close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2403658

код для вставки
July 9, 1946-
c. M. HAYMAN
2,403,658
GYROSCOPIG STEERING MECHANISM
Filed NOV. 21', 1944
4c 44
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
45 47
39
49
/7
57 58
lINVENTOR.
Q.
s»2.,f2wwïmë
GYROSCOPIC STEERING MEGHANISM
Filed Nov'. 2l, 1944
2. Sheet'swSheei; 2
Q6
ya
97
INVENTOR.
Patented July 9, 1946'
2,403,558
A UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,403,658
Graoscorlc STEERING MECHANISM
l Charles M. Hayman, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Application November 21, 1944, Serial No. 564,494 '
34 Claims.
1
(Cl. 114-144)
2
The invention relates to gyroscopically actuat
_ed mechanism for turning a craft in space under
and thus permit the restoration of the automatic
control by the gyroscope.
conditions where the craft may even be rudder
less and thus independent of the presence of any
factor of headway or drift.
While the invention is herein specifically de
scribed as a control for a navigable craft, it can
be used for controlling the rotation of any body
‘ Various other objects and advantages> of the
invention will be in part obvious from a consid
eration of the method features of the disclosure
and from an insœction of the accompanying
drawings, and in part will be more fully set forth
in the following particular description of one
method of practicing the invention, and the in
` in space and for specific instances it may be used
to rotate a motion picture camera, a searchlight,
a submarine, a torpedo, a large gun turret, a
roundhouse turntable.
_
vention also consists in certain new and novel '
modifications of the preferred method and other
4
features of construction and combination of
parts hereinafter set forth and claimed.
The primary object of the invention is to pro
lvide a simplined craft turning or steering mech=
anisrn 'which will be easy to operate to effect a
turn selectively to the right or left at will; which
In the accompanying drawings:
e
will automatically intercept its turning move»
ment when the turning is intercepted as by
contact with an external object and which will
automatically resist any lateral turning of the
Figure l is a view largely in front elevation of
a preferred embodiment of the invention in»
stalled in position onl a ship shown symbolically"
by a structural part thereof ;
Figure 2 is a view in side elevation of the de~=
vice shown in Figure l;
croit under the inñence of any external causes,
auch as cross current and side winds, and which
will tend to maintain its course if under headway
and resist forces which tend to turn it ofi" its
Figure 3 is a wiring diagram of some of the
parts shown in the preceding heures and with
certain additional electrical parts all shown in
their normal inoperative positions; and
course.
25
Broadli?, the invention features the mounting
of o steering gyroscope on a craft with the croit
providing the third degree of freedom of rota» ’
tion and the gyroscooe itself providing the other
Figures 4-«6 disclose a modified ioi'm of the in-=
vention, Figure i» beingv a view largely in iront
elevation of the modified form; and Figure 5 beu
ing a view largely in vertical axial section at
right angles to the showing in Fia. t; and
Figures being o, wiring diagram of the circuits
tivo degrees of rotational freedom; and control
means ior displacing the elmbal ring to create
of the modified tomi, and Figure 7 shows a modi»
a niecessional movement of the steering gyro»
fled form of gyroscope mounting.
v
scorie. This control means may be manually ac=
Referring ñrstI to the form ci the invention
tuated to effect a steering' of the craft at will, or
disclosed in Figures l-S, there is disclosed a freely
it may be automatic and governed by the move 35 lloating body such as a ship, an airplane or other
ment of the craft itself as when veered otr“ its
craft to be steered and represented symbolically
course by external inñuences.
' by structural part thereof designated i@ in Fie“
In devices of this character where powerful
ure l. It is understood that insofar' as this dis-=
precesslonal forces are ~developed by the gyro
closure is concerned, the craft may be free of
scope, provision must be made to prevent such
rudders or if it possesses a rudder, it may be
forces from wrecking the device, and accordingly,
either locked in inoperative position or it may
another object of the invention is to provide for
be used conjointly with the apparatus herein fea~
an automatic release to disconnect the gyroscope
tured. As this body when floating is free to turn
in a horizontal plane about a, vertical axis o-b
from the craft in the event of excessive forces
being developed by the gyroscope by reason of 45 it will thus constitute one of the three degrees
of freedom of movement of the gyroscope or gyrou
powerful outside forces acting on the craft.
Broadly, this aspect of the invention is at
tained by mounting the main gyroscope on a
turntable which is normally locked to the craft
which it controls, but which on an abnormal pre
cesslonal movement of the gyroscope releases the
to
connection between the gyroscope and the craft
and thus intercepts the automatic steering and '
permits of a manual control to right the craft
scopesv herein featured. In the present disclosure
let it be assumed that the craft when moving
forward is moving in the direction indicated by
the long arrow at the bottom of Figure 2,- that
is, from left to right of the sheet. A binnacle or
housing l I of jar-like form is rigidly secured to
the part I0 and provides a, support for two gyro
scopic devices I2 and I3, of which device l2 is to
be regarded hereinafter as a main gyroscopic con-v
2,408,658
3
v
trol and the device il a gyroscopically controlled
relay for keeping the craft on 'a straight away
course. The binnacle includes a rugged base i4
secured to the structural part of the craft it by
means of bolts IB and upstanding sides li and
i1 merging at their upper ends with a nat top
platform Il.
