Патент USA US2403643код для вставки
July_9,`19.46. , . 'A G. L; DREssER 2,403,643 v METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR INTRODUCING GROUT INTO SUBSOIL ` Filed Feb( 25, - 1944 .um / 1If / . m„ ` . . Z , . ,l fIf ffl.l4 .l /l /Í / vl, / „ . / l/lÍl // . V»0ral , Z5 2 Sheets-sheet 1. Patented July 9, 1946 * 2,403,643 UNITED STATE S PATE NTÍ~0FF1CE n 2,403,643 » i Y Y f METHOD or AND APPARATUS Fort INTRO-V nUcmG GnoUT m'rosußsom , George L. Dresser, Albany,l N. Y. c I' Application February 25, 1944, 'serial »10.523,946 1 Y The present invention relates to methods of and apparatus for introducing grout or the like into subsoil either for the purpose of `increasing . d 2; 4 vthen be> discontinued and vgrout under ypressure its bearing strengthor to rprovide an anchoring massfor a pile. f below the surface has been cleared of its least de sirable constituents. The flow of wash water may introduced, the grout readily finding' . its way'` 5 ` y More particularly stated the invention pertains to.. a Ynovel method and apparatus by means of which grout, or other material of generally simi lar nature, which has lthe capacity to harden or solidify from a plastic conditionsmay be conven throughout ’the washed zone and surrounding and''forming a matrix for the remaining and mbre substantial elements, the method involving as av matter of> fact, the formation of a body'of con crete in place, beneath the surface 'of the ground, by the preliminary Washing of the aggregate and ientlyintroduced intoy permeable subwsoil of sandy the introduction of the matrix or groutV there-, or gravelly nature for the purpose of firmly sup porting the lower end of a pile or lforincreasing the bearing strength of such soil, or al body of after. ' When the> grout hardens the -» zone into ` which it has been introduced becomes a solid massA of great bearing strength. such material established at a desired distance 15 below4 the surface of a bed of `dense soil, such as clay, such body forming the anchoring means for Y . In accordance Vwith the method a zone of per meable subsoil of any desired volume may be treated and a soil of limited bearing strength con-f a metallic pile or column the upper end of which verted, in place, into a solid or body of great bear may project above the surface of the ground. The ing strength, in a rapid, economical manner. By> method and means of the present invention are of 20 causing the washing operation to be carried out such nature that an adequate foundation for any- ` structure however massive,`may be readily estab over a considerable area, measured horizontally, and by washing both deeply and toward the sur lished at almost any site, even though soil condi face, _a very- large body of y permeable soil may be tions are most unfavorable. - The invention is treated and its bearing strengthincreased, vthe highly useful in ,establishing adequate foundations 25 washingßandgrouting operation being carriedjout for new buildings and is likewisev of great value in over; as wide an area, and as deeply, as maybe strengthening foundations of structures previous deemed necessary. The permeable *soily beneath ly erected. While, in establishing the foundations d existingVv structures may be treated in this „mane for buildings to be newly erectedit is> quite pos ner and the structures thus strengthened or, as sible to use conventional piling, in the event that 30 has been `previously stated, the grouting may beV the soil is of low bearing strength, it is not alwaysy possible to use conventional piling in the rein forcement of the weakened foundations ofstruc employed as a step preliminary to the erection of a new structure. c Y In dense, hard soil, which ordinarily provides tures already erected, the weakened foundations adequate support for building structures, it is of such structures being quite often unable to 35 nevertheless frequently desirable to establish piles withstand the vibration or shock incident to the the upper ends of which project above the ground placement of piling by mechanical driving methods. ` , - . In the event that a body of permeable subsoil is level, vand Ywhichvmay constitute supporting or anchoring elements which may neither be with: drawn from _the ground or forced downwardly by to; be treated >in order that its bearing strength 40 pressure. In accordance with the invention av may be increased this may be readily accom body of'groutor concrete may be readily estab plished, in accordance with the present invention, lished `.inv subsoilof dense or clayey nature, to by causing a jet or jets of a washing liquid such serve v»as a submerged anchor for a pile, or forr as water to be delivered`Y` into the body