Патент USA US2403658код для вставки
July 9, 1946- c. M. HAYMAN 2,403,658 GYROSCOPIG STEERING MECHANISM Filed NOV. 21', 1944 4c 44 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 45 47 39 49 /7 57 58 lINVENTOR. Q. s»2.,f2wwïmë GYROSCOPIC STEERING MEGHANISM Filed Nov'. 2l, 1944 2. Sheet'swSheei; 2 Q6 ya 97 INVENTOR. Patented July 9, 1946' 2,403,558 A UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,403,658 Graoscorlc STEERING MECHANISM l Charles M. Hayman, Brooklyn, N. Y. Application November 21, 1944, Serial No. 564,494 ' 34 Claims. 1 (Cl. 114-144) 2 The invention relates to gyroscopically actuat _ed mechanism for turning a craft in space under and thus permit the restoration of the automatic control by the gyroscope. conditions where the craft may even be rudder less and thus independent of the presence of any factor of headway or drift. While the invention is herein specifically de scribed as a control for a navigable craft, it can be used for controlling the rotation of any body ‘ Various other objects and advantages> of the invention will be in part obvious from a consid eration of the method features of the disclosure and from an insœction of the accompanying drawings, and in part will be more fully set forth in the following particular description of one method of practicing the invention, and the in ` in space and for specific instances it may be used to rotate a motion picture camera, a searchlight, a submarine, a torpedo, a large gun turret, a roundhouse turntable. _ vention also consists in certain new and novel ' modifications of the preferred method and other 4 features of construction and combination of parts hereinafter set forth and claimed. The primary object of the invention is to pro lvide a simplined craft turning or steering mech= anisrn 'which will be easy to operate to effect a turn selectively to the right or left at will; which In the accompanying drawings: e will automatically intercept its turning move» ment when the turning is intercepted as by contact with an external object and which will automatically resist any lateral turning of the Figure l is a view largely in front elevation of a preferred embodiment of the invention in» stalled in position onl a ship shown symbolically" by a structural part thereof ; Figure 2 is a view in side elevation of the de~= vice shown in Figure l; croit under the inñence of any external causes, auch as cross current and side winds, and which will tend to maintain its course if under headway and resist forces which tend to turn it ofi" its Figure 3 is a wiring diagram of some of the parts shown in the preceding heures and with certain additional electrical parts all shown in their normal inoperative positions; and course. 25 Broadli?, the invention features the mounting of o steering gyroscope on a craft with the croit providing the third degree of freedom of rota» ’ tion and the gyroscooe itself providing the other Figures 4-«6 disclose a modified ioi'm of the in-= vention, Figure i» beingv a view largely in iront elevation of the modified form; and Figure 5 beu ing a view largely in vertical axial section at right angles to the showing in Fia. t; and Figures being o, wiring diagram of the circuits tivo degrees of rotational freedom; and control means ior displacing the elmbal ring to create of the modified tomi, and Figure 7 shows a modi» a niecessional movement of the steering gyro» fled form of gyroscope mounting. v scorie. This control means may be manually ac= Referring ñrstI to the form ci the invention tuated to effect a steering' of the craft at will, or disclosed in Figures l-S, there is disclosed a freely it may be automatic and governed by the move 35 lloating body such as a ship, an airplane or other ment of the craft itself as when veered otr“ its craft to be steered and represented symbolically course by external inñuences. ' by structural part thereof designated i@ in Fie“ In devices of this character where powerful ure l. It is understood that insofar' as this dis-= precesslonal forces are ~developed by the gyro closure is concerned, the craft may be free of scope, provision must be made to prevent such rudders or if it possesses a rudder, it may be forces from wrecking the device, and accordingly, either locked in inoperative position or it may another object of the invention is to provide for be used conjointly with the apparatus herein fea~ an automatic release to disconnect the gyroscope tured. As this body when floating is free to turn in a horizontal plane about a, vertical axis o-b from the craft in the event of excessive forces being developed by the gyroscope by reason of 45 it will thus constitute one of the three degrees of freedom of movement of the gyroscope or gyrou powerful outside forces acting on the craft. Broadly, this aspect of the invention is at tained by mounting the main gyroscope on a turntable which is normally locked to the craft which it controls, but which on an abnormal pre cesslonal movement of the gyroscope releases the to connection between the gyroscope and the craft and thus intercepts the automatic steering and ' permits of a manual control to right the craft scopesv herein featured. In the present disclosure let it be assumed that the craft when moving forward is moving in the direction indicated by the long arrow at the bottom of Figure 2,- that is, from left to right of the sheet. A binnacle or housing l I of jar-like form is rigidly secured to the part I0 and provides a, support for two gyro scopic devices I2 and I3, of which device l2 is to be regarded hereinafter as a main gyroscopic con-v 2,408,658 3 v trol and the device il a gyroscopically controlled relay for keeping the craft on 'a straight away course. The binnacle includes a rugged base i4 secured to the structural part of the craft it by means of bolts IB and upstanding sides li and i1 merging at their upper ends with a nat top platform Il. ' Referring first to the main gyroscopic control i2, there is disclosed at the bottom of the hous ing as shown in Fig. 2 a pair of Irugged trunnions pair of servo electro-magnets 4|l and 4| secured to a head piece 42 overlapping the same and carried by the support 21. The electro-magnet 40 will be referred to hereinafter as the left elec tro-magnet and the electro-magnet 4| as the right electro-magnet. Secured to the headpiece 42 is a bracket 42 carrying a pair of relatively fixed contacts 44 and 45 each in the form of a. set screw threaded re spectively