'
Referring first to the main gyroscopic control
i2, there is disclosed at the bottom of the hous
ing as shown in Fig. 2 a pair of Irugged trunnions
pair of servo electro-magnets 4|l and 4| secured
to a head piece 42 overlapping the same and
carried by the support 21. The electro-magnet
40 will be referred to hereinafter as the left elec
tro-magnet and the electro-magnet 4| as the
right electro-magnet.
Secured to the headpiece 42 is a bracket 42
carrying a pair of relatively fixed contacts 44 and
45 each in the form of a. set screw threaded re
spectively into terminal bars 4B and 41 and dis
posed for relative adjustment. An upstanding
i0 and 2li rigid with the frame and this rigid with
rockable contact bar 4l has its lower end secured
the ship I0. A gimbal ring 2| is journalled con
to the ring 34 to swing therewith and has its
ventionally in the trunnions and is normally dis
upper'end located to move between and to engage
posed in a horizontal plane and mounted for os
selectively either one of two fixed contacts 44 or
cillatory movement about an axis of spin shown
4l and operating to close a main solenoid circuit
at o-d in Fig. 2, and thus provides the first free
through that solenoid 24 or 25 towards which
dom of movement for the gyroscope. J ournalled
bar 48 is shifted by the tilting of the gimbal ring
in the gimbal ring is a spinning rotor 22 whose
34. The tilting of the ring 24 also opens' and
axle 2! extends at right angles to the axis e-d
closes a circuit through a pair of contacts, the
20
and thus provides a second freedom of movement
shiftable elements 48 and l0 of which are carried
of »the gyroscope about the second axis e--f.
respectively by extensions Bl and 52 from the «
When mounted on a craft, rolling or «pitching of
gimbal ring 24 in line with its spinning rotor axis.
the craft does not aifect the rotor if the gyroscope
A pair of fixed contacts 53 and |54 coact respec
is mounted with the spinning axis athwart a ship,
tively with movable contacts 4B and 50 to selec
that is. at right angles to the direction of the long
tively close circuits hereinafter described in dis
arrow in Fig. 2. It is‘the intent that the rotor
cussing Figure 3.
22 as well as the rotors hereinafter referred to
It is within the scope of the disclosure to pro
be turning at high R. P. M. by :let propulsion or
vide a remote indicator l5 for displaying to the
by any other known means at present used for
operator a visual indication of the tilt of the
rotating the spinning rotors of gyroscopes and
main
gyroscope gimbal ring 2| and for this pur
accordingly no specific motor power for turning
pose there is disclosed a segment shaped contact
the gyroscopic rotors is herein disclosed.
plate 56 provided with a plurality of button con
Means are provided for shifting the gimbal ring
tacts grouped in a series of left contact buttons
about the axis c-d and this against the resistance
i1 and a series of right contact buttons 58 ar
35
of its spinning rotor. For this purpose 4there are
ranged in an arc and adapted to be engaged by
disclosed two main solenoids, a left main solenoid
the sweep of a contact arm 59 carried by the gim
24 and a right main solenoid 2l as viewed in Fig.
bal ring as best shown in Figure 2. An indicator
1. The left solenoid 24 is on the starboard side
pointer, 80, is connected electrically to the sev
of the craft and the right solenoid 2l is on the
eral buttons as is suggested by the wiring 8| of
port side of the craft considering that the arrow (0 two of the buttons in Figure 3, and the connec
of Fig. 2 is pointing forward. These solenoids
tion is so arranged that the pointer will swing
depend from a cross bar 2! forming apart of the
right or left according to the corresponding tilt
upper portion of the binnacle I I; have their up
of the gimbal ring 2| and will swing right or left
per ends connected thereto through 'pivotal hang
proportionate to the offsetting from normal of
ers 21 and have their cores 22 connected by links
the ring as the contact arm Il engages succeeding
2l with opposite portions of the girnbal ring 2|
buttons.
in line with the rotor axle 22. The connection
Directing attention ñrst to the wiring associ
is by means of pivotal connections 20 best shown
ated with the parts thus far described, reference
in Figure 2.
'
50 is made to Figure 3. wherein there is disclosed
It is within the scope of the disclosure to cause
additional to the parts previously described a
the gimbal ring 2| to dip downwardly from its
source of electric energy 51, a main control switch
normal horizontal position at either side by the
|58, a 3-way double control switch 6I and a pair
selective energizing of one or the other of the
of selective potentiometers l0 and 6| having a
solenoids and thus cause a tilting of the spinning 55 manually actuated lever control B2 all disposed
rotor 22. As so organized, the craft will respond
convenient to the operator.
to any such displacement of the spinning rotor by
The knife blade switch 08 includes three conturning towards the side to which the ring is
tacts 63, 64 and 85 disposed in line and to each
tilted and in this way the craft may be steered by
of which is connected an element oi' the manually
rotating clockwise or counterclockwise, that is, 60 operated movable element 8l.
towards starboard or towards port about'the ver
From the left or positive side of the source l1,
tical axis aP-b passing through the center of
assuming main switch 58 to be closed, current is
mass of the spinning rotor.
led to the contact B5 through main lead 81. Con
Device Il includes a base 3| mounted on top of
tact I4 is connected to the winding of the left
the platform I8 and rigidly secured thereto. Base 05 main solenoid 24 by means of a conductor CI.
