to remain in the position in `which itis shown
in this -figure, nafter the grout has been introduced 75 V Vuntil the desired value is reached. Such> a.`
2,493,643
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tip, to be -discharged from the iluididischarge port
gauge; is. diagrammatic'ally. shown 1in" Figure 2,
Abeing indicated at 60.
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"
thereof.
f
.
' 4. Apparatus of the type described comprising
The vnovel apparatus shown and >described may
be modified in various respects to »renderV it> more
in combinatioman elongated casing having a tip
suitable for use when unusual soil conditions are
lfixed upon one end provided -with ailuid dis
charge port in an .outerv sur-face„said casing hav
met with, without departure from" thev invention,
and the methods describedrmay belikewise modi
ing a series of fluid inlet ports formed in that
‘portion thereof which is adjacent; the tip, said
fied slightly when’ffound necessary. Grout may
ports'being ,remote from the discharge portof
be forced downwardly through the smallerïinner .
pipe by connecting a grout supply conduit to the 10 the tip, the remainder being imperforate, means
for supplying fluid under pressure to said tip _to be
nipple `45 after having'disconnected the com
discharged from the ñuid'discharge port thereof,
pressed air hose from this nipple. When> this is
and .suction means -forestablishinga sub atmos
done the grout will `issue from the 'discharge' port
' pheric pressure ‘in said casing. . ‘
in the tip of the soil penetrating element'and
:more grout will bedeliveredlintov 'the zone below 15 . 5. -»Apparatus ofthe -type described comprising,
in combination, an elongated casinghavinga tip
the tip than is the case when’the outer- casing
fixed iupo'n .onefend, said tip having afluid Edis
is u's'ed -as the grout co‘nxilu'eting- tubefafter re
chargeportformed in a soil engaging outer sur
moval' of the smaller pipe. lWhen groutin'g‘with
face and the casing having apertures formed in
the aid of the inner pipe 2 I' is'be'ing effected valve
V will remain open and offt'ake- hose lI'l discon 20 »the wall; thereof. remote from Èthe. discharge' port
of thetip, a' conduit extendingthru 'the casing
nected so that the operatormay-readily perceive
togthe
tip for leading fluid under pressure to‘said
any outflow of grout which will, ofcourse, indi
~discharge port, connectionsvbetween> said con
cate that no more grout can be forced» into the
duit and. sources of liquid and gas under pressure,
earth at that point. The inner pipe may be left
in place, if desired, after grouting has'been com 25 respectively, and means controlling the ilow of
liquid and gas into said conduit from the respec
pleted, and the‘casing also ïlllled with; grout to
form Aa stronger pile if Ypiling is being'pl’aced, but
tive sources.
f».
.
.
.
.~ .
z.
1 .i
6.'~The `method `of subsurface. reinforcement
vwhich comprises progressively forming an clon-'
fore the grout‘hardens, andthe -casing suitably
gated substantially.r vertical .shaft by' directing :a
'30
jetgof fluid .under pressure downwardly against
capped.y
The earth vpenetrating element
` '» of the appara
thesoil and advancingthel same downwardly as
tus comprises not only- a means for Sinking a shaft
the soil against which it is directed is displaced,
in Vibrationless manner, but a means for intro
halting the downward movement of the jet after
ducing and withdrawing wash water and air
a shaft of predetermined depth has been formed
under pressure, va means for forcing grout into
but maintaining the flow of rwash liquid for a
a previously prepared zone, and as the> metallic
inthe >usual case the inner lpipe is removedbe
further period of time to form a cavity at the
lower end of the shaft, and conducting to the
surface of the ground the fluid so used for the
shell of a permanent pile. It may be introduced
into the earth at various angles so that it can be
most conveniently employed in reaching subsoil
yzones in and around existing’l foundation struc
tures.
Having described the invention, what is claimed
as new and desired to be secured by Letters
40
displacement of soil, together with soil particles
carried by said liquid, and thereafter introducing
grout into said cavity.
,
7. The method of treating, in place, a body of
porous or permeable subsoil to give it increased
bearing strength which comprises, delivering into
1; Apparatus of the typedescribed comprising '~
said body at a chosen distance below the surface
an elongated casing having a tip fixed upon one
a stream of wash fluid, under pressure to Wash
end, said tip having a fluid discharge channel
.such subsoil and cause its lighter elements to be
therein terminating in a fluid discharge port
dislodged, conducting such wash fluid with such
formed in a soil engaging outer surface, and said
disloged elements of subsoil to the surface of the
50
casing having fluid inlet ports formed in the wall
ground, and, after such washing operation has
thereof at points remote from the discharge port
beencompleted, forcing grout into the washed
of the tip, and a pipe or conduit for leading fluid
zone.