of per-v Y anyother purpose, all without the aid of vibration'` . meable soil at a selected point below the surface or shock creating instrumentalities. A Hence if, for and the washing effect of a ñowing stream utilized " ' any reason. it is necessary to introduce a body of to remove from the permeable body a substan tial proportion of its lighter and weaker elements, leaving the denser and, stronger elements such as grout orconcrete into the earth near an‘CXÍSting structure this may be readily yaccomplished with-` stones behind, the wash water with its suspended 50 anchoring apile in dense soil a, combinedrpile and waste matter being brought to the surface, bysuc tion means if desired, and disposed of. The wash-- ing is continued until it is perceived, by inspecting the wash liquid which reaches the surface, that at least‘a substantialbody of the permeable material out danger to such structure. In placing „and jetting-or earth penetrating device is Vintroduced into’the earth by the action of a jet of Wash liquid unclerpressurey which issues from the end of the devicefandA a shaft' belngthus created as the de-> vice moves. ,dcwnwardlm the downward rnßvementl f 2,403,643 3 pumps II and I2 respectively to the elongated being halted only after it has penetrated the de sired distance. The washing action of the jet is, however, continued after its downward movement has ceased for the purpose of dislodging and element II), are indicated at I5 and I6, and a y conduit for leading wash water with its suspended solid matter from the element I0 to the reservoir R is indicated at I'I. Where a suction pump is employed the conduit I'I is caused to terminate at the intake port of pump I3', as indicated in dotted lines in Figure 4, and a further offtake bringing to the surface a body of the dense sub soil and thus creating at the bottom of the shaft a considerable cavity in the earth. Suction means may be employed to Withdraw the wash ‘waterfrom the earth and, inany event, conduit I'I’ 'leading' from the suctionpump to the reservoirRis employed ifnecessary. the washing out action will be continued until it ' ' „ The details of the element for penetrating is estimated, by observing the character and exe tent of the solids withdrawn, that a cavity of de- 'A " -the soil may most readily be perceived in Figure sired size has been formed.’ The how 'of wash> ` _2 -of the drawings.v -It comprises essentially a water is then interrupted and grout forced-"clown~` - 'tubular cas-ing Y2li which may be relatively long v wardly through the jetting device,v_~whichr_.l also in the -event that deep soil penetration is desired ' ’ or' relatively short when shallow penetration only pletely iills the cavity formed `bythe eroding ac- l ~ i-is‘necessary. - `Disposed within and coaxial with serves as a grout conduit, until the grout com thecasing 20 is a pipe or conduit 2l. The lower end ofthe casing 2!) is connected to a cast steel jetting or earth penetrating device is allowed to 20 tip 22 and the lower end‘of the pipe or conduit 2| is likewise connected-to this tip. The lower end remain while the body 'of lgrclut'V is harden-ing so of the casing is received within the upper-.end 4of that, when _the grout has hardened, the’jetting a sleeve 23 which -sleeve is in the nature ‘of a device isñrmly bound and may lnot be moved. Its tion of the stream of wash water, a substantial body of artiñcial stone or the like resulting'. TheM ` upper Vend Imay >`project "above the ground> andbe employed as a` stable-point `forthe attachment “of any structure vto 'be securedagainst 'movement' in any direction. ' ‘ _ 'Cine> apparatus is Vemployed for> carrying out either method and‘one VformV of this app-aratusis illustrated; by wayy o?example, in the‘accompany- . ing ldrawings in which," - -:Figure 1 is a Side view of the elongated element for-sinkingl the necessary Ishaft,~~and transmitting wash water and grout intolthe subsoil; formed upon the >outer surfaceof the lower end of the casingZß. The :inner-»pipe orffconduit 21| ` vFigure -2 yis an axial 'section thru this element, likewise projects, 'at Íits lower lend, into the upper end of a »sleeve or-standard coupling member 25, the conduit and sleeve --having inter-engaging partly _;broken away in 4order that the remainder may'be'shown ona largerscale; short standard coupling, thelower »end of this coupling projecting into a downwardly tapering recess 22a, formed in the rearend--of the tip 22, in which position it >is permanently secured as by a weld 274. Due to »the fact that the recess 22“ tapers downwardly, as stated', there will- «be no difñculty in assembly :despite minor variations in coupling diameter.