into terminal bars 4B and 41 and dis posed for relative adjustment. An upstanding i0 and 2li rigid with the frame and this rigid with rockable contact bar 4l has its lower end secured the ship I0. A gimbal ring 2| is journalled con to the ring 34 to swing therewith and has its ventionally in the trunnions and is normally dis upper'end located to move between and to engage posed in a horizontal plane and mounted for os selectively either one of two fixed contacts 44 or cillatory movement about an axis of spin shown 4l and operating to close a main solenoid circuit at o-d in Fig. 2, and thus provides the first free through that solenoid 24 or 25 towards which dom of movement for the gyroscope. J ournalled bar 48 is shifted by the tilting of the gimbal ring in the gimbal ring is a spinning rotor 22 whose 34. The tilting of the ring 24 also opens' and axle 2! extends at right angles to the axis e-d closes a circuit through a pair of contacts, the 20 and thus provides a second freedom of movement shiftable elements 48 and l0 of which are carried of »the gyroscope about the second axis e--f. respectively by extensions Bl and 52 from the « When mounted on a craft, rolling or «pitching of gimbal ring 24 in line with its spinning rotor axis. the craft does not aifect the rotor if the gyroscope A pair of fixed contacts 53 and |54 coact respec is mounted with the spinning axis athwart a ship, tively with movable contacts 4B and 50 to selec that is. at right angles to the direction of the long tively close circuits hereinafter described in dis arrow in Fig. 2. It is‘the intent that the rotor cussing Figure 3. 22 as well as the rotors hereinafter referred to It is within the scope of the disclosure to pro be turning at high R. P. M. by :let propulsion or vide a remote indicator l5 for displaying to the by any other known means at present used for operator a visual indication of the tilt of the rotating the spinning rotors of gyroscopes and main gyroscope gimbal ring 2| and for this pur accordingly no specific motor power for turning pose there is disclosed a segment shaped contact the gyroscopic rotors is herein disclosed. plate 56 provided with a plurality of button con Means are provided for shifting the gimbal ring tacts grouped in a series of left contact buttons about the axis c-d and this against the resistance i1 and a series of right contact buttons 58 ar 35 of its spinning rotor. For this purpose 4there are ranged in an arc and adapted to be engaged by disclosed two main solenoids, a left main solenoid the sweep of a contact arm 59 carried by the gim 24 and a right main solenoid 2l as viewed in Fig. bal ring as best shown in Figure 2. An indicator 1. The left solenoid 24 is on the starboard side pointer, 80, is connected electrically to the sev of the craft and the right solenoid 2l is on the eral buttons as is suggested by the wiring 8| of port side of the craft considering that the arrow (0 two of the buttons in Figure 3, and the connec of Fig. 2 is pointing forward. These solenoids tion is so arranged that the pointer will swing depend from a cross bar 2! forming apart of the right or left according to the corresponding tilt upper portion of the binnacle I I; have their up of the gimbal ring 2| and will swing right or left per ends connected thereto through 'pivotal hang proportionate to the offsetting from normal of ers 21 and have their cores 22 connected by links the ring as the contact arm Il engages succeeding 2l with opposite portions of the girnbal ring 2| buttons. in line with the rotor axle 22. The connection Directing attention ñrst to the wiring associ is by means of pivotal connections 20 best shown ated with the parts thus far described, reference in Figure 2. ' 50 is made to Figure 3. wherein there is disclosed It is within the scope of the disclosure to cause additional to the parts previously described a the gimbal ring 2| to dip downwardly from its source of electric energy 51, a main control switch normal horizontal position at either side by the |58, a 3-way double control switch 6I and a pair selective energizing of one or the other of the of selective potentiometers l0 and 6| having a solenoids and thus cause a tilting of the spinning 55 manually actuated lever control B2 all disposed rotor 22. As so organized, the craft will respond convenient to the operator. to any such displacement of the spinning rotor by The knife blade switch 08 includes three conturning towards the side to which the ring is tacts 63, 64 and 85 disposed in line and to each tilted and in this way the craft may be steered by of which is connected an element oi' the manually rotating clockwise or counterclockwise, that is, 60 operated movable element 8l. towards starboard or towards port about'the ver From the left or positive side of the source l1, tical axis aP-b passing through the center of assuming main switch 58 to be closed, current is mass of the spinning rotor. led to the contact B5 through main lead 81. Con Device Il includes a base 3| mounted on top of tact I4 is connected to the winding of the left the platform I8 and rigidly secured thereto. Base 05 main solenoid 24 by means of a conductor CI. 2| supports a' high speed spinning rotor 22, the Contact 03 is connected to the windings of the axle 3l of which is journaled in a gimbal ring right main solenoid 2l by means of a conductor 24 which is normally disposed in a horizontal 8. plane and is in turn iournaled in a pair o! trun Opposite the contacts Il, I4 and Il and con nions 3l and lo carried by iixed supports 31 and nected respectively thereto when the control ß Il upstanding from the base 3|. The axle 22 w is in its lower position are three potentiometer normally extends parallel to the axle 22 and thus contacts 10, 1| and 12. Contact 12 is disposed to parallel to the line e---!. The gimbal ring 34 has receive current from contact il and thus from its axis normally disposed parallel to the line the main lead I1 and current is supplied to the c-~d. The ring 24 is provided with a metallicv control 02 through conductor 1I. Contact 1I armature for at", plate $9 forming an oscillating 2,403,658 5 6 leads by means of conductor 14 to the intake end of the left potentiometer 60 and contact 10 leads by means of conductor 15 to the right potentiom eter 6 |. Assuming then that the main switch 58 is closed ings of left electro-magnet 40. The opposite ends of the electro-magnets 40 and 4| are connected by branch lead 84 with juncture