2| supports a' high speed spinning rotor 22, the
Contact 03 is connected to the windings of the
axle 3l of which is journaled in a gimbal ring
right main solenoid 2l by means of a conductor
24 which is normally disposed in a horizontal
8.
plane and is in turn iournaled in a pair o! trun
Opposite the contacts Il, I4 and Il and con
nions 3l and lo carried by iixed supports 31 and
nected
respectively thereto when the control ß
Il upstanding from the base 3|. The axle 22 w is in its lower position are three potentiometer
normally extends parallel to the axle 22 and thus
contacts 10, 1| and 12. Contact 12 is disposed to
parallel to the line e---!. The gimbal ring 34 has
receive current from contact il and thus from
its axis normally disposed parallel to the line
the main lead I1 and current is supplied to the
c-~d. The ring 24 is provided with a metallicv
control 02 through conductor 1I. Contact 1I
armature
for
at",
plate $9 forming an oscillating
2,403,658
5
6
leads by means of conductor 14 to the intake end
of the left potentiometer 60 and contact 10 leads
by means of conductor 15 to the right potentiom
eter 6 |.
Assuming then that the main switch 58 is closed
ings of left electro-magnet 40. The opposite ends
of the electro-magnets 40 and 4| are connected
by branch lead 84 with juncture point 16 and thus
through main return lead 11 to the right side of
source 51. Contact 18 is connected with contact
and that control 66 is in its lowered position and
44 of the main solenoid circuit closer by con
that control 62 has been moved by the operator.
ductor 85 and contact 19 is connected with the
say to the right, progressively across the several
other iixed contact 45 of the main solenoid cir
contact buttons of the right potentiometer 6|,
cuit closer by means of conductor 86. Contactsv
the ship will be caused to turn to the right about l0 4,8 and 45 or 48 _and 44 are made before contacts
its vertical axis a-b. To effect this the current
50 and 54 or 49 and 53 are made. Contacts
can be traced from the positive side of the source
50--54 or 49-53 are for bringing the small con
51, through conductor v61, contacts 65-12, con
ductor 13, control 62, potentiometer 6|, conductor
15, contacts 10-63, conductor 69, windings of
right solenoid 25 and back to the right or nega
tive side of the source through juncture point
trol gyro 32 back to horizontal, thus only giving
momentary contact to 48 and 45 or 48 and 44.
In operation, with the device in its automatic
running position, let it be assumed that external
forces are acting on the ship and tending to
1B and main return lead 11.
cause it to veelI oil’ its course, say to the right;
'
Energizing the right solenoid 25 causes it to
this turning oi the ship causes the more sensitive
draw its core more fully into its windings and 20 control or relay gyroscope to tilt its gimbal ring
' thus acts to elevate the right side, and by the `
34 about its axis lowering its right side and. of
same token depresses the left side of the main
gimbal ring 2| as viewed in Fig. 1. This dis
placement of the gimbal ring is of course resisted
course, elevating its left side.
i
This tilting of the ring 34 to the right from
the showing in Figure 3 closes the contacts 48 and
by its spinning rotor and by reaction the ship 25 45. The current will then be from the energized
ring 34, contacts 48 and 45, conductor 86 to switch
contact 19 across to Contact 64, conductor 68 to
left main solenoid 24, juncture 16 and return lead
pressed side of the gimbal ring, Diiïerently ex
11 back to source 51. The main solenoid 24 so
turns about the vertical axis a-b and in this case
' the turn is to the right, that is, clockwise look
ing down on the binnacle or towards the de
pressed, looking down on the long arrow in Fig. 2 36 powered will cause the main gyro 22 to be tilted
its head will turn to the right or to starboard,
to the right, thus causing the ship to turn to the
that is, towards the side which is the depressed
side of the gimbal ring. This turning movement1
left, thereby returning the ship to its original
of the ship will continue as long as the active
forces caused it to veer- to the right.
solenoid is resisting the return oi’ the spinning
rotor to its original plane and the ship will grad»
ually increase‘its rate of turning with increase
lf the external forces tend to cause the ship
to veer to the left, the small control gyroscope
tilts the gimbal ring 34 about its axis lowering its
. in lapsed time y./n'lle the gimbal ring is so held
in its tilted or depressedposition.
~ left side and of ycourse elevating its right side.
Moving the contact 32 by manual action loa/ck
to its normal neutral position permits the gyro=
scope to restore itself to its normal position by vir»
tue of the continued rotation of the ship. Sinik
larly the shifting of the control 62 to the left to
bring potentiometer til into circuit closing posi-u
tion will lead current therefrom through con
ductor 1d, contacts ïl-íid, conductor 66, wind
course, the course headed for before external
-
Y
This tilting of the girnbal 34 closes the contacts
dit
66 and d4.
The current will then be from the
energized ring 3d. contacts 43-44, conductor 65.
switch contact 176-63, conductor 69, main right
solenoid 25, juncture point 16 and return lead 11
back to source 51. The main right solenoid 25
~so powered will cause the main gyro 22 to be tilted
to the left, thus causing the ship to turn to the
right, thereby returning the ship to its original
ings of left solenoid ‘ä’fl and back to source through
course headed for before external forces caused
it to veer to the left.
main return lead 11. This has the eiî’ect of tip
ping the right side of the gimbal ring down
' The electro-~rnagnets 40 and 4l of device i3, acu
wardly and thus cause the ship to turn counter
tuated by contacts 50 and 54, 43 and 53 are simply
clockwise or to the left or to port, pivoting about
for restoring the small control gyro 32 to a hori
its self-contained vertical axis a-b.