> Thefinner face-of the »sleeve 23, at the upperend thereof, -is interiorly threaded and this thread receivesa corresponding thread ^ ' A"Figure 3- is a diagrammatic view showing, in threads. The lower lend vof sleeve -or coupling-25 verticalsection, `a body of subsoil into which 'grout' is-~to be introduced, Ytogether with the various 40 projects into a »tapered cylindrical recess 22h formed in thevbase of tip 22,fthe diameterof this essential pumps, etc.A Aof the yimproved 'apparatus recess -being substantially less than'that of the grouped together upon `the surface; -- ' recessíZZa-which recel-ves sleeve23,~sleeve 25 being` - 'Figure 4 is ~a top` pla-n View of ‘the apparatus shown i-nFigure 3;v f » ‘ ' -' -‘ ~ likewise permanently Aattached to »the tip- `by -~ l Figures'ö to 9, inclusive, are of diagrammatic 45 means oftheweld 2»S.« .A-jcentral channel through the -tip 22 is indicated -at 21 »thiscentral channel terminating vvin-` a port »28 yformedy in `an -earth-~ engaging outer »surface Aof the tip, 'at the smaller endY ori-point thereof; Preferably this »earth paratusas used AinA the treatment »of a body -of permeablesoil, such aslg-ravel, »to give itincreased 50 eng-aging outer surface'is lfrusto-conica-l -as 'shown and the -tip may advantageously >be fabricated of cast steel. The wash liquid to be used in sink Figures 10 to 14, inclusive, are also of diagram# ing the earth-penetrating element, or to be intro matic nature and show, in sequence, the several duced into the body-of »earth'to be excavated or steps involved >in the establishment‘of -a pile in a nature-and successively indicate the various ~posi tions -ofthe jetting or earth-penetrating element> offthewash liquid land g-rout-transmitting ap bea-ring strength; body ,of .Clayey » soîL ~ , ' ‘ , ,. ' - .. - '~ -` . -55 washed, passes downwardly through pipe‘ZI and 'The «apparatus includes the elongated earth penetrating device villustrated in'Figures 1 and 2, by lmeansof which wash water and «grout may be introduced into ~thesubsoil, together with suit issues as a jet from port 28. l Y for «providing a supply >of »water -underpressura issuing from'branch 30a-of the ‘lf-member passes air under pressure, and grout under pressure, to» gether with a suction pump. A settling basin or thru fa nipple -I-PI and» then thru the -casing >of a valve V. The valve V may-'beef «any suitable type wash water and washed out solids- at Rl »Suitable engagement with'the upper _endof the 'casing 20“l andithe 'downturned>- flange rof the -cap >'3l has -I-t will be observed that -the casing 20 has -a short upper section 2l)a which is connected to the lower section by lmeans of a ’If-»member A3l! able- vmeans such as indicated `in Figures 3 and 4« 60 having a laterally extending branch 30a. Liquid provided that it vmaybe adjusted to interrupt or reservoir for the- reception of washr liquid which issues from the earth after having been utilized 65 perm-it, as desired, yflow >of liquid from the casing 2i! to the offtake tube -34, '-to which tube the vinlet for'soil washing -or excavating »purposes is also end of‘a ñexible hose or conduit, such as indi preferably utilized, In Figures 3 and lithe elon cated at »I1 in Figures `3 and 4, maybe attached. gated earth penetratingelement is indicated at The inner duct or vconduit v'2-I` projects upwardly IiU, Va water pump by meansof which water under pressures vup to 300 pounds Yper square `inch canv TO beyond the upper end of the upper portion »20B of the casing and this projecting portion is en be supplied, is indicated at II, a compressor vfor circled by annular vflanged caps 35 and 31. The air is indicated at I2, a suction pump at I3, a> downturned flange~of the >cap 3G has threaded' grout pump- at I4, and a reservoir for receiving flexible conduits connecting the water' and air 2,403,64fr 5 . - 6 the? surface"` of 'the ground. 'Due to the eroding> effect of the water jet the soil immediately below the cast steel tip 22 will be displaced and the' threaded engagement with the'o‘utersurface' of the upper end of a tube or sleeve 38 welded, as; atl 39,'tov the upper‘surfaceof 'cap 36.1 In the element `||l will begin to settle into the ground,î vduring this preliminary stage the wash water simply passingupwardly around the outer surface narrow space ofY annular cross section deñned ~by thecaps 36 and 31 andthe tubular member or sleeve v38 there is contained a body 4|]4 of packing ofthe tip 22 and flowing away over. the surface-v material.. This packing materialprevents, when of the ground. The action of the jet is continued placed under pressure by suitably adjusting the` position of capf31, leakage from thecasing 20 and the downward movement of the elementY I0 upwardly past cap 36 