Патент USA US2403646код для вставки
July 9, 1946. ' ' - . - R. N. FALGE ET Al. 2,403,646 BLAcKoUT HEADLAMP Filed April 29, 1945 2 smaila-sheet> 1A ßnventors ` July 9» 1945- _ 2,403,646 R. N. FALGE ET A1. :BLACKOUT HEADLAMP »Filed April 29, 1945 - ZVSh'eets-Sheet 2 .A 24J#d,„D._.ßf d, y jf#“L m/ÉW. N/Mm _5zum „we\, .or.¢A.d // , 702 www . Gttornegs Á ' 2,403,646 Patented July 9,' 1946KV -UN'VHEID STATES A PATENT. l -ofFrlce - A2,403,646 BLACK-QUT 5LAMP ‘Robert N..F.a;lge, Geer-ge W. On'ksen, Jr., `and`Wil liam R. ’Goris,.Anderson, Ind., -assignors to Gen eral Motors Corporation,> Detroit, ïMìch., la ‘cor xporation of :Delaware Application April t9', 1943, serial No. 435,042 »5 claims. (omen-48.4) l ' 2 ‘The present invention relates generally to .ve hic'le lamps and .more ,particularly to the-con adapted to y'be Amounted*witl'iin ya Astandard head lamp casing having -suitable‘means ‘to secure and struction of aheadlamp adapted .for use on mili» 2V maybe of -‘conventional `parabo'loidal fform and tary -or .civilian vehicles which must be operated ‘support ‘the same upon a vehicle. kThe reflector isLprov-ided with an opening -to 'receive' the base I0 of the .iight bulb l¿l which `is `secured rin the desired sito lprevent `the detection .ci the .vehicles .rei’iector kas by solder -|2 viriththe bulb vii-lament by enemy aircraft. . . located iat .the ifocal -of 'the reflector -and The `principal obiec't oïf >the invention is there with the .frontend v'of »the .bulbeshielded as indi lfore "to provide a headlamp .construction’which will afford only suela illumination of the roadway i1Y0 Acated at Y-l-Ato «cut 101i direct vrays' from the ñla ment. ~ y yas' 'has :been 'found `»necessary .for .reasonably .sai-e ~. The lens ömay be secured within -'the .openen-d operation of ‘the vehicle andin which .all direct of the reflector l2 by clamping the .marginalpor rays are Vadequately shielded to prevent observa ltion l-'ò of the lens between an annular peripheral tion vthereof ‘from above. _ Tosimp'lify and facilitate .the design .and man 415 flange ‘L6 .on the Vshie1d~.8 and an annular seat v20 on the reflector with ,a sealing- gasket .22 .of rub ufacture of the present headlamp it is proposed _ _at night in Acombat or .other .zones where _it isA >.to .utilize a conventional 'formof reflector :such vas may be moimted within'a „standard .headlamp ber or similar material interposed _fbetween'the lens and reflector. As' shown .in Figure l 'the o_pen end of the.' reflector may ‘beexterided for casing and obtain the desired light distribution and shielding by the provision of la llensiandshield 20 wardly beyond the lannular seat 20 and be clinched or spun over theV iiang‘e I8 of the shield 18 as 'at of novel construction'. , n , g .l N 24 to secure the lens and shield ’to thereflector ’In the .embodiment -.disclosed herein the shield and also conceal and protect the vmarginal por consists essentially .of .a metal front `cover plate tion. 'lâ of the lens -and the gasket '22. ‘To’posi .25 tion the `shield circumierentially with reference ' restricted opening .for the passage .of lightrays 'to fthe'lensthe lens may ‘be `formed with spaced i ' with a forwardly projecîtinghood' above `»this .open'« . recesses inthe outer v’face oi the marginal portion ing opening and lis toinobtain the .form the off »desired a horizontally beam pattern extendingA i5, asindicated'at 25 in A»Figure Z, 'to receive corre for the lens which is provided .a ,relatively narrow window or sloît of. >irregular .contour end spondingly ' spaced 'indentations such as indicated the portion of the lens which .is exposed through 30 yat ‘28 in Figure '2 on the flange klil oïfïthe shield. Referring now tothe yconstruction of the lens the .slot .is provided with refrac-.tingV suriaces aS `6 >and's‘l'iield B it will ñrst be noted that vthe shield will :be hereinafter described. .Y Y . several .features of .the present .invention ' -is provided with alight transmitting opening "in will be .apparent .from the ìollowing description Yof . the form of »a horizontally extending, relatively the embodiment illustrated intheaccompanyîng 35 narrow window slot which kis 'indicated generally drawings, y.in which: ’Y . ` ' . ' \ n Figure lY is a vertical section .taken .substantially .on 'line Yl--fl of .Figure 2 with parts in elevation of VAan .embodiment of the .present .invention._ 1 Aat 30. As will'be apparent 4from the showing 1in Figures’ land 2, thiswindow slot '32] is 'located above îthe longitudinal .axis fof vthe .reilecton .flens y and shield assembly, andthe .shield- isprov'ided .Figure 2y is a .front .elevation on line .2-2` of 40 with a ‘forwardly >projecting .hood î32 'which-may 'beisecur-ed as 'by spot-welding tothe shield. The Figure l with parts broken away. .Y ’ y ` .Y »ho-@c1132 isfsubstantialiy arc-shaped with the iront Figure 3 .isa .fragmentary rear :elevationof Ythe