.zontal position after having momentarily con
tacted Qt-dä or 4&3-44
Completing the description of the double throw
switch
it will be seen from Fig. 3 that it also 55
It has been found that if a second rotor is linked
includes three other contacts 16, 19 and B@ dis
to the main gyrosconic rotor. a more flexible i‘orce
posed in line and arranged respectively opposite
can be utilized to displace the main gimbal ring,
the contacts 63, 66 and 65. The several contacts
and such a modiiied form of the invention is dis
are so arranged that when the shlftable member v
closed in Figures 4_6. There is shown at 90 apart
is moved into its upper position as viewed in 60 of a ship corresponding to part I0 and a binnacle
Figure 3, the contacts will be connected 63 with
9| corresponding to the binnacle Il of Figures
18, 64 with l@ and Gti with 66.
l and 2. Mounted in the bottom of binnacle 9|
Should it be desired to place the ship under
is a 'main gyroscope glmbal ring 92 and in which
automatic control so as to keep it on its course,
ring is mounted a spinning rotor 93 turning on
the shiftable element 66 is thrown into its upper 65 axle 94. The ring 92 is carried by trunnions 35
position to engage the upper line of the three
in turn carried by a heavy hollow casting 86 car
contacts 16, 19 and 80. Under these conditions
ried by a plate 91 disposed on the bottom 98 of
the binnacle.
live contacts 65 and 80 are connected and current
is led by conductor 8| to the gimbal ring 34 and
Positioned in the upper portion of the binnacle
through the bars 5| and 52 and thus to the shift 70 is a second gimbal ring 99 in which is mounted
able contact elements 49 and 50 of the electro
a spinning rotor |00 turning on its axle |0|.
magnet circuit closers. Contact 54 leads by
The trunnions |02 vsupporting the ring 99 are
means of conductor 83 to one end‘of the wind»
carried by a hollow support |03 journaled for
ings of right electro-magnet 4|. Contact 53 leads
rotary movement about a vertical axis g-h and
by means of conductor 82 to one end of the wind 75 which corresponds to the axis a-b in the form
2,403,658
7
of the invention disclosed in Figures 1-3. The
support |00 is suspended from the platform l0
8
to coact selectively with two of three fixed relay
contacts |00, |01 and |00 depending on the direc
tion of tilt of the armature |00. The several con
on a stub shaft |04 and is mounted in anti
tacts are so arranged that when the armature is
friction devices |00 to facilitate ease of turn of
shifted to cause contacts |34 and |00 to engage
the support. The upper portion of the support
respectively with contacts |00 and |01 the motor
is provided with a worm gear |08 in mesh with
turns in one direction, and when contacts >|04
a worm shaft |01 forming an extension from the
and |05 are shifted to engage respectively with
shaft of a reversing electric motor lill‘suspended
contacts |01 and |00, the direction of rotation of
from the under side of the platform l0. The two
gimbal rings 02 and 00 are interconnected to tilt 10 the motor is reversed.
The modification of Figs. 4-8 also includes a
in unison through a connecting linkage extend
gyro control relay |00 corresponding in all re
ing from one side of one ring to the opposite side
spects to the relay disclosed in Figs. 1-3 except
of the other ring. For this purpose an upper
that conductor B0 leads to eiectromagnet |20 in~
bell crank lever |00 on the right side of Figure 4
stead of to solenoid 24, and conductor 00 leads
is fuicrumed at I|0 to the support |00. Lever
to electromagnet |20 instead of to solenoid 2l,
|00 has its upper arm ||| pivoted to an extension
and the wiring associated therewith is otherwise
||2 projecting radially from ring 90. The lower
identical
with and similarly designated in both
arm ||0 of bell crank lever |00 extends horl
Figs. 3 and 6.
‘
zontally, has its free end ||4 bifurcated. 'I'he
Further referring to the wiring diagram in
upper end of a lift rod il! is guided for vertical
Fig. 6 contact |34 is connected to lead 11 by
movement through an aperture H0 provided
means
of a conductor |40, and contact |00 is con
therefor in the bottom of the support |03 and
nected to lead 61 by means of a conductor | 4|.
its lower end is guided in an aperture ||1 formed
Also held windings |42 of motor |00 are shunted
in a ledge ||0 integral with the casting 90. A
pivot pin ||0 passes through rod H0 and the
bifurcation at I |4. The lift _rod has its lower end
in the form of a spool collar |20 and forms an
annular yoke.
On the lower left side of Figure 4 there is
shown a bell crank lever |2| which has its upper
horizontal arm |22 fulcrumed at |20 and its in-`
ner end bifurcated to form fingers |24 riding in
the spool collar |20. The other arm |25 of the
bell crank lever depends from the arm |22 and
is pivotally connected to an extension |20 pro
iecting laterally from the lower ring 02.
V
From this construction it is obvious that a tilt
originating in either gimbal ring 02 or 00 causes
across leads 01 and 11.
'
.
