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Патент USA US2403646

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July 9, 1946. '
Filed April 29, 1945
2 smaila-sheet> 1A
` July 9» 1945- _
»Filed April 29, 1945
ZVSh'eets-Sheet 2
m/ÉW. N/Mm
_5zum „we\,
, 702
. Gttornegs Á
Patented July 9,' 1946KV
-ofFrlce -
‘Robert N..F.a;lge, Geer-ge W. On'ksen, Jr., `and`Wil
liam R. ’Goris,.Anderson, Ind., -assignors to Gen
eral Motors Corporation,> Detroit, ïMìch., la ‘cor
xporation of :Delaware
Application April t9', 1943, serial No. 435,042
»5 claims.
‘The present invention relates generally to .ve
hic'le lamps and .more ,particularly to the-con
adapted to y'be Amounted*witl'iin ya Astandard head
lamp casing having -suitable‘means ‘to secure and
struction of aheadlamp adapted .for use on mili»
2V maybe of -‘conventional `parabo'loidal fform and
tary -or .civilian vehicles which must be operated
‘support ‘the same upon a vehicle. kThe reflector
isLprov-ided with an opening -to 'receive' the base
I0 of the .iight bulb l¿l which `is `secured rin the
desired sito lprevent `the detection .ci the .vehicles
.rei’iector kas by solder -|2 viriththe bulb vii-lament
by enemy aircraft.
located iat .the ifocal
-of 'the reflector -and
The `principal obiec't oïf >the invention is there
with the .frontend v'of »the .bulbeshielded as indi
lfore "to provide a headlamp .construction’which
will afford only suela illumination of the roadway i1Y0 Acated at Y-l-Ato «cut 101i direct vrays' from the ñla
yas' 'has :been 'found `»necessary .for .reasonably .sai-e
~. The lens ömay be secured within -'the .openen-d
operation of ‘the vehicle andin which .all direct
of the reflector l2 by clamping the .marginalpor
rays are Vadequately shielded to prevent observa
ltion l-'ò of the lens between an annular peripheral
tion vthereof ‘from above.
_ Tosimp'lify and facilitate .the design .and man 415 flange ‘L6 .on the Vshie1d~.8 and an annular seat v20
on the reflector with ,a sealing- gasket .22 .of rub
ufacture of the present headlamp it is proposed _
_at night in Acombat or .other .zones where _it isA
>.to .utilize a conventional 'formof reflector :such
vas may be moimted within'a „standard .headlamp
ber or similar material interposed _fbetween'the
lens and reflector.
As' shown .in Figure l 'the
o_pen end of the.' reflector may ‘beexterided for
casing and obtain the desired light distribution
and shielding by the provision of la llensiandshield 20 wardly beyond the lannular seat 20 and be clinched
or spun over theV iiang‘e I8 of the shield 18 as 'at
of novel construction'.
, n
24 to secure the lens and shield ’to thereflector
’In the .embodiment -.disclosed herein the shield
and also conceal and protect the vmarginal por
consists essentially .of .a metal front `cover plate
tion. 'lâ of the lens -and the gasket '22. ‘To’posi
tion the `shield circumierentially with reference
' restricted opening .for the passage .of lightrays
'to fthe'lensthe lens may ‘be `formed with spaced i '
with a forwardly projecîtinghood' above `»this .open'« .
recesses inthe outer v’face oi the marginal portion
and lis
the .form
the off
a horizontally
beam pattern
i5, asindicated'at 25 in A»Figure Z, 'to receive corre
for the lens which is provided
.a ,relatively
narrow window or sloît of. >irregular .contour end
spondingly ' spaced 'indentations such as indicated
the portion of the lens which .is exposed through 30 yat ‘28 in Figure '2 on the flange klil oïfïthe shield.
Referring now tothe yconstruction of the lens
the .slot .is provided with refrac-.tingV suriaces aS
B it will ñrst be noted that vthe shield
will :be hereinafter described. .Y
several .features of .the present .invention ' -is provided with alight transmitting opening "in
will be .apparent .from the ìollowing description Yof . the form of »a horizontally extending, relatively
the embodiment illustrated intheaccompanyîng 35 narrow window slot which kis 'indicated generally
drawings, which:
n Figure lY is a vertical section .taken .substantially
.on 'line Yl--fl of .Figure 2 with parts in elevation
of VAan .embodiment of the .present .invention._ 1
Aat 30. As will'be apparent 4from the showing 1in
Figures’ land 2, thiswindow slot '32] is 'located
above îthe longitudinal .axis fof vthe .reilecton .flens
y and shield assembly, andthe .shield- isprov'ided
.Figure 2y is a .front .elevation on line .2-2` of 40 with a ‘forwardly >projecting .hood î32 'which-may
'beisecur-ed as 'by spot-welding tothe shield. The
Figure l with parts broken away.