aroundvthe outside of the 10 likewise ~ continues, the downward` movement being aided somewhat by pressure from- above pipe or conduit 2|. The upper end of pipe 2'I if necessary. ‘ ' projects into the lower end of a T-member .4| j After the elementl |0 has sunk part way towardand, into the upper end of this T-member, there projects a nipple 42 to. which is connected a valve its final position, t0 such rextent that the aper; - casing` 43. The movements of thevalve within the casing are controlled by handwheel 44. A tures.20b:in the casing 20 are beneath the ground. level, the wash‘water will either wholly or in part passwthrough these ports or apertures into the» taperednipple 45 is Aconnected tothe upper end of the valve body and to this nipple may be con interior of the casing, Atogether with substantial amounts of suspended matter, and then pass nected the end of a flexible hose for the trans mission, from` a vsuitable source of supply, of a 20 upwardly throughA the` casing until it reaches the compressed gas such-as compressed air. level ofthe T-member 30, then through-the 'body of valve V and into the oiîtake conduit | 1. ïIf» ~ vThe lateralbranch 4|a.of»the T-member 4| desired the suction pump |3 may be connected to is connected by means of a nipple 46 to the outlet end of a valve body 41 which valve body is like the oi’ftake conduit |1 so that therekis larposi'tive wise `provided Vwith a. valve the movements of 25; lift ‘applied to the column'of outflowing'wash-v which are controlled by a handwheel 48 and with water.l .Theraction may be continued Auntil the an inlet'nipple 49 which maybe connected by element-lll has -penetrated >`into the permeable means of’a ‘flexible hose toy asuitable source of soil tothe desired extent, for instance to the p'osi-' tion diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 6. wash >liquid under pressure. As shown in Figures 3 and`4 the nipple 45 is connected to the air hose |6,-the nipple '49 to the hose |5 leading from the water pump | | and the nipple 34>to the discharge conduit or hose |1. The vflow of wash water ymay be continuedY after full penetration has been obtained, however, in order .that 'further- washing of the permeable> body of earth around the lower end of element ' ID' may be effected, preferably at reduced pres ` ` The lower end of the casing 28 has formed therein a plurality of relatively small apertures sure. If desired, the ñow of water »may'bevdis or ports 2|!b which are‘provided to permit Wash continued and air under pressure allowed to flowliquid which »has been discharged through the to the> dischargeport 28 of the tip and thence 'port 28‘, and has moved'upwardly, to re-enter into the surrounding soil, to further prepare the the> element I0, carrying with it the lighter and soil for the grout which is to follow, or air and smaller particles of the soil which is being sub 40 water allowed to flow together to and out of port 28. I ' l l " ~ V ï jected to the washing operation. The .Water thus entering the casing 20 from without passes up > -Afterv such washing' has -been l'completed T` wardly, rwith its contained suspended matter, and member 30and associated parts‘are removed fromL outwardly through theA nipple 3|, valve V, nipple . the upper >end of the casing >2|), the lower end ‘of 34 and offtakefconduit |1 to a point where it may s LA pipe 2| being unscrewed from the coupling mem be wasted or collected in a pond or settling basin ber y25 and the pipe 2| with caps 36-and` 31,*and such as that indicated diagrammatically at R. parts 38l and2ll‘aL lifted upwardly. A further cap.' Thevwash water entering the soil penetrating ele indicated diagrammatically at 50, is then affixed to the upper end of casing 20, this cap having ment,v of course, `passes through valve body 41 and downwardly through pipe 2|.' During thel connected'theretol the end of a flexible duct ’orv hose 5| leading to the delivery port of the grout washing operation the valve controllingv the flow pump diagrammatically indicated’ at |4.V The of compressed air into pipe 2| will normally be pump is then operated to deliver grout under in closed position. If at any time, however, it isv desired to‘project a stream of air under pressure into the subsoil the valve within casing 41 will be closed and lthat within valve casing 43 opened. Hence the element l0 may be employed either to project a stream of wash water into a body of soil, or a current of compressed air or, in some cases, both wash water and compressed air, for purposes hereafter to be mademore clear. ~- Two preferred methods of use of the apparatus as so far described may be most readily perceived from an inspection of Figures 5 to 14, inclusive. Where