point 16 and thus through main return lead 11 to the right side of source 51. Contact 18 is connected with contact and that control 66 is in its lowered position and 44 of the main solenoid circuit closer by con that control 62 has been moved by the operator. ductor 85 and contact 19 is connected with the say to the right, progressively across the several other iixed contact 45 of the main solenoid cir contact buttons of the right potentiometer 6|, cuit closer by means of conductor 86. Contactsv the ship will be caused to turn to the right about l0 4,8 and 45 or 48 _and 44 are made before contacts its vertical axis a-b. To effect this the current 50 and 54 or 49 and 53 are made. Contacts can be traced from the positive side of the source 50--54 or 49-53 are for bringing the small con 51, through conductor v61, contacts 65-12, con ductor 13, control 62, potentiometer 6|, conductor 15, contacts 10-63, conductor 69, windings of right solenoid 25 and back to the right or nega tive side of the source through juncture point trol gyro 32 back to horizontal, thus only giving momentary contact to 48 and 45 or 48 and 44. In operation, with the device in its automatic running position, let it be assumed that external forces are acting on the ship and tending to 1B and main return lead 11. cause it to veelI oil’ its course, say to the right; ' Energizing the right solenoid 25 causes it to this turning oi the ship causes the more sensitive draw its core more fully into its windings and 20 control or relay gyroscope to tilt its gimbal ring ' thus acts to elevate the right side, and by the ` 34 about its axis lowering its right side and. of same token depresses the left side of the main gimbal ring 2| as viewed in Fig. 1. This dis placement of the gimbal ring is of course resisted course, elevating its left side. i This tilting of the ring 34 to the right from the showing in Figure 3 closes the contacts 48 and by its spinning rotor and by reaction the ship 25 45. The current will then be from the energized ring 34, contacts 48 and 45, conductor 86 to switch contact 19 across to Contact 64, conductor 68 to left main solenoid 24, juncture 16 and return lead pressed side of the gimbal ring, Diiïerently ex 11 back to source 51. The main solenoid 24 so turns about the vertical axis a-b and in this case ' the turn is to the right, that is, clockwise look ing down on the binnacle or towards the de pressed, looking down on the long arrow in Fig. 2 36 powered will cause the main gyro 22 to be tilted its head will turn to the right or to starboard, to the right, thus causing the ship to turn to the that is, towards the side which is the depressed side of the gimbal ring. This turning movement1 left, thereby returning the ship to its original of the ship will continue as long as the active forces caused it to veer- to the right. solenoid is resisting the return oi’ the spinning rotor to its original plane and the ship will grad» ually increase‘its rate of turning with increase lf the external forces tend to cause the ship to veer to the left, the small control gyroscope tilts the gimbal ring 34 about its axis lowering its . in lapsed time y./n'lle the gimbal ring is so held in its tilted or depressedposition. ~ left side and of ycourse elevating its right side. Moving the contact 32 by manual action loa/ck to its normal neutral position permits the gyro= scope to restore itself to its normal position by vir» tue of the continued rotation of the ship. Sinik larly the shifting of the control 62 to the left to bring potentiometer til into circuit closing posi-u tion will lead current therefrom through con ductor 1d, contacts ïl-íid, conductor 66, wind course, the course headed for before external - Y This tilting of the girnbal 34 closes the contacts dit 66 and d4. The current will then be from the energized ring 3d. contacts 43-44, conductor 65. switch contact 176-63, conductor 69, main right solenoid 25, juncture point 16 and return lead 11 back to source 51. The main right solenoid 25 ~so powered will cause the main gyro 22 to be tilted to the left, thus causing the ship to turn to the right, thereby returning the ship to its original ings of left solenoid ‘ä’fl and back to source through course headed for before external forces caused it to veer to the left. main return lead 11. This has the eiî’ect of tip ping the right side of the gimbal ring down ' The electro-~rnagnets 40 and 4l of device i3, acu wardly and thus cause the ship to turn counter tuated by contacts 50 and 54, 43 and 53 are simply clockwise or to the left or to port, pivoting about for restoring the small control gyro 32 to a hori its self-contained vertical axis a-b. .zontal position after having momentarily con tacted Qt-dä or 4&3-44 Completing the description of the double throw switch it will be seen from Fig. 3 that it also 55 It has been found that if a second rotor is linked includes three other contacts 16, 19 and B@ dis to the main gyrosconic rotor. a more flexible i‘orce posed in line and arranged respectively opposite can be utilized to displace the main gimbal ring, the contacts 63, 66 and 65. The several contacts and such a modiiied form of the invention is dis are so arranged that when the shlftable member v closed in Figures 4_6. There is shown at 90 apart is moved into its upper position as viewed in 60 of a ship corresponding to part I0 and a binnacle Figure 3, the contacts will be connected 63 with 9| corresponding to the binnacle Il of Figures 18, 64 with l@ and Gti with 66. l and 2. Mounted in the bottom of binnacle 9| Should it be desired to place the ship under is a 'main gyroscope glmbal ring 92 and in which automatic control so as to keep it on its course, ring is mounted a spinning rotor 93 turning on the shiftable element 66 is thrown into its upper 65 axle 94. The ring 92 is carried by trunnions 35 position to engage the upper line of the three in turn carried by a heavy hollow casting 86 car contacts 16, 19 and 80. Under these conditions ried by a plate 91 disposed on the bottom 98 of the binnacle. live contacts 65 and 80 are connected and current is led by conductor 8| to the gimbal ring 34 and Positioned in the upper portion of the binnacle through the bars 5| and 52 and thus to the shift 70 is a second gimbal ring 99 in which is mounted able contact elements 49 and 50 of the electro a spinning rotor |00 turning on its axle |0|. magnet circuit closers. Contact 54 leads by The trunnions |02 vsupporting