Referring to the operation of the device dis
closed in the Figs, 4-6 form and assuming mov
able switch element B0 is in its lowered position
engaging contacts 10, 1| and 12, then electro
30 magnet |29 is powered when lever 02 is moved
Íacross potentiometer 0| or electro-magnet |20 is
powered when lever 02 is moved across potenti
ometer 00. When electro-magnet |20, for in
stance. is energized,Í it rocks its armature |00
35 with its right side depressed as viewed in Fig. 6
and thus shifts contacts |04 and |00 towards
the right to close the circuit through the motor
to turn it in one direction.
The motor rotates
the support |00 and this tilts the gimbal rings
the other gimbal ring also to tilt, but in the op-'
00 and 02 in a manner similar to the tilting of
40
posite direction. For instance, assume the right
the gimbal ring 2| by solenoids 24 and 2l in the
side of ring 00 to be depressed: this will lower
Figs. 1-3 form of the disclosure. Similarly when
arm |00, rotate arm ||0 about its fulcrum ||0
electro-magnet |20 is energized by the closing of
and elevate the forked end | I4. This will elevate
contacts 00, 02 and this tilts armature |00 down
the lift rod | Il, rock arm |22 about its fulcrum
|20. lower arm |2| and thus lower the left side 45 wardly to the left and through the shifting oi'
contacts |34 and |00 to the left the motor turns
of the ring 02. The two rings will then be moved
in the opposite direction, the support |00 turns in
from their normal’horizontal position, one clock
the opposite direction, and the rotor |00 tilts in
wise and the other counterclockwise, with the
the opposite direction.
‘
rings disposed in intersecting planes.
Referring to the operation of the device dis
VIncluded in the circuit which lcontrols motor
-closed in Figures 4-6 when the movable switch
|00 and controlling the same is an armature
element 88 is in its upper position engaging con
reversing relay |21 depending from the under
tacts 18, 19 and 80, the device operates as de
side of the platform I0 as shown at the upper
scribed for the similar disposition of the element
side of Fig. 4. This relay is for the purpose of
00 in the Figures l--3 form of the invention, ex- .
controlling the direction of rotation ofthe motor
cept _that in Figure 3 contact 63 goes to solenoid
|00 and thus the direction in which the motor
20 while in Figure 6 contact 83 goes to electroturns the support |00. Turning the support |00
magnet
|20. Also in Figure 3 contact 84 goes to
in one direction will cause the »gimbal rings 02
left solenoid 24 while in Figure 6 contact 04 goes
and 00 to tilt one in one direction and the other
in the opposite direction as above indicated; that 60 to right electro-magnet |20. In general, the dis
tinction between the form of the invention dis-->
is, with the rotors spinning in the reverse direc
»closed in Figures 1-3 and the form disclosed in
tions indicated thereon in Fig. 5 a turning of the
Figures 4-6 is that in the former case the main
support clockwise as you look down on the same
gimbal ring 2| was tilted right or left by the
will cause the gimbal ring 00 to dip on the right
side and similarly the actuation of the motor in 05 action of the solenoids 24 and 25, whilel in the
latter case the main gimbal ring 90 was tilted by
a direction to cause the support to turn counter
the rotation of the support |00.
~
clockwise will therethrough effect the gimbal ring
The steering device herein disclosed acts di
00 to cause it to dip down on its left side.
rectly on the craft and thus needs no rudders,
The relay includes a pair of electro-magnets
|20 and |20 having a pivotally mounted armature 70 ailerons or other externally acting steering means.
The disclosure therefore features the minimizing
|00. The amature |00 is of iron and carries a
of structural parts. The craft may be turned `
plate |00 of insulating material and on which is
about the axis a-b or g--h in either direction
rigidly fixed a pair of movable contacts |04 and
at will and on even keel and stopped immediately
|00 shown upstanding in Fig. 6 and depending
by discontinuing the applied force to the steering
in Fig. 4. These movable contacts are designed
2,403,058
gyroscope. By discontinuing the applied turning
force on the steering gyroscope, the precessional
force on the steering gyroscope caused by the
turning in space of the craft (which force is
opposite the applied force) permits the steering
gyroscope to precess ‘towards the` horizontal“,
thereby applying to the craft a torque opposite
to the turn, hence dampering the applied turn.v
In the event the craft is a ship and is turned in
a narrow slip and the ship accidentally collides
with a pier or other obstacle, the gyroscopic
force that caused the turning does not continue
to exert such ‘force in the direction of the obstacle
but stops immediately and the helmsman can
then manually cause a force to be applied through
the steering gyroscope to turn the craft in the
opposite direction away from the obstacle.
The reason the ship does not continue to exert
10
`
or |44 depending on the direction of tip of th
gimbal ring. In either oase the circuit is com
pleted through the unlocking solenoid I4! which
acts to move the latch |39 to the left of the
showing in Figure 7, thus releasing the turntable
from any further gyroscopic affected movement
thereof. The operator can thus cause the whole
assembly to turn by throwing the manual switch
02 in that direction which will cause the gyro
scope to tilt in the opposite direction.
The resulting turning of the whole assembly
will cause the main gyroscope ring to precess back
to its normal horizontal position without añect~
ing any torque on the craft.