it is' desired to- increase the load bearing strength of a body of Vpermeable soil the 'appa-_ ?atus is moved into position and the soil pene trating element |_0 disposed vertically just above the zone or body which is to be strengthened with grout, the apparatus being shown in this initial position in Figure 3.' Handle 48 is then manipu lated v'to open the associated valve and permit the inflow of _water under pressure into the inner duct 2|. The jet of water will be projected from Ul..vl substantial pressure tothe casing 20, the grout passing downwardly through the casing and out wardly through the discharge port 28 and through the ports 2|)b formed in the casing and which have . previously been employed as Water inlet ports. A’substantial body of grout may thus be delivered into the zone immediately adj acent the lower end of the element I0. In some instances, when de sired,'the grout may be caused' to penetrate con siderable distances in all directions from the lower' end of the element I0, finding its way through the spaces between the stones,‘gravel,\y sand and` particles of soil. Y f ' When a sufiîcient amount of grout has beenv delivered in this manner the element I0 VYmay be removed. If desired grout may be forced into the Í body of `soil surrounding the lower end of ele ment I0 at higher elevation, the element I0 be ing halted from time to time in its upward move ment, one such more elevated grout delivery point bein-g indicated in Figure 8. Figure 9 illustratesl the tip 22, through'fluid discharge port 28, against 75 diagrammatically' a body of earth >into which.A ennemis" 7 grout has been forced from a point well below the and while vit is hardening. The .grouthose 5l is surface .all‘the way up to the surface so that this body lhas been transformed into a relatively deep then 'removed and `a solid casing cap applied, such :as indicated at 54. The vcasing is thusndeñ body 'of concrete, in place, the aggregate .having been present originally and having been washed, nitelyanchored toa body Yof artificial stone 55well in place, to eliminate its Vmore `undesirable con stituents and to make room .for the grout which forms the matrix for the concrete. While this method .is particularly -useful where the lsubsoil contains many >stones and rocks it is nevertheless useful even where the subsoil contains large quan tities of vegetable matter. Washing v'operations may be >conducted from points closely adjacent - the surface to `points far below the surface :and grout injected under heavy pressure to fill the voids created and to force its way into and below the surface. I-n Figure 14 there is;.indi-.-cated in dotted lines,'at 56, 'an «alternative ‘position for the body -of grout .and it will be appreciated that the apparatus disclosed Ymay be employed :in esta-blishi-ng a grout body close to the surface asv well ‘as one well below the surface. It vnot infrequently happens that the .soil into which the ¿grout is to be introduced vis of such character that 'no cavity of adequate size, the walls of which are self-sustaining, 4can be >estab lished, thus making it'essential to provide‘a means for and 'method of supporting such walls Aduring the period of time following interruption of the through the interstices of the earth. 4Any char flowof water under ,pressure and'before the cavity acter of subsoil, however poor, can be given has been `filled with grout. It has been îfound greatly increased bearing strength by the method of grout application which has just been de 20 that, in numerous instances, collapse of the walls of the cavity resulting inits complete elimination scribed. If itis desired to establish a permanent immediately follows `stoppage of the water pump, pile instead of simply increasing the bearing unless the fluid pressure in the Vcavity is main strength of the porous soil, and it is frequently so desired, the pumping of grout may be halted when a sufficiently large anchoring body has been established, such for instance as indicated in Fig ure '-7. The casing 20 and tip 22 are left in place, the pump disconnected, and-a suitable cap placed upon the upper end of the casing, if desired. Where the soil is dense vand particularly where 30 it is desired to restablish one or more piles, a, some what different procedure is followed, as diagram matically indicated in Figures »10 to 14, The soil penetrating element t0 is -connected up as before tained vby the use of other means. In actual practice I prefer to employ air under pressure as a medium for supporting the walls of the cavity .after the flow of water under pres sure .has been cut olf. To `effect this desired result air under desired pressure from pump `l2 is conducted