the ring 99 are means of conductor 83 to one end‘of the wind» carried by a hollow support |03 journaled for ings of right electro-magnet 4|. Contact 53 leads rotary movement about a vertical axis g-h and by means of conductor 82 to one end of the wind 75 which corresponds to the axis a-b in the form 2,403,658 7 of the invention disclosed in Figures 1-3. The support |00 is suspended from the platform l0 8 to coact selectively with two of three fixed relay contacts |00, |01 and |00 depending on the direc tion of tilt of the armature |00. The several con on a stub shaft |04 and is mounted in anti tacts are so arranged that when the armature is friction devices |00 to facilitate ease of turn of shifted to cause contacts |34 and |00 to engage the support. The upper portion of the support respectively with contacts |00 and |01 the motor is provided with a worm gear |08 in mesh with turns in one direction, and when contacts >|04 a worm shaft |01 forming an extension from the and |05 are shifted to engage respectively with shaft of a reversing electric motor lill‘suspended contacts |01 and |00, the direction of rotation of from the under side of the platform l0. The two gimbal rings 02 and 00 are interconnected to tilt 10 the motor is reversed. The modification of Figs. 4-8 also includes a in unison through a connecting linkage extend gyro control relay |00 corresponding in all re ing from one side of one ring to the opposite side spects to the relay disclosed in Figs. 1-3 except of the other ring. For this purpose an upper that conductor B0 leads to eiectromagnet |20 in~ bell crank lever |00 on the right side of Figure 4 stead of to solenoid 24, and conductor 00 leads is fuicrumed at I|0 to the support |00. Lever to electromagnet |20 instead of to solenoid 2l, |00 has its upper arm ||| pivoted to an extension and the wiring associated therewith is otherwise ||2 projecting radially from ring 90. The lower identical with and similarly designated in both arm ||0 of bell crank lever |00 extends horl Figs. 3 and 6. ‘ zontally, has its free end ||4 bifurcated. 'I'he Further referring to the wiring diagram in upper end of a lift rod il! is guided for vertical Fig. 6 contact |34 is connected to lead 11 by movement through an aperture H0 provided means of a conductor |40, and contact |00 is con therefor in the bottom of the support |03 and nected to lead 61 by means of a conductor | 4|. its lower end is guided in an aperture ||1 formed Also held windings |42 of motor |00 are shunted in a ledge ||0 integral with the casting 90. A pivot pin ||0 passes through rod H0 and the bifurcation at I |4. The lift _rod has its lower end in the form of a spool collar |20 and forms an annular yoke. On the lower left side of Figure 4 there is shown a bell crank lever |2| which has its upper horizontal arm |22 fulcrumed at |20 and its in-` ner end bifurcated to form fingers |24 riding in the spool collar |20. The other arm |25 of the bell crank lever depends from the arm |22 and is pivotally connected to an extension |20 pro iecting laterally from the lower ring 02. V From this construction it is obvious that a tilt originating in either gimbal ring 02 or 00 causes across leads 01 and 11. ' . Referring to the operation of the device dis closed in the Figs, 4-6 form and assuming mov able switch element B0 is in its lowered position engaging contacts 10, 1| and 12, then electro 30 magnet |29 is powered when lever 02 is moved Íacross potentiometer 0| or electro-magnet |20 is powered when lever 02 is moved across potenti ometer 00. When electro-magnet |20, for in stance. is energized,Í it rocks its armature |00 35 with its right side depressed as viewed in Fig. 6 and thus shifts contacts |04 and |00 towards the right to close the circuit through the motor to turn it in one direction. The motor rotates the support |00 and this tilts the gimbal rings the other gimbal ring also to tilt, but in the op-' 00 and 02 in a manner similar to the tilting of 40 posite direction. For instance, assume the right the gimbal ring 2| by solenoids 24 and 2l in the side of ring 00 to be depressed: this will lower Figs. 1-3 form of the disclosure. Similarly when arm |00, rotate arm ||0 about its fulcrum ||0 electro-magnet |20 is energized by the closing of and elevate the forked end | I4. This will elevate contacts 00, 02 and this tilts armature |00 down the lift rod | Il, rock arm |22 about its fulcrum |20. lower arm |2| and thus lower the left side 45 wardly to the left and through the shifting oi' contacts |34 and |00 to the left the motor turns of the ring 02. The two rings will then be moved in the opposite direction, the support |00 turns in from their normal’horizontal position, one clock the opposite direction, and the rotor |00 tilts in wise and the other counterclockwise, with the the opposite direction. ‘ rings disposed in intersecting planes. Referring to the operation of the device dis VIncluded in the circuit which lcontrols motor -closed in Figures 4-6 when the movable switch |00 and controlling the same is an armature element 88 is in its upper position engaging con reversing relay |21 depending from the under tacts 18, 19 and 80, the device operates as de side of the platform I0 as shown at the upper scribed for the similar disposition of the element side of Fig. 4. This relay is for the purpose of 00 in the Figures l--3 form of the invention, ex- . controlling the direction of rotation ofthe motor cept _that in Figure 3 contact 63 goes to solenoid |00 and thus the direction in which the motor 20 while in Figure 6 contact 83 goes to electroturns the support |00. Turning the support |00 magnet |20. Also in Figure 3 contact 84 goes to in one direction will cause the »gimbal rings 02 left solenoid 24 while in Figure 6 contact 04 goes and 00 to tilt one in one direction and the other in the opposite direction as above indicated; that 60 to right electro-magnet |20. In general, the dis tinction between the form of the invention dis--> is, with the rotors spinning in the reverse direc »closed in Figures 1-3 and the form disclosed in tions indicated thereon in Fig. 5 a turning of the Figures 4-6 is that in the former case the main support clockwise as you look down on the same gimbal ring 2| was tilted right or left by the will cause the gimbal ring 00 to dip on the right side and similarly the actuation of the motor in 05 action of the solenoids 24 and 25, whilel in the latter case the main gimbal ring 90 was tilted by