lens taken substantially on line _.3-3 .of .Figure .1. . .end thereof closed :by a vertical wall s4. The 'flower edges of the :hood .and the `bottom edge of Figure 4 is an enlarged Vertical central section >«t5 the' ‘window V"slot ~3ü are in a `plane inclinedY ap of va portion .of the lens and shield. ' .Figure z5 .is van enlarged fragmentary .horizontal . .section Yof ...the lens taken substantially >on line '5-5 :of .Figure-4. ‘ - proximately r1° to the horizontal. Therefore vthe ` slot-is >not .visibleto anyone above thisplane. -. ` Before .describing »the'panticular contour of ¿the . window ¿slot 30 _and `the refracting-fsurfaoes .on «the Figure «.6 :is a diagrammatic view showing the :beam` pattern ¿and the relation 'of ¿the saine to 50 lensë'i which are- discil‘osed herein itis desired to .respective portions of the s-lot ¿in ¿the shield. - »Referring first to the «showing .in Figure l, the reflector .2, light bulb »4, flens v(ì and `shield iß are ,preferably secured 'together to` constitute e, selif- »Y call attention to the principal requirements which . shouid be satisiie'd to obtain the-.desired illumina. ' tion >and to -developthe Ydesired >beam pattern. The reiracting .lens surfaces must, for instance., contained unit which, Las wili be understood, :is 66 provide .a .certai-nïdegree’ of bot-h vertical and ,neril f 2,403,646 3 4 zontal spread of the light emitted through the rel atively narrow horizontal slot 30 and al1 of the light rays should be directed below the bottom of the hood 32 with the upper porti-on of the beam of those light rays that pass through the extreme upper portions of the slot 30. 4 l The vertical beam spread is also dependent upon the vertical extent of the several portions of the slot 39 and the normal vertical spread of the horizontal ilute 36 is also modiñed by the vertical curvature of the flutes Af to J', inclusive, obtained from the bottom of the slot and the lower portionrof the beam from the top of the slot to avoid having the light blocked off by the hood. It is also desirable to obtain the so-called hot spot light from the central portion of the slot, that is, on the inner face of the lens, which curvature varies on different ñutes to obtain the desired the portion located adjacent the transverse cen vertical spread of the several areas of the beam ter of the slot which is closest to the center -of the pattern. As shown in Figure 5, the convex cur reflector since the images from this portion of vature of the different vertical llutes on the the reflector are of minimum vertical depth, and inner face of the lens is also not uniform but to obtain the light of maximum horizontal spread is designed to produce diiferent extents of hori from portions of the slot adjoining the central l5, zontalV spread for different areas of the beam portion so that this light will not be blocked off pattern as will be described hereinafter. Referring now to Figures 5 and 6 which show by the sides of the hood 32 near the shield 8. the beam pattern and the relation of the several As heretofore mentioned, the bottom edges portions of the slot 30 and the inner ilutes as (both front and sides) of the >hood 32 and the bot sociated therewith to the respective areas of the tom edge of the window slot 30 are in a plane in beam pattern, it will be seen that the ilutes A' clined approximately 1° to the horizontal. This to J ’,Vinclusive, provide blocks of light Which bottom edge 0f the slot 3D is straight but the up superimpose upon one another >to build up the per edge is formed in several steps to thereby pro vide portions which diifer in vertical extent. A1~ l. beam pattern which is entirely below the hori zontal as indicated by line X-X vwith the several though all portions of the slot constitute a single areas symmetrically disposed with reference to continuous opening in the shield 8, the'slot has the vertical center indicated byline Y-Y. been diagrammatically represented in Figure 6 as The center vertical ilutes D', E', F’ and cor composed of separate openings or portions identi fied by the letters A to J, inclusive, in order to set 30 responding portions D, E, F of the slot 3U pro vide the beam pattern area indicated at d which forth the relation thereof to certain refracting is of minimum vertical and horizontal spread . surfaces on the lens 6. and constitutes the so.