to pipe 2| through ‘conduit I-B and valve 43, simultaneously with or immediately after the closure `of valve 61 Compressed air then issues from the aperture 28 in the tip 'and into the cavity, where it >displaces the water, the and it is sunk vertically downwardly by jetting, as 35 water being forced through the perforations 20D into the casing 28 and escaping through valve V. before,_ being shown in Figure 10 to have pene After all of the water has been .thus driven #from trated the dense soil for a short distance and in the cavity and air under pressure begins to escape Figure 11 to have penetrated the soil to the full through offtake conduit -lfl the valve V is closed. extent desired. Naturally the element lll may 'be caused to penetrate to any desired depth within 40 Pressure of the air is maintained sufficiently high to insure adequate support to the walls ‘of the the limits of the apparatus. Initially the jetting cavity. fluid, which is usuallyl water under high pressure, The water conduit l5 is then disconnected `'from escapes to the surface of the rground 'along the nipple 49 and a connection to the grout pump M outer wall of the casing but later, »as the element established. Valve 443 may then be vclosed and l0 descends, the earth encircling the upper por valve 41 'opened so that grout under pressure will tion of the velement tends'to “back-fill” -and to be forced downwardly through pipe 2l and caused closely engage the outer surface of the casing so to loe-discharged into the cavity, the flow -of Ygrout that there is an increasing tendency for the wash water toenter the casing through the ports »20h under >pressure being continued until the cavity provided .for such entry, as the casing descends, has been filled. After 'this pipe `2|, 'lf-member and to pass upwardly through the casing and 30, and all associated 'parts are removed from outwardly through the offtake to the reservoir or the 'casing :20. The Ycap '50 rmay then be attached pond When the jetting element has descended to the top of casing »20 and 4grout caused to as far as desired a holding clamp 53 of any flow :into the casing until it is completely ñlled. suitable type is applied »at the ground level to 55 In this manner the walls of any cavity formed by prevent its further downward movement, but the washing may be fully supported until the cavity flow of wash water is continued, the action being is completely filled andobviously the` method may such that a. considerable cavity is gradually be employed even though the casing be removed formed by washing, »at the lower end ¿of the »earth after the introduction of the grout instead of penetrating element IG, as indicated in Figure 12. Gil being 'allowed to remain in the ground as a pile., .By closely observing the wash water discharged The method _just described has the further, >and into the pond or basin R and estimating or actu very substantial, advantage of avoiding the neces ally measuring the rate at which solids are being sity of introducing grout directly into a body of brought to the surface, the size of the cav-ity water within a newly .formed cavity, which is'un thus formed by washing during any _period of 65 desirable, and -air under pressure may be utilized-` time can be estimated, and the washing »action to free the cavity of water even where there .is may be halted after this cavity has become as little >danger 'of collapse 'of the walls of the 'cavity large as >thought to be necessary -or desirable. if unsupported. Grout may then be forced downwardly as before, By the `use -of suitably placed pressure gauges after removal of the inner Apipe 2i, `and caused lto 70 the air pressure existing in the cavity at any ñll the cavity which has been previously washed time may be ascertained 'and `if necessary to do in the dense soil. A cavity thus .filled with grout so to obviate the need to pump in grout `against is shown in Figure 13. The casing 2U is allowed an excessive air pressure, `the Apressure may be reduced by allowing air to -escape through valve to remain in the position in `which itis shown in this -figure, nafter the grout has been introduced 75 V Vuntil the desired value is reached. Such> a.