under pressure from a source of supply thru said
8. The method set forth in claim 7 in which
casing to said channel.
suction is applied to remove from said body the
2. Apparatus of the type described comprising
wash liquid and its contained lighter elements.
an elongated casing having a tip fixed upon one
9. The method of placing a body of artificial
end, said tip having a fluid discharge channel
stone or the like below the surface of a body of
therein terminating in a fluid discharge port
dense soil which comprises, sinking a shaft Athru
formed in a soil engaging outer surfacefa pipe
said soil by means of a jet of fluid under pres
or conduit for leading fluid under pressure froml te sure which is gradually lowered until a shaft of
desired depth is formed, the fluid thus discharged,
a source of supply thru said casing to said chan
with soil suspended therein, being conducted to
nel, said casing having fluid inlet ports formed
the surface, forming at the bottom of said shaft,
in the wall thereof at points remote from the tip,
by continued washing, a chamber for the recep
and means for establishing a sub atmospheric
tion of grout or the like, and thereafter intere
pressure in said casing.
_
rupting the flow of wash water and forcing grout
3. Apparatus of the type described comprising
into said cavity.
f f
in combination, an elongated casing having a tip
10.
The
method
set
forth
in
claim
9 in which
fixed upon one end provided with a fluid dis
suction is applied to remove from said body of
charge port in an outer surface, said casing hav
soil the wash liquid and lighter elements of the
ing a series of fluid inlet ports formed in that
soil.
portion thereof which is adjacent the tip said
-11. The method of placing a body of artificial
ports being remote from the fluid discharge port
stone or the like below the surface of ‘a body of
of the tip, the remainder being imperforate, and
soil which comprises, forming a cavity in such
means for supplying fluid under pressure to said 75 soil body by discharging water under pressure into
Patent, is:
@massa
12
1,1
the sax-ne and conducting the discharged water
and soil particles carried thereby to thesurface
of: the ground, cutting. oft' the inflowl of wash
water after formation- ofthe cavity; introducing
air" under pressure toa force the Waterv from the
cavity; and thereafter introducing grout or the
downwardly to said. body,> and thereafter
through said body and upwardly" to> the groimd
surface, the upflowing water carrying with it. the
said lighter> andweaker‘ elements of the: soil, and
introducing' grout under pressure mtothe` washed
body- of . subsoil.
1:5.. The method of increasing- the bearing
strength of a- bo'dy of subsoil which comprises
I2. .The method ofv placing' a body oi' artiïncial
forming a shaft extending from thev ground: sur
stone orl the like below the’surface. of; a bodyeof
soil whichy comprises, forming a cavity in such li) ,faceV down to such body by means- of a. down'
Wairdly directed iet'oiî fluid. which is- lowered Ias
soil by the: use of' a water jet, conducting the dis
the- soil-> is displaced. until itïhas reached the de
charged water and soit particles carried thereby
sired elevation, continuouslyremoving the dis
from the cavity as the` washing- proceeds, remov
placed soil, as the ,ietY descends;l to the surface
ing all water v‘from thel cavity, after its. comple.
of. the ground maintaining the.- jet afterv its
tiem by introducing air underÍ pressure into the
descent; has. been terminated until a substantial
same,`v and thereafter' introducing grout.
body of. soil has‘been; washed and the lighter and
I3» The- method .ot placing a. body of artificial
weaker elements thereofremoved to the ground
stone or the. like below theïsurface of abody of
surface,V and. thereafter introducing grout under
soil which comprised forming a. cavity inA such
like.
.
’
,
soil by the usel of a. water jet, conducting the -20 pressure into'the washedbodyof subsoil to form
a- matrix for the washedfm-aterial'.
discharged Water and soil particles carried there»
16. The method> of formingV a,v body of" artificial
by fromy the» cavity as the washing proceeds, in
stonef or the like> below the- ground level which
troducing air .under pressureinio the cavity after '
comprises forming a cavity byA means of a j’et of
its"` Iormation‘to. support the wall, thereof, and
introducing groutlwhile maintaining the pressure
ofthe air'against the.t walls ofïthe cavity;
14. The method of treating in place a body‘ of
porous or. permeable subsoil. tok give it increased
bearing. strength. which: comprises retrieving< from
such body the lighter and weaker` elements there 30
or, and transferringsuch elements to the surface
of the ground, by' causing e;> currentv of water: to
fluid, the displaced soil being floated to the ground
level by thev discharged'and upwardly rising fluid,
introducing air underf'pressure to support. the
otherwise unsupported walls of- theY cavity, and
introducing. groutinto said cavity while main
taining the air pressure.
GEORGEy L. DRESSER.
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