-called hot spot. The ex Referring now to the construction of the lens 5, tent of horizontal beam spread is dependent upon refracting surfaces are provided on the portion of the amount of convexity of these Vertical flutes the lens opposite and adjacent the slot 3Q of the and the extent of vertical beam spread is de shield 8. The desired vertical beam spread is ob pendent upon both the Vertical depth of the. re tained primarily by a single horizontal convex spective slot portions- and the relative vertical ilute 36 on the outer face of the lens and the de sired horizontal beam spread is obtained by a plu rality of verticalconvex flutes A’ to J', inclusive. ‘ on the inner face of the lens. As shown in Figures 1 and 4, the major portion of the shield 8 may be spaced from the iront face of the lens B but Athe portion of the shield adja cent the slot 30 is offset from the rest of the shield and so formed as to fit closely against the hori curvatures of the outer' horizontal flute 36 and the inner flutes D', E', F’. On reference to Figure 4 it will be noted that the vertical curva ture of these particular inner flutes _is substan tially the same as that of the outer ilute so as to cancel out the vertical spread of the outer ilute to provide minimum vertical spread of the hot spot area d. It should perhaps be vpointed out that the vertical curvature of all of the inner lflutes is effective in modifying the vertical beam spread of the outer horizontal flute only with . reference to those portions of the inner flutes' the lens. An opening 38 is 'provided in the shield,A _ for-‘drainage of any moisture or foreign mater1a1 which are in substantially horizontal alinement with the slot 30 and the other portions of the which may accumulate in the space between the inner flutes are shown as vertically curved be shield and lens, and to prevent the emission of cause the formation of these flutes is facilitated any light rays through this drain opening the por~ tion of the outer face and marginal portion 5.6 of ¿n by machining this form on the plunger used zontal flute 36 on the lens so that there will be minimum space between the edges of the slot and the lens below the flute 36 may be provided wlth a for manufacture of the lens. y light impervious coating of black paint as indi In the present embodiment which is in com cated at 40 in Figure 2 or otherwise shielded to mercial use the hot spot area d has a horizontal spread of about 24° and a vertical spread of about 2°:with the top of this area about 1° below render the same opaque. ` The general curvature of the horizontal flute 36 is such that light rays passing through the up "ce the horizontal. The rest ofì the beam pattern is made up of areas which all have their upper per portions of the slot 30 will be directed down limit about 1.5“ below the horizontalbut vary wardly to a greater extent than rays passing in vertical and horizontal spreads as will be noted through the lower portions of the slot whereby the top of the beam pattern will be obtained from the The beam pattern area indicated at g has sub bottom of the slot and the bottom of the beam pat stantially the same vertical _and horizontal spread tern from the top of the slot to avoid interference as the hot spot area `d and is obtained from slot with the hood 32. On reference to Figure 4 it will portion G and inner ilute G’ which are similar also be seen that the vertical curvature of the to each of the slot portions D, E, F and flutes flute 36 is formed on two difîerentradii with the ‘ D', E', F’ except for a slight difference in the upper portion of the ilute above the horizontal Vertical curvature whichy is such that the entire level diagrammatically indicated at Z formed on a area g is positioned about .5° lower _than area hereinafter. radius r’ which is shorter than the radius r of the portion of the flute below this level to increase the ' extent of downward deflection and vertical spread d. ' , y The area indicated at a is obtained from slot portions A, J vat opposite ends of the slot 30 and the inner flutes A', J' associated there-A 2,403,646 5 be separately employed in other embodiments , and many changes will occur to those skilled in and g heretofore described. The vertical spread the art and are contemplated as within the scope of area a is about 3° and the amount of conH of the invention and coveredby the claimsv ap« vexity of ñutes A', J ’ is such as to provide a horizontal spread of about 46°. The flutes B’, C', H', I' are similar to ilutes A', J' with reference to the absence of any ap preciable vertical curvature but the vertical depths of the slot portions associated therewith are increased to provide greater vertical beam spreads and the amount of convexity of such flutes also varies to provide greater horizontal spreads of the respective areas of the beam pat tern. The flutes I’ and B' both provide a hori 6 ent invention has been disclosed herein it will be apparent that the several features thereof may with which have substantially no vertical curva ture so that the outer ilute 35 provides a greater vertical spread for area d than that of areas d pended hereto. , ' We claim: j l. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the ` combination with a reñector and light bulb, of a lens having a plurality of vertical flutes, a shield n front of said lens, and a relatively narrow horin zontal slot in‘said shield in line with said vertical ñutes, said slot being of irregular contour and - having portions thereof in line with some of said ilutes of different vertical extent than portions n thereof which are in line with other ilutes. zontal spread of the respective areas i and b 2.*In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the of about 60° but the depths of the associated combination with a renector and light bulb, of a slot portions I and B are such as to provide a vertical spread of about 4° of area i and about so lens having a horizontal flute with portions there of formed on different radii, a shield in front of 5.5“ of area b. f , said lens, said shield having a portion thereof The ñutes I-I’ and C’ both provide a horizontal formed to engage said horizontal ñute andy a spread of the respective areas h and c of about relatively narrow horizontal light transmitting 80°. The slot portions H and C' are of such verti cal extent that the upper ends thereof extend . slot in the flute engaging portion of said shield. above the` level indicated at Z ‘in Figure 4 to thereby expose respective portions of the outer iiute surface abo-Ve this level which has been here 3. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, ythe combination with a reflector and light bulb, of a lens having a horizontal flute with portions there of formed on different radii, a shield in front of said lens, and a relatively narrow horizontal light tofore Adescribed as being formed on a shorter radius than the flute surface below this level to transmitting slot in said shield, said slot having the major part thereof in line with the portion of said flute .formed on one radius with parts of said slot extended vertically above said major and the increased vertical extent of slot portion C provides a vertical spread of about 10.5° for 35 part to expose portions of said flute formed on a thereby provide a substantial increase in vertical spread of areas h and c as compared to the other areas. The vertical spread of area h is about 75° area c. - different radius. . 4. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the combination with a reflector and light bulb, of a lens having a plurality of vertical convex flutes, and associated with the respective slot portions A to J , inclusive, and the outer horizontal ñute 40 a shield in front of said lens, and a relatively narrow horizontal slot in said shield adapted to as to produce the desired beam pattern. The expose portions of said flutes, said slot being of inner flutes are preferably convex as shown and irregular contour with a straight bottom edge and described instead of concave to obtain the desired " a stepped upper edge to provide slot portions of horizontal spread of the several beam areas in As has been described above, the seriesof verti cal inner flutes A' to J', inclusive, are so formed order to prevent light rays from one flute passing > different vertical extents in line with certain of through the slot portions which are associated tions A and J, a vertical convex flute M is pro vided adjacent each of the flutes A" and J' as shown particularly in Figure 5 to converge the said flutes. 5. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the combination with a reflector and light bulb, of a lens, a shield in front of said lens, a relatively narrow horizontal light transmitting slot in said shield having the central portion thereof of less light rays adjacent the flutes A’ and J ’ so that vertical extent than the end portions thereof, and they will be intercepted by the shield 8. Although it might be possible to obtain both refracting surfaces on said lens in line with said slot including a horizontal flute on the outer face of said lens and a plurality of vertical flutes on with adjacent flutes. To prevent uncontrolled light rays from passing through the end slot por vertical and horizontal beam spreads from com- i pound flutes on only one face of the lens, the present arrangement wherein a single horizontal flute on the outer face of the lens is associated with the plurality of inner flutes facilitatesV the manufacture of the lens and provides a more accurate control of the light rays to produce the desired beam pattern which will be smoothly graduated so that the illuminated roadway ap pears to be of substantially uniform brightness from the bottom of the beam to the top of the beam. K Although only a single embodiment of the pres the inner face of said lens, said vertical flutes f having different radii withthe flutes of longer radii in line with the centralportion of said slot whereby light rays passing through this slot por- ' tion will producea hot spot area of minimum ver tical and horizontal spread and light rays passing , through other portions of said slot will produce beam areas of greater vertical and horizontal spreada» , ` ROBERT N. FALGE. GEORGE W. ONKSEN, JR. WILLIAM R. GORIS, .