` 2,493,643 ...i9 tip, to be -discharged from the iluididischarge port gauge; is. diagrammatic'ally. shown 1in" Figure 2, Abeing indicated at 60. f ' ' ` ` " thereof. f . ' 4. Apparatus of the type described comprising The vnovel apparatus shown and >described may be modified in various respects to »renderV it> more in combinatioman elongated casing having a tip suitable for use when unusual soil conditions are lfixed upon one end provided -with ailuid dis charge port in an .outerv sur-face„said casing hav met with, without departure from" thev invention, and the methods describedrmay belikewise modi ing a series of fluid inlet ports formed in that ‘portion thereof which is adjacent; the tip, said fied slightly when’ffound necessary. Grout may ports'being ,remote from the discharge portof be forced downwardly through the smallerïinner . pipe by connecting a grout supply conduit to the 10 the tip, the remainder being imperforate, means for supplying fluid under pressure to said tip _to be nipple `45 after having'disconnected the com discharged from the ñuid'discharge port thereof, pressed air hose from this nipple. When> this is and .suction means -forestablishinga sub atmos done the grout will `issue from the 'discharge' port ' pheric pressure ‘in said casing. . ‘ in the tip of the soil penetrating element'and :more grout will bedeliveredlintov 'the zone below 15 . 5. -»Apparatus ofthe -type described comprising, in combination, an elongated casinghavinga tip the tip than is the case when’the outer- casing fixed iupo'n .onefend, said tip having afluid Edis is u's'ed -as the grout co‘nxilu'eting- tubefafter re chargeportformed in a soil engaging outer sur moval' of the smaller pipe. lWhen groutin'g‘with face and the casing having apertures formed in the aid of the inner pipe 2 I' is'be'ing effected valve V will remain open and offt'ake- hose lI'l discon 20 »the wall; thereof. remote from Èthe. discharge' port of thetip, a' conduit extendingthru 'the casing nected so that the operatormay-readily perceive togthe tip for leading fluid under pressure to‘said any outflow of grout which will, ofcourse, indi ~discharge port, connectionsvbetween> said con cate that no more grout can be forced» into the duit and. sources of liquid and gas under pressure, earth at that point. The inner pipe may be left in place, if desired, after grouting has'been com 25 respectively, and means controlling the ilow of liquid and gas into said conduit from the respec pleted, and the‘casing also ïlllled with; grout to form Aa stronger pile if Ypiling is being'pl’aced, but tive sources. f». . . . .~ . z. 1 .i 6.'~The `method `of subsurface. reinforcement vwhich comprises progressively forming an clon-' fore the grout‘hardens, andthe -casing suitably gated substantially.r vertical .shaft by' directing :a '30 jetgof fluid .under pressure downwardly against capped.y The earth vpenetrating element ` '» of the appara thesoil and advancingthel same downwardly as tus comprises not only- a means for Sinking a shaft the soil against which it is directed is displaced, in Vibrationless manner, but a means for intro halting the downward movement of the jet after ducing and withdrawing wash water and air a shaft of predetermined depth has been formed under pressure, va means for forcing grout into but maintaining the flow of rwash liquid for a a previously prepared zone, and as the> metallic inthe >usual case the inner lpipe is removedbe further period of time to form a cavity at the lower end of the shaft, and conducting to the surface of the ground the fluid so used for the shell of a permanent pile. It may be introduced into the earth at various angles so that it can be most conveniently employed in reaching subsoil yzones in and around existing’l foundation struc tures. Having described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters 40 displacement of soil, together with soil particles carried by said liquid, and thereafter introducing grout into said cavity. , 7. The method of treating, in place, a body of porous or permeable subsoil to give it increased bearing strength which comprises, delivering into 1; Apparatus of the typedescribed comprising '~ said body at a chosen distance below the surface an elongated casing having a tip fixed upon one a stream of wash fluid, under pressure to Wash end, said tip having a fluid discharge channel .such subsoil and cause its lighter elements to be therein terminating in a fluid discharge port dislodged, conducting such wash fluid with such formed in a soil engaging outer surface, and said disloged elements of subsoil to the surface of the 50 casing having fluid inlet ports formed in the wall ground, and, after such washing operation has thereof at points remote from the discharge port beencompleted, forcing grout into the washed of the tip, and a pipe or conduit for leading fluid zone. under pressure from a source of supply thru said 8. The method set forth in claim 7 in which casing to said channel. suction is applied to remove from said body the 2. Apparatus of the type described comprising wash liquid and its contained lighter elements. an elongated casing having a tip fixed upon one 9. The method of placing a body of artificial