When the contact arm reaches the middle but»
ton |46, the locking circuit is closed through the
locking solenoid |40, and, of course, the circuit
through the unlocking solenoid is broken as soon
as arm 59 has left the end button. Energizing
the locking solenoid projects the latch into its
position to lock the turntable in fixed relation to
force acting upon it `caused by the ship’s turning.
the craft and the parts are then restored to their
When the turning of the ship ceases, the preces
normal position with the gyroscope in steering
sional force ceases, the main gyro having no force
relation to the craft.
to oppose, dips to the limit against the bumper 25
While the invention has been described as a
at the binnacle, delivers no further torque to the
steering mechanism, it is obvious that it will also
ship, therefore the ship ceases to turn in the
function to stabilize the craft against roll. While
direction of the obstacle collided with.
the disclosure has featured the gimbal rings hori
Under some unusual conditions the main gyro
zontally disposed in their normal position, it is
scope tilts to the limits of its movement in engage 30 lwithin the s-cope of the disclosure to locate them
ment with its bumper or other stop as when the
in any desired plane.
'
craft is acted upon by forces resulting from extra
I claim:
heavy cross currents or heavy Winds. Under
1. The method of gyroscopically steering a rud
these conditions itis suggested that it is advisable
derless vessel in a given plane which comprises
to provide a mounting for the assembly which
developing rotational energy in the spinning rotor
will permit the mounting of the gyroscope to
of a gyroscope rotating about an axis in said
rotate under such excessive tilts of the main gyro
plane and displacing the axis from said plane to
scope in either direction and which will lock the
effect a precessional movement capable of steer
assembly automatically in its normal fixed posi
ing the vessel about a self~contained vertical
tion when the gyroscope rotor returns to its nor 40 axis in the direction towards which the axis is
depressed.
‘
mal plane of rotation. One such mounting is
-disclosed in Figure ‘7 where the base I0 forming
2. The method of gyroscopically steering a rud
part of the craft to be steered has mounted'
derless vessel in a given plane which comprises
thereon a turntable |36 on which the main gyro
developing rotational energy in the spinning rotor
scope |2 is mounted. Anti-friction devices |31 45 of a gyroscope .rotating about an axis in said
facilitate '.he turn of the turntable. Normally
plane and displacing the axis from said plane to
the turntable is restrained from rotating relative
eifect a precessional movement capable of steer
to the craft on which it is mounted. For this
ing the vessel about a self-contained vertical
purpose the peripheral edge of the turntable is
axis in the direction towards which the axis is
provided with a line of stop holes |38 adapted 50 depressed,Y and imposing a. dampening eifect on i
a force in the direction of the obstacle collided
with is due to the fact that the main gyro (by
applied force) was overcoming the precessional
‘ to be engaged selectively by' a dog or bolt |39
acting to lock the turntable against rotation ex
cept under those conditions where rotation is
desired `to release the gyroscope from excessive
the displacing force acting on the axis.
3. In the art of turning a craft in space about
a vertical axis passing therethrough, the method
which consists in imposing on the craft a torque
self-imposed strains. The bolt is controlled by 55 developed about said axis as the result of the f
precessional forces of an active gyroscope result
a pair of solencids, a locking solenoid |40 and
anv unlocking solenoid I4 | . The solenoids havel
ing from an external force displacing its gimbal
ring from the plane in which it is normally dis
a common core |42, one end of which forms the
' bolt |39.
posed.
,
4. In the art of maintaining a craft on its
In this case the segment contact plate 56 has 60
course while under the influence of external forces
its end buttons marked |43 and |44 and connected
which are tending to cause it to veer off its course,
by means of conductor |45 with one end of the
unlocking'solenoid |4|. The middle button |46
the method which consists in subjecting the craft
to the influence of a gyroscopic force operating
the locking solenoid |40. The opposite ends of 65 to restore the craft to its course and which gyro
scopic force is controlled automatically by those -« l. y
the solenoids |40 and | 4| are connected by lead
vis connected by conductor |41 with one end of
c 'I1 to the negative side of the source 51 and the
positive side .of the source is connected to the
contact arm 59 as previously described. Collector
forces which are acting at the time to cause thev craft to move off its course.
5. In the art of steering a freely floating -body
70 in space and which body is free of the usual steer
ratus.
`
ing rudders, the method which includes the art
In the event the outer forces are sumciently
of applying to the body that gyroscopic force ef
great to cause a depression of the main gyroscope
fective when its spinning rotor is displaced from
ring 2| to its limit of movement in either direc
normal.
'
tion, the contact arm engages either button |43
6. In a device of the class described, the com
ring |48 and brush |49 lead current to the appa
2,408,058
12
bination with a craft capable of turning about
a vertical axis even in the absence of external
steering means. of mechanism for turning the
craft about said axis even when the craft is with
out linear motion and thus when the axis is sta
'
.