.Y ’ y ` .Y
»ho-@c1132 isfsubstantialiy arc-shaped with the iront
Figure 3 .isa .fragmentary rear :elevationof Ythe
lens taken substantially on line _.3-3 .of .Figure .1. . .end thereof closed :by a vertical wall s4. The
'flower edges of the :hood .and the `bottom edge of
Figure 4 is an enlarged Vertical central section
>«t5 the' ‘window V"slot ~3ü are in a `plane inclinedY ap
of va portion .of the lens and shield.
.Figure z5 .is van enlarged fragmentary .horizontal .
.section Yof ...the lens taken substantially >on line
'5-5 :of .Figure-4.
proximately r1° to the horizontal. Therefore vthe `
slot-is >not .visibleto anyone above thisplane. -.
` Before .describing »the'panticular contour of ¿the
window ¿slot 30 _and `the refracting-fsurfaoes .on «the
Figure «.6 :is a diagrammatic view showing the
:beam` pattern ¿and the relation 'of ¿the saine to 50 lensë'i which are- discil‘osed herein itis desired to
.respective portions of the s-lot ¿in ¿the shield.
- »Referring first to the «showing .in Figure l, the
reflector .2, light bulb »4, flens v(ì and `shield iß are
,preferably secured 'together to` constitute e, selif- »Y
call attention to the principal requirements which
. shouid be satisiie'd to obtain the-.desired illumina.
' tion >and to -developthe Ydesired >beam pattern.
The reiracting .lens surfaces must, for instance.,
contained unit which, Las wili be understood, :is 66 provide .a .certai-nïdegree’ of bot-h vertical and ,neril f
zontal spread of the light emitted through the rel
atively narrow horizontal slot 30 and al1 of the
light rays should be directed below the bottom of
the hood 32 with the upper porti-on of the beam
of those light rays that pass through the extreme
upper portions of the slot 30.
The vertical beam spread is also dependent
upon the vertical extent of the several portions
of the slot 39 and the normal vertical spread
of the horizontal ilute 36 is also modiñed by the
vertical curvature of the flutes Af to J', inclusive,
obtained from the bottom of the slot and the lower
portionrof the beam from the top of the slot to
avoid having the light blocked off by the hood. It
is also desirable to obtain the so-called hot spot
light from the central portion of the slot, that is,
on the inner face of the lens, which curvature
varies on different ñutes to obtain the desired
the portion located adjacent the transverse cen
vertical spread of the several areas of the beam
ter of the slot which is closest to the center -of the
pattern. As shown in Figure 5, the convex cur
reflector since the images from this portion of
vature of the different vertical llutes on the
the reflector are of minimum vertical depth, and
inner face of the lens is also not uniform but
to obtain the light of maximum horizontal spread
is designed to produce diiferent extents of hori
from portions of the slot adjoining the central l5, zontalV spread for different areas of the beam
portion so that this light will not be blocked off
pattern as will be described hereinafter.
Referring now to Figures 5 and 6 which show
by the sides of the hood 32 near the shield 8.
the beam pattern and the relation of the several
As heretofore mentioned, the bottom edges
portions of the slot 30 and the inner ilutes as
(both front and sides) of the >hood 32 and the bot
sociated therewith to the respective areas of the
tom edge of the window slot 30 are in a plane in
beam pattern, it will be seen that the ilutes A'
clined approximately 1° to the horizontal. This
to J ’,Vinclusive, provide blocks of light Which
bottom edge 0f the slot 3D is straight but the up
superimpose upon one another >to build up the
per edge is formed in several steps to thereby pro
vide portions which diifer in vertical extent. A1~ l. beam pattern which is entirely below the hori
zontal as indicated by line X-X vwith the several
though all portions of the slot constitute a single
areas symmetrically disposed with reference to
continuous opening in the shield 8, the'slot has
the vertical center indicated byline Y-Y.