end, said tip having a fluid discharge channel stone or the like below the surface of a body of therein terminating in a fluid discharge port dense soil which comprises, sinking a shaft Athru formed in a soil engaging outer surfacefa pipe said soil by means of a jet of fluid under pres or conduit for leading fluid under pressure froml te sure which is gradually lowered until a shaft of desired depth is formed, the fluid thus discharged, a source of supply thru said casing to said chan with soil suspended therein, being conducted to nel, said casing having fluid inlet ports formed the surface, forming at the bottom of said shaft, in the wall thereof at points remote from the tip, by continued washing, a chamber for the recep and means for establishing a sub atmospheric tion of grout or the like, and thereafter intere pressure in said casing. _ rupting the flow of wash water and forcing grout 3. Apparatus of the type described comprising into said cavity. f f in combination, an elongated casing having a tip 10. The method set forth in claim 9 in which fixed upon one end provided with a fluid dis suction is applied to remove from said body of charge port in an outer surface, said casing hav soil the wash liquid and lighter elements of the ing a series of fluid inlet ports formed in that soil. portion thereof which is adjacent the tip said -11. The method of placing a body of artificial ports being remote from the fluid discharge port stone or the like below the surface of ‘a body of of the tip, the remainder being imperforate, and soil which comprises, forming a cavity in such means for supplying fluid under pressure to said 75 soil body by discharging water under pressure into Patent, is: @massa 12 1,1 the sax-ne and conducting the discharged water and soil particles carried thereby to thesurface of: the ground, cutting. oft' the inflowl of wash water after formation- ofthe cavity; introducing air" under pressure toa force the Waterv from the cavity; and thereafter introducing grout or the downwardly to said. body,> and thereafter through said body and upwardly" to> the groimd surface, the upflowing water carrying with it. the said lighter> andweaker‘ elements of the: soil, and introducing' grout under pressure mtothe` washed body- of . subsoil. 1:5.. The method of increasing- the bearing strength of a- bo'dy of subsoil which comprises I2. .The method ofv placing' a body oi' artiïncial forming a shaft extending from thev ground: sur stone orl the like below the’surface. of; a bodyeof soil whichy comprises, forming a cavity in such li) ,faceV down to such body by means- of a. down' Wairdly directed iet'oiî fluid. which is- lowered Ias soil by the: use of' a water jet, conducting the dis the- soil-> is displaced. until itïhas reached the de charged water and soit particles carried thereby sired elevation, continuouslyremoving the dis from the cavity as the` washing- proceeds, remov placed soil, as the ,ietY descends;l to the surface ing all water v‘from thel cavity, after its. comple. of. the ground maintaining the.- jet afterv its tiem by introducing air underÍ pressure into the descent; has. been terminated until a substantial same,`v and thereafter' introducing grout. body of. soil has‘been; washed and the lighter and I3» The- method .ot placing a. body of artificial weaker elements thereofremoved to the ground stone or the. like below theïsurface of abody of surface,V and. thereafter introducing grout under soil which comprised forming a. cavity inA such like. . ’ , soil by the usel of a. water jet, conducting the -20 pressure into'the washedbodyof subsoil to form a- matrix for the washedfm-aterial'. discharged Water and soil particles carried there» 16. The method> of formingV a,v body of" artificial by fromy the» cavity as the washing proceeds, in stonef or the like> below the- ground level which troducing air .under pressureinio the cavity after ' comprises forming a cavity byA means of a j’et of its"` Iormation‘to. support the wall, thereof, and introducing groutlwhile maintaining the pressure ofthe air'against the.t walls ofïthe cavity; 14. The method of treating in place a body‘ of porous or. permeable subsoil. tok give it increased bearing. strength. which: comprises retrieving< from such body the lighter and weaker` elements there 30 or, and transferringsuch elements to the surface of the ground, by' causing e;> currentv of water: to fluid, the displaced soil being floated to the ground level by thev discharged'and upwardly rising fluid, introducing air underf'pressure to support. the otherwise unsupported walls of- theY cavity, and introducing. groutinto said cavity while main taining the air pressure. GEORGEy L. DRESSER.