a direction to cause the support to turn counter the rotation of the support |00. ~ clockwise will therethrough effect the gimbal ring The steering device herein disclosed acts di 00 to cause it to dip down on its left side. rectly on the craft and thus needs no rudders, The relay includes a pair of electro-magnets |20 and |20 having a pivotally mounted armature 70 ailerons or other externally acting steering means. The disclosure therefore features the minimizing |00. The amature |00 is of iron and carries a of structural parts. The craft may be turned ` plate |00 of insulating material and on which is about the axis a-b or g--h in either direction rigidly fixed a pair of movable contacts |04 and at will and on even keel and stopped immediately |00 shown upstanding in Fig. 6 and depending by discontinuing the applied force to the steering in Fig. 4. These movable contacts are designed 2,403,058 gyroscope. By discontinuing the applied turning force on the steering gyroscope, the precessional force on the steering gyroscope caused by the turning in space of the craft (which force is opposite the applied force) permits the steering gyroscope to precess ‘towards the` horizontal“, thereby applying to the craft a torque opposite to the turn, hence dampering the applied turn.v In the event the craft is a ship and is turned in a narrow slip and the ship accidentally collides with a pier or other obstacle, the gyroscopic force that caused the turning does not continue to exert such ‘force in the direction of the obstacle but stops immediately and the helmsman can then manually cause a force to be applied through the steering gyroscope to turn the craft in the opposite direction away from the obstacle. The reason the ship does not continue to exert 10 ` or |44 depending on the direction of tip of th gimbal ring. In either oase the circuit is com pleted through the unlocking solenoid I4! which acts to move the latch |39 to the left of the showing in Figure 7, thus releasing the turntable from any further gyroscopic affected movement thereof. The operator can thus cause the whole assembly to turn by throwing the manual switch 02 in that direction which will cause the gyro scope to tilt in the opposite direction. The resulting turning of the whole assembly will cause the main gyroscope ring to precess back to its normal horizontal position without añect~ ing any torque on the craft. When the contact arm reaches the middle but» ton |46, the locking circuit is closed through the locking solenoid |40, and, of course, the circuit through the unlocking solenoid is broken as soon as arm 59 has left the end button. Energizing the locking solenoid projects the latch into its position to lock the turntable in fixed relation to force acting upon it `caused by the ship’s turning. the craft and the parts are then restored to their When the turning of the ship ceases, the preces normal position with the gyroscope in steering sional force ceases, the main gyro having no force relation to the craft. to oppose, dips to the limit against the bumper 25 While the invention has been described as a at the binnacle, delivers no further torque to the steering mechanism, it is obvious that it will also ship, therefore the ship ceases to turn in the function to stabilize the craft against roll. While direction of the obstacle collided with. the disclosure has featured the gimbal rings hori Under some unusual conditions the main gyro zontally disposed in their normal position, it is scope tilts to the limits of its movement in engage 30 lwithin the s-cope of the disclosure to locate them ment with its bumper or other stop as when the in any desired plane. ' craft is acted upon by forces resulting from extra I claim: heavy cross currents or heavy Winds. Under 1. The method of gyroscopically steering a rud these conditions itis suggested that it is advisable derless vessel in a given plane which comprises to provide a mounting for the assembly which developing rotational energy in the spinning rotor will permit the mounting of the gyroscope to of a gyroscope rotating about an axis in said rotate under such excessive tilts of the main gyro plane and displacing the axis from said plane to scope in either direction and which will lock the effect a precessional movement capable of steer assembly automatically in its normal fixed posi ing the vessel about a self~contained vertical tion when the gyroscope rotor returns to its nor 40 axis in the direction towards which the axis is depressed. ‘ mal plane of rotation. One such mounting is -disclosed in Figure ‘7 where the base I0 forming 2. The method of gyroscopically steering a rud part of the craft to be steered has mounted' derless vessel in a given plane which comprises thereon a turntable |36 on which the main gyro developing rotational energy in the spinning rotor scope |2 is mounted. Anti-friction devices |31 45 of a gyroscope .rotating about an axis in said facilitate '.he turn of the turntable. Normally plane and displacing the axis from said plane to the turntable is restrained from rotating relative eifect a precessional movement capable of steer to the craft on which it is mounted. For this ing the vessel about a self-contained vertical purpose the peripheral edge of the turntable is axis in the direction towards which the axis is provided with a line of stop holes |38 adapted 50 depressed,Y and imposing a. dampening eifect on i a force in the direction of the obstacle collided with is due to the fact that the main gyro (by applied force) was overcoming the precessional ‘ to be engaged selectively by' a dog or bolt |39 acting to lock the turntable against rotation ex cept under those conditions where rotation is desired `to release the gyroscope from excessive the displacing force acting on the axis. 3. In the art of turning a craft in space about a vertical axis passing therethrough, the method which consists in imposing on the craft a torque self-imposed strains. The bolt is controlled by 55 developed about said axis as the result of the f precessional forces of an active gyroscope result a pair of solencids, a locking solenoid |40 and anv unlocking solenoid I4 | . The solenoids havel ing from an external force displacing its gimbal ring from the plane in which it is normally dis a common core |42, one end of which forms the ' bolt |39. posed. , 4. In the art of maintaining a craft on its In this case the segment contact plate 56 has 60 course while under the influence of external forces its end buttons marked |43 and |44 and connected which are tending to cause it to veer off its course, by means of conductor |45 with one end of the unlocking'solenoid |4|. The middle button |46 the method which consists in subjecting the craft to the influence of a gyroscopic force operating the locking solenoid |40. The opposite ends of 65 to restore the craft to its course and which gyro scopic force is controlled automatically by those -« l. y the solenoids |40 and | 4| are connected by lead vis connected by conductor |41 with one end of c 'I1 to the negative side of the source 51 and the positive side .of the source is connected to the contact arm 59 as previously described. Collector forces which are acting at the time to cause thev craft to move off its course. 