in space about a vertical first axis, a gyro
scopically controlled mechanism for turning -the
body about said axis, including a binnacle rigidly
secured to the body, a gimbal ring _normally
disposed in a horizontal plane and Journaled in
the binnacle for freedom of movement about a
tionary relative to the earth, said mechanism
second axis, an axle disposed in a third axis
including a steering gyroscope secured to the
at’ right angles to the second axis, trunnions
craft with the craft providing one of the three
mounting the opposite ends of the axle in the
degrees of freedom» for its spinning rotor and the
other two degrees of freedom being inthe gyro 10 ring, a spinning rotor carried by the axle and
turning in the plane containing the second axis,
scope structure, a pair of main solenoids having
vertically directed control means acting on the
their cores operatively connected to opposite ends
ring at one of the trunnions for selectively tilting
of a spinning axis of the steering gyroscope to
' the ring from its normal horizontal plane, there
tilt the same, one when powered to tilt the same
clockwise and the other when powered to tilt the 15 by to impose a couple on the axle for turning
the body in space about its first or vertical axis
axis counterclockwise, a control gyroscope, means
and in that direction whichever may be on the
forming a first solenoid circuit including the left
depressed side of the ring, and means tending
main solenoid, means forming a second solenoid
to restore the ring to its normal horizontal posi
circuit including the right main solenoid, and a
tion when free from the displacing enact of the
clrcuitcloser having a shlftable contact connected
control means.
to the gimbal ring of the control solenoid and
11. In combination with a body -free to turn
movable thereby as the ring tilts in one direction
in space about a vertical i‘irst axis, a gyro
to close the first solenoid circuit and when the
ring tilts in the opposite direction to close the
current through the second circuit.
'
'1. In a device of the class described, the com
bination with a craft capable of turning about
an axis which may 4be fixed relative to the earth,
of gyroscopically energized mechanism for turn
ing the craft about said axis. said mechanism
including a gyroscope secured to the craft with
the craft providing one of the three degrees of
freedom for its spinning rotor and said gyroscope
having means providing for the other two. de
grees of freedom, electro-magnetically actuated
means operatively connectedfto the axis of the
spinning rotor of the gyroscope to impose thereon
selectively a forced precession downwardly to
cause the craft to turn toward the right, Vorvrclown
wardly on the other side to cause-the :craft to
turn to the left
ut said axis, and control means
for selectively `energizing said electro-magneti
cally actuated means to eifect a right or left turn
ing of the craft.
'
8. The combination of a craft capable of turn
ing in space about a vertical axis, a gyroscope
including a support fixed to the craft. a gimbal
ring journaled in the support and normally dis
posed in a horizontal plane, a spinning rotor and
an axle therefor Journaied in the ring. a pair of
solenoids operatively connected to the ring for
selectively moving a portion of the ring to which
it is attached in the same vertical direction and
thus act to displace the ring and the rotor from
their normal planes, and means forming a sole
noid circuit including said solenoids and control
means for causing one solenoid to function while
sccpically controlled mechanism for turning the
body about said axis, including a binnacle rigidly
secured to the body, a gimbal ring normally
disposed in a horizintal plane and journaled in
the binnacle for freedom of movement about a -
second axis, an axle disposed in a third axis at
right angles to the second axis, trunnions mount
ing the opposite ends of the axle in the ring,
a spinning rotor carried by the axle and turn
ing in the plane containing the second axis, and
vertically directed control means acting on the
ring at one of the trunnions for selectively tilt
ing the ring from its normal horizontal plane,
thereby to impose a couple on the axle for turn»
--ing the body in s'pace about its first or vertical
axis and in that direction whichever may be
on the depressed side of the ring.
~
12. In a device for steering a craft comprising
a supDOrt. a gyroscope provided with means for
securing it rigidly to the craft, said gyroscope
having its gimbal ring normally disposed in a
horizontal plane and rcontrol means for tilting
vthe gimbal ring to shift the axis of spin of its
associated spinning rotor and thus to effect a
steering oi.' the craft in the direction towards
the depressed side of the ring.
l
13. .A craft having a freedom of movement
in space and thus capable of being steered at
will selectively to port or starboard to follow a
new course and capable of being restored auto
matically to a preset course on any tendency to
depart towards either port or starboard from
said preset course, a >steering gyroscope having
its support fixed to the craft, a gimbal ring
the other solenoid remains idle.
9. In combination with a craft capable of
moving freely in a horizontal plane. gyroscopic
mechanism for steering the craft, said mech
anlsm including a support rigidly attached to the
craft, a gimbal ring normally disposed in a hori
zontal plane, an axle therefor imirnaied in the
ring and disposed athwart the ship. a spinning
rotor carried by the axle, means for journaling
the ring in the support to permit a freedom of
oscillation of the ring about an axis at right
angles to the axis of the axle, and means for
ioumalled in the support and normally disposed
in a horizontal plane and a spinning rotor having
its axle journaled in the ring and normally dis
posed with its axis athwart the craft, a pair
of solenoids having their cores connected to the
ring at the trunnions of the rotor axis and cir
cuit forming means including the solenoids and
a two-way switch in said circuit, including a
movable element operating between two fixed
contacts, a control gyroscope for controlling said
movable element and the two fixed. contacts
being in electric circuit respectively with the
solenoids. whereby a precessional movement
imposingaforceontheringinatendencyto 70 two
of the control gyroscope in one direction will
tilt it and'with it the rotor out of their normal
close the circuit through one of the solenoids and
`position and thus cause the ship to steer in the
a movement in the opposite direction will close
direction towards which the ring lis depressed.
the circuit through the other solenoid.
and so long as it is so depressed.
10. In combination .with a body free to turn 75
14. The combination with a body free to turn
13
- in space in a horizontal plane about a self
contained vertical axis, of mechanism for so
turning the body, said mechanism comprising a
gyroscope including a gimbal ring mounted to
turn about an axis fixed relative to the body
and which axis is at all times disposed in a
horizontal plane, and a spinning rotor mounted
14
a conductor leading from the fixed contact to one
end of the windings of the electro-magnet.