been diagrammatically represented in Figure 6 as
The center vertical ilutes D', E', F’ and cor
composed of separate openings or portions identi
fied by the letters A to J, inclusive, in order to set 30 responding portions D, E, F of the slot 3U pro
vide the beam pattern area indicated at d which
forth the relation thereof to certain refracting
is of minimum vertical and horizontal spread
. surfaces on the lens 6.
and constitutes the so.-called hot spot. The ex
Referring now to the construction of the lens 5,
tent of horizontal beam spread is dependent upon
refracting surfaces are provided on the portion of
the amount of convexity of these Vertical flutes
the lens opposite and adjacent the slot 3Q of the
and the extent of vertical beam spread is de
shield 8. The desired vertical beam spread is ob
pendent upon both the Vertical depth of the. re
tained primarily by a single horizontal convex
spective slot portions- and the relative vertical
ilute 36 on the outer face of the lens and the de
sired horizontal beam spread is obtained by a plu
rality of verticalconvex flutes A’ to J', inclusive. ‘
on the inner face of the lens.
As shown in Figures 1 and 4, the major portion
of the shield 8 may be spaced from the iront face
of the lens B but Athe portion of the shield adja
cent the slot 30 is offset from the rest of the shield
and so formed as to fit closely against the hori
curvatures of the outer' horizontal flute 36 and
the inner flutes D', E', F’. On reference to
Figure 4 it will be noted that the vertical curva
ture of these particular inner flutes _is substan
tially the same as that of the outer ilute so as
to cancel out the vertical spread of the outer
ilute to provide minimum vertical spread of the
hot spot area d. It should perhaps be vpointed
out that the vertical curvature of all of the inner
lflutes is effective in modifying the vertical beam
spread of the outer horizontal flute only with
. reference to those portions of the inner flutes'
the lens. An opening 38 is 'provided in the shield,A
for-‘drainage of any moisture or foreign mater1a1
which are in substantially horizontal alinement
with the slot 30 and the other portions of the
which may accumulate in the space between the
inner flutes are shown as vertically curved be
shield and lens, and to prevent the emission of
cause the formation of these flutes is facilitated
any light rays through this drain opening the por~
tion of the outer face and marginal portion 5.6 of ¿n by machining this form on the plunger used
zontal flute 36 on the lens so that there will be
minimum space between the edges of the slot and
the lens below the flute 36 may be provided wlth a
for manufacture of the lens.
light impervious coating of black paint as indi
In the present embodiment which is in com
cated at 40 in Figure 2 or otherwise shielded to
mercial use the hot spot area d has a horizontal
spread of about 24° and a vertical spread of
about 2°:with the top of this area about 1° below
render the same opaque.
The general curvature of the horizontal flute
36 is such that light rays passing through the up "ce the horizontal. The rest ofì the beam pattern
is made up of areas which all have their upper
per portions of the slot 30 will be directed down
limit about 1.5“ below the horizontalbut vary
wardly to a greater extent than rays passing
in vertical and horizontal spreads as will be noted
through the lower portions of the slot whereby the
top of the beam pattern will be obtained from the
The beam pattern area indicated at g has sub
bottom of the slot and the bottom of the beam pat
stantially the same vertical _and horizontal spread
tern from the top of the slot to avoid interference
as the hot spot area `d and is obtained from slot
with the hood 32. On reference to Figure 4 it will
portion G and inner ilute G’ which are similar
also be seen that the vertical curvature of the
to each of the slot portions D, E, F and flutes
flute 36 is formed on two difîerentradii with the ‘
D', E', F’ except for a slight difference in the
upper portion of the ilute above the horizontal
Vertical curvature whichy is such that the entire
level diagrammatically indicated at Z formed on a
area g is positioned about .5° lower _than area
radius r’ which is shorter than the radius r of the
portion of the flute below this level to increase the '
extent of downward deflection and vertical spread
The area indicated at a is obtained from
slot portions A, J vat opposite ends of the slot
30 and the inner flutes A', J' associated there-A
be separately employed in other embodiments
, and many changes will occur to those skilled in
and g heretofore described. The vertical spread
the art and are contemplated as within the scope
of area a is about 3° and the amount of conH
of the invention and coveredby the claimsv ap«
vexity of ñutes A', J ’ is such as to provide a
horizontal spread of about 46°.