5. In the art of steering a freely floating -body 70 in space and which body is free of the usual steer ratus. ` ing rudders, the method which includes the art In the event the outer forces are sumciently of applying to the body that gyroscopic force ef great to cause a depression of the main gyroscope fective when its spinning rotor is displaced from ring 2| to its limit of movement in either direc normal. ' tion, the contact arm engages either button |43 6. In a device of the class described, the com ring |48 and brush |49 lead current to the appa 2,408,058 12 bination with a craft capable of turning about a vertical axis even in the absence of external steering means. of mechanism for turning the craft about said axis even when the craft is with out linear motion and thus when the axis is sta ' . in space about a vertical first axis, a gyro scopically controlled mechanism for turning -the body about said axis, including a binnacle rigidly secured to the body, a gimbal ring _normally disposed in a horizontal plane and Journaled in the binnacle for freedom of movement about a tionary relative to the earth, said mechanism second axis, an axle disposed in a third axis including a steering gyroscope secured to the at’ right angles to the second axis, trunnions craft with the craft providing one of the three mounting the opposite ends of the axle in the degrees of freedom» for its spinning rotor and the other two degrees of freedom being inthe gyro 10 ring, a spinning rotor carried by the axle and turning in the plane containing the second axis, scope structure, a pair of main solenoids having vertically directed control means acting on the their cores operatively connected to opposite ends ring at one of the trunnions for selectively tilting of a spinning axis of the steering gyroscope to ' the ring from its normal horizontal plane, there tilt the same, one when powered to tilt the same clockwise and the other when powered to tilt the 15 by to impose a couple on the axle for turning the body in space about its first or vertical axis axis counterclockwise, a control gyroscope, means and in that direction whichever may be on the forming a first solenoid circuit including the left depressed side of the ring, and means tending main solenoid, means forming a second solenoid to restore the ring to its normal horizontal posi circuit including the right main solenoid, and a tion when free from the displacing enact of the clrcuitcloser having a shlftable contact connected control means. to the gimbal ring of the control solenoid and 11. In combination with a body -free to turn movable thereby as the ring tilts in one direction in space about a vertical i‘irst axis, a gyro to close the first solenoid circuit and when the ring tilts in the opposite direction to close the current through the second circuit. ' '1. In a device of the class described, the com bination with a craft capable of turning about an axis which may 4be fixed relative to the earth, of gyroscopically energized mechanism for turn ing the craft about said axis. said mechanism including a gyroscope secured to the craft with the craft providing one of the three degrees of freedom for its spinning rotor and said gyroscope having means providing for the other two. de grees of freedom, electro-magnetically actuated means operatively connectedfto the axis of the spinning rotor of the gyroscope to impose thereon selectively a forced precession downwardly to cause the craft to turn toward the right, Vorvrclown wardly on the other side to cause-the :craft to turn to the left ut said axis, and control means for selectively `energizing said electro-magneti cally actuated means to eifect a right or left turn ing of the craft. ' 8. The combination of a craft capable of turn ing in space about a vertical axis, a gyroscope including a support fixed to the craft. a gimbal ring journaled in the support and normally dis posed in a horizontal plane, a spinning rotor and an axle therefor Journaied in the ring. a pair of solenoids operatively connected to the ring for selectively moving a portion of the ring to which it is attached in the same vertical direction and thus act to displace the ring and the rotor from their normal planes, and means forming a sole noid circuit including said solenoids and control means for causing one solenoid to function while sccpically controlled mechanism for turning the body about said axis, including a binnacle rigidly secured to the body, a gimbal ring normally disposed in a horizintal plane and journaled in the binnacle for freedom of movement about a - second axis, an axle disposed in a third axis at right angles to the second axis, trunnions mount ing the opposite ends of the axle in the ring, a spinning rotor carried by the axle and turn ing in the plane containing the second axis, and vertically directed control means acting on the ring at one of the trunnions for selectively tilt ing the ring from its normal horizontal plane, thereby to impose a couple on the axle for turn» --ing the body in s'pace about its first or vertical axis and in that direction whichever may be on the depressed side of the ring. ~ 12. In a device for steering a craft comprising a supDOrt. a gyroscope provided with means for securing it rigidly to the craft, said gyroscope having its gimbal ring normally disposed in a horizontal plane and rcontrol means for tilting vthe gimbal ring to shift the axis of spin of its associated spinning rotor and thus to effect a steering oi.' the craft in the direction towards the depressed side of the ring. l 13. .A craft having a freedom of movement in space and thus capable of being steered at will selectively to port or starboard to follow a new course and capable of being restored auto matically to a preset course on any tendency to depart towards either port or starboard from said preset course, a >steering gyroscope having its support fixed to the craft, a gimbal ring the other solenoid remains idle. 9. In combination with a craft capable of moving freely in a horizontal plane. gyroscopic mechanism for steering the craft, said mech anlsm including a support rigidly attached to the craft, a gimbal ring normally disposed in a hori zontal plane, an axle therefor imirnaied in the ring and disposed athwart the ship. a spinning rotor carried by the axle, means for journaling the ring in the support to permit a freedom of oscillation of the ring about an axis at right angles to the axis of the axle, and means for ioumalled in the support and normally disposed in a horizontal plane and a spinning rotor having its axle journaled in the ring and normally dis posed with its axis athwart the craft, a pair of solenoids having their cores connected to the ring at the trunnions of the rotor axis and cir cuit forming means including the solenoids and a two-way switch in said circuit, including a movable element operating between two fixed contacts, a control gyroscope for controlling said movable element and the two fixed. contacts being in electric circuit respectively with the solenoids. whereby a precessional movement imposingaforceontheringinatendencyto 70 two of the control gyroscope in one direction will tilt it and'with it the rotor out of their normal close the circuit through one of the solenoids and `position and thus cause the ship to steer in the a movement in the opposite direction will close direction towards which the ring lis depressed. the circuit through the other solenoid. and so long as it is so depressed. 10. In combination .with a body free to turn 75 14. The combination with a body free to turn 13 - in space in a horizontal plane about a self contained vertical axis, of mechanism for so turning the body, said mechanism comprising a gyroscope including a gimbal ring mounted to turn about an axis fixed relative to the body and which axis is at all times disposed in a horizontal plane, and a spinning rotor mounted 14 a conductor leading from the fixed contact to one end of the windings of the electro-magnet. 21. A steering device for restoring a craft auto matically to its course when veering ofi.' its course by external iniiuences, -the combination of a main gyroscope including a main gimbal ring normally disposed in a horizontal plane, a solenoid opera tively connected to tilt the main ring about its in the ring for rotation about an axis at right angles to the first named axis, and means for axis of turn in one direction, a servo gyroscope in imposing a precessional movement on said 10 cluding a servo gimbal ring normally disposed in gimbalring, . a horizontal plane, means forming a main sole 15. The structure defined in claim 14 and in noid circuit including a solenoid circuit closer which said last named means includes another comprising a fixed contact and a shiftable contact gyroscope also mounted on the body and respon moved by the tilting of the servo ring, and a con sive automatically to a turning of the body about 15 ductor connecting the fixed contact with the said vertical axis. „ _windings of the solenoid. 16. The combination with a iloating body free 22. In a device for automatically restoring a to turn in space in a horizontal plane and sub craft to its lcourse when acting under forces tend stantially restrained from moving in any other ing to veer it ofi’ its course, the combination of a plane, of mechanism for steering the body, com 20 main gyroscope, a solenoid operatively connected prising a gyroscope including a gimbal ring thereto to give it a precessional movement, a servo mounted for rotation about an axis ñxed to the gyroscope, means forming a solenoid circuit in body and thus substantially restrained to a hori cluding the solenoid and a circuit closer whose ` zontal plane and having a high speed spinning movable element is controlled by the servo gyro~ body mounted in the ring to turn about an axis scope, electromagnetic means for restoring the at right angles to the iirst named axis, and servo gyroscope to a norma1 position, said means having capacity to turn the body by reason of’ including an electro-magnet whose armature is the gyroscopic force generated thereby to turn movable with the gimbal ring of the servo gyro the body, and means engaging the gimbal ring scope, means forming an electro-magnet circuit to impose a force thereon to give` it a precessional 30 closer whose movable element is'controlled by the movement, and except for said last named means, servo gyroscope and a conductor leading from its said ring being otherwise free of any other device. fixed contact to one end of the windings of' the 17. The combination of a body free to turn in electro-magnet. space, gyroscopically actuated mechanism consti 23. In a device for turning a craft about an axis tuting the sole means for turning the body, said` 35 mechanism including a gyroscope comprising a of turn, the combination of two gyroscopes hav- - ing their gimbal rings normally disposed in par gimbal ring and a spinning rotor journaled con allel planes both normal to said axis of turn, a ventionally in the ring, and a mounting for ñx link connecting one end of the axle trunnion of ing the axis of turn of the gimbal ring relative to the body whereby two of the degrees of freedom 40 one of the gyroscopes with the opposite end of the axle trunnion of the other gyroscope to tilt the o'f the gyroscopeare in the gyroscope itself and rings in unison, a pair of supports, one for each the third degree of freedom is in the body, and ygyroscope and to which its associate gimbal ring means for imposing a. force on said gimbal ring to is journaled, and means for rigidly securing‘one tilt it about its axis of turn and thus impose a of the supports to the craft -to be steered and forced precessional on said gimbal ring. 45 means for rotating the other support about said 18. The device deñned in claim 17 and in which axis of turn to cause its associated ring to tilt said last named means includes a servo gyroscope carried by the body and controlled by the turning . from its normal plane and thus cause the other gyroscope to turn the craft to which the support is fixed. 