The flutes B’, C', H', I' are similar to ilutes
A', J' with reference to the absence of any ap
preciable vertical curvature but the vertical
depths of the slot portions associated therewith
are increased to provide greater vertical beam
spreads and the amount of convexity of such
flutes also varies to provide greater horizontal
spreads of the respective areas of the beam pat
tern. The flutes I’ and B' both provide a hori
ent invention has been disclosed herein it will be
apparent that the several features thereof may
with which have substantially no vertical curva
ture so that the outer ilute 35 provides a greater
vertical spread for area d than that of areas d
pended hereto.
We claim:
l. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the
` combination with a reñector and light bulb, of a
lens having a plurality of vertical flutes, a shield
n front of said lens, and a relatively narrow horin
zontal slot in‘said shield in line with said vertical
ñutes, said slot being of irregular contour and
- having portions thereof in line with some of said
ilutes of different vertical extent than portions
n thereof which are in line with other ilutes.
zontal spread of the respective areas i and b
2.*In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the
of about 60° but the depths of the associated
combination with a renector and light bulb, of a
slot portions I and B are such as to provide a
vertical spread of about 4° of area i and about so lens having a horizontal flute with portions there
of formed on different radii, a shield in front of
5.5“ of area b.
said lens, said shield having a portion thereof
The ñutes I-I’ and C’ both provide a horizontal
formed to engage said horizontal ñute andy a
spread of the respective areas h and c of about
relatively narrow horizontal light transmitting
80°. The slot portions H and C' are of such verti
cal extent that the upper ends thereof extend .
slot in the flute engaging portion of said shield.
above the` level indicated at Z ‘in Figure 4 to
thereby expose respective portions of the outer
iiute surface abo-Ve this level which has been here
3. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, ythe
combination with a reflector and light bulb, of a
lens having a horizontal flute with portions there
of formed on different radii, a shield in front of
said lens, and a relatively narrow horizontal light
tofore Adescribed as being formed on a shorter
radius than the flute surface below this level to
transmitting slot in said shield, said slot having
the major part thereof in line with the portion
of said flute .formed on one radius with parts of
said slot extended vertically above said major
and the increased vertical extent of slot portion
C provides a vertical spread of about 10.5° for 35 part to expose portions of said flute formed on a
thereby provide a substantial increase in vertical
spread of areas h and c as compared to the other
areas. The vertical spread of area h is about 75°
area c.
different radius.
4. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the
combination with a reflector and light bulb, of a
lens having a plurality of vertical convex flutes,
and associated with the respective slot portions
A to J , inclusive, and the outer horizontal ñute 40 a shield in front of said lens, and a relatively
narrow horizontal slot in said shield adapted to
as to produce the desired beam pattern. The
expose portions of said flutes, said slot being of
inner flutes are preferably convex as shown and
irregular contour with a straight bottom edge and
described instead of concave to obtain the desired "
a stepped upper edge to provide slot portions of
horizontal spread of the several beam areas in
As has been described above, the seriesof verti
cal inner flutes A' to J', inclusive, are so formed
order to prevent light rays from one flute passing >
different vertical extents in line with certain of
through the slot portions which are associated
tions A and J, a vertical convex flute M is pro
vided adjacent each of the flutes A" and J' as
shown particularly in Figure 5 to converge the
said flutes.
5. In a blackout headlamp for vehicles, the
combination with a reflector and light bulb, of a
lens, a shield in front of said lens, a relatively
narrow horizontal light transmitting slot in said
shield having the central portion thereof of less
light rays adjacent the flutes A’ and J ’ so that
vertical extent than the end portions thereof, and
they will be intercepted by the shield 8.
Although it might be possible to obtain both
refracting surfaces on said lens in line with said
slot including a horizontal flute on the outer face
of said lens and a plurality of vertical flutes on
with adjacent flutes. To prevent uncontrolled
light rays from passing through the end slot por
vertical and horizontal beam spreads from com- i
pound flutes on only one face of the lens, the
present arrangement wherein a single horizontal
flute on the outer face of the lens is associated
with the plurality of inner flutes facilitatesV the
manufacture of the lens and provides a more
accurate control of the light rays to produce the
desired beam pattern which will be smoothly
graduated so that the illuminated roadway ap
pears to be of substantially uniform brightness
from the bottom of the beam to the top of the
Although only a single embodiment of the pres
the inner face of said lens, said vertical flutes f
having different radii withthe flutes of longer
radii in line with the centralportion of said slot
whereby light rays passing through this slot por- '
tion will producea hot spot area of minimum ver
tical and horizontal spread and light rays passing
, through other portions of said slot will produce
beam areas of greater vertical and horizontal
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