19. The device defined in claim-17 andin which 50 24. The combination of a craft capable of turn said servo gyroscope acts through an electro-mag ing in space about a vertical axis, a mechanism netically actuated device for restoring said servo for steering the craft comprising two gyroscopes gyroscope to its normal inoperative position after in superimposed relation with their gimbal rings it has functioned. . normallyA disposed in horizontal planes, the lower 2Q; A steering device for restoring a craft auto 'ss gyroscope having its gimbal ring mounted in a matically to its course whenveering off its course support secured rigidly to the craft, linkage con by external influences, the combination of a main f necting one side" of one of the gimbal rings to the gyroscope including a main gimbal ring normally. opposite side of the other gimbal ring to cause disposed in a horizontal plane, a solenoid opera the rings to tilt in unison in opposite directions, tively connected to tilt the main ring about its and means connected to one of the gimbal rings axis of turn in one direction, a servo gyroscope at one end of its associated rotor axle to shift the including a servo gimbal ring normally disposed gimbal ring and thus its companion to and from of the body in space. ' in a horizontal plane, means forming a main sole their normal horizontal positions. ' . noid circuit including a solenoid circuit closer 25. A gyroscopic steering device comprising a comprising a fixed contact and a shiftable contact 65 pair of superimposed gyroscopes, each including moved by the tilting of the servo ring, a conductor a support, a gimbal ring journaled in the support connecting the ñxed contact with the windings and normally disposed in a horizontal plane and of the solenoid, and means for restoring the servo a spinning body having its axle‘journaled in the ring to its normal horizontal position after the ring, means coupling one of the gimbal rings to solenoid circuit has been closed momentarily, said 70 the other to cause them to tilt in unison, means means including an'electro-magnet with its arma for securing one of the supports rigidly to the ture carried by the servo ring, means forming an craft to .be steered so that the craft is free to pro electro-magnet circuit including an electro-mag vide one of the three freedoms of movement of netic circuit closer comprising a fixed contact and one of the gyroscopes, and means for rotating the . a movable contact carried by the servo ring and 76 other support about a vertical axis to cause a 15 precessional movement of its associated gyro scope. . . 28. The combination of a craft free to turn in space about a vertical axis, a gyroscope carried by the craft and providing two degrees of rota tional freedom of'its spinning motor, the third degree of freedom being provided by the craft, and control means operatively responsive to any tilting of the spinning body out of its normal plane of rotation for imposing on the spinning body a force tending to further tilt the spinning body out of its normal plane‘of rotation. 27. The combination of a craft free to turn in space about a vertical axis, a gyroscope carried by the craft, means tending to restore the craft to its preset course when acted upon by external influences tending to cause the craft to veer of! its course, said means operatively controlled by the gyroscope to impose a force on its gimbal ring to move it in the same direction in which it was tilted by the action of the craft in so veer inß off its course. 28. The combination of a body free to turn in ment on its gimbal ring, and including a revers ible electric motor, a reversible switch for con trolling the direction of rotation of the motor and a control gyroscope operatively connected to said reversible switch whereby the direction of tilt of the gyroscope gimbal ring is controlled selectively by the movement towards starboard or port of the body. 31. The combination of a body free to turn in space, gyroscopically energized means for steer ing the body, said means including a gyroscope having suiîicient power capacity to turn the body when a force is applied to the gimbal ring of the gyroscope sufficient to effect such steering, and means for applying such force. 32. The combination of a body free to turn in space, a turntable mounted on the body for rota tion about a vertical axis, a gyroscope mounted on the turntable and acting normally on the body to steer the same, means acting to lock the turn table to the body, and means controlled by the movement of the gyroscope gimbal ring into an extreme tilted position to release the locking space, mechanism for steering said body compris 33. The combination oi.' a body free to turn in ing two gyroscopes each including a gimbal ring 25 space, a turntable mounted on the body for rota whose axis of turn is fixed relative to the body tion about a vertical axis, a gyroscope mounted and are disposed parallel to each other, a linkage on the turntable and acting normally on the body connecting the two gimbal rings to cause one to means. ’ ~ to steer the same, means acting to lock the turn turn the other, a pair of trunnions fixed to the body for supporting one of the gyroscopes, a sup 30 table to the body, means controlled by the move ment of the gyroscope girnbal ring into an ex port mounted for rotation about a vertical axis treme tilted position to release the locking means, for supporting the other gyroscope, a reversible and means controlled automatically by the move electric motor for turning said support, and ment of the gimbal ring into its normal position means for controlling the reversibility- of said to lock the turntable to the body. electric motor. 34. The combination of a support. a turntable 29. `'I'he structure kdefined in claim 28 and `in which said last named means includes a motbr mounted on the support, means including a lock ing latch for locking the- turntable to the sup port, a gyroscope mounted on the turntable, and forming a motor circuit including said motor, 40 electromagnetically actuated means controlled by said reversing device and said third gyroscope. the movement of the gyroscope for moving the 30. The combination of a body free to turn in latch to and from its operative locking position. space. mechanism for steering said body, said reversingdevice, a third gyroscope and means mechanism including a gyroscope, a control for the gyroscope for imposing a precessional move CHARLES M. HAYMAN.