21. A steering device for restoring a craft auto
matically to its course when veering ofi.' its course
by external iniiuences, -the combination of a main
gyroscope including a main gimbal ring normally
disposed in a horizontal plane, a solenoid opera
tively connected to tilt the main ring about its
in the ring for rotation about an axis at right
angles to the first named axis, and means for
axis of turn in one direction, a servo gyroscope in
imposing a precessional movement on said 10 cluding a servo gimbal ring normally disposed in
gimbalring,
.
a horizontal plane, means forming a main sole
15. The structure defined in claim 14 and in
noid circuit including a solenoid circuit closer
which said last named means includes another
comprising a fixed contact and a shiftable contact
gyroscope also mounted on the body and respon
moved by the tilting of the servo ring, and a con
sive automatically to a turning of the body about 15 ductor connecting the fixed contact with the
said vertical axis. „
_windings of the solenoid.
16. The combination with a iloating body free
22. In a device for automatically restoring a
to turn in space in a horizontal plane and sub
craft to its lcourse when acting under forces tend
stantially restrained from moving in any other
ing to veer it ofi’ its course, the combination of a
plane, of mechanism for steering the body, com 20 main
gyroscope, a solenoid operatively connected
prising a gyroscope including a gimbal ring
thereto to give it a precessional movement, a servo
mounted for rotation about an axis ñxed to the
gyroscope, means forming a solenoid circuit in
body and thus substantially restrained to a hori
cluding the solenoid and a circuit closer whose `
zontal plane and having a high speed spinning
movable element is controlled by the servo gyro~
body mounted in the ring to turn about an axis
scope, electromagnetic means for restoring the
at right angles to the iirst named axis, and
servo gyroscope to a norma1 position, said means
having capacity to turn the body by reason of’
including an electro-magnet whose armature is
the gyroscopic force generated thereby to turn
movable with the gimbal ring of the servo gyro
the body, and means engaging the gimbal ring
scope, means forming an electro-magnet circuit
to impose a force thereon to give` it a precessional
30 closer whose movable element is'controlled by the
movement, and except for said last named means,
servo gyroscope and a conductor leading from its
said ring being otherwise free of any other device.
fixed contact to one end of the windings of' the
17. The combination of a body free to turn in
electro-magnet.
space, gyroscopically actuated mechanism consti
23. In a device for turning a craft about an axis
tuting the sole means for turning the body, said` 35
mechanism including a gyroscope comprising a
of turn, the combination of two gyroscopes hav- -
ing their gimbal rings normally disposed in par
gimbal ring and a spinning rotor journaled con
allel planes both normal to said axis of turn, a
ventionally in the ring, and a mounting for ñx
link connecting one end of the axle trunnion of
ing the axis of turn of the gimbal ring relative to
the body whereby two of the degrees of freedom 40 one of the gyroscopes with the opposite end of the
axle trunnion of the other gyroscope to tilt the
o'f the gyroscopeare in the gyroscope itself and
rings in unison, a pair of supports, one for each
the third degree of freedom is in the body, and
ygyroscope and to which its associate gimbal ring
means for imposing a. force on said gimbal ring to
is journaled, and means for rigidly securing‘one
tilt it about its axis of turn and thus impose a
of the supports to the craft -to be steered and
forced precessional on said gimbal ring.
45
means
for rotating the other support about said
18. The device deñned in claim 17 and in which
axis
of
turn to cause its associated ring to tilt
said last named means includes a servo gyroscope
carried by the body and controlled by the turning
. from its normal plane and thus cause the other
gyroscope to turn the craft to which the support
is fixed.
19. The device defined in claim-17 andin which 50 24. The combination of a craft capable of turn
said servo gyroscope acts through an electro-mag
ing in space about a vertical axis, a mechanism
netically actuated device for restoring said servo
for steering the craft comprising two gyroscopes
gyroscope to its normal inoperative position after
in superimposed relation with their gimbal rings
it has functioned.
.
normallyA disposed in horizontal planes, the lower
2Q; A steering device for restoring a craft auto 'ss gyroscope
having its gimbal ring mounted in a
matically to its course whenveering off its course
support
secured
rigidly to the craft, linkage con
by external influences, the combination of a main f necting one side" of one of the gimbal rings to the
gyroscope including a main gimbal ring normally.
opposite side of the other gimbal ring to cause
disposed in a horizontal plane, a solenoid opera
the rings to tilt in unison in opposite directions,
tively connected to tilt the main ring about its
and means connected to one of the gimbal rings
axis of turn in one direction, a servo gyroscope
at one end of its associated rotor axle to shift the
including a servo gimbal ring normally disposed
gimbal ring and thus its companion to and from
of the body in space.
'
in a horizontal plane, means forming a main sole
their normal horizontal positions.
' .
noid circuit including a solenoid circuit closer
25. A gyroscopic steering device comprising a
comprising a fixed contact and a shiftable contact 65 pair of superimposed gyroscopes, each including
moved by the tilting of the servo ring, a conductor
a support, a gimbal ring journaled in the support
connecting the ñxed contact with the windings
and normally disposed in a horizontal plane and
of the solenoid, and means for restoring the servo
a spinning body having its axle‘journaled in the
ring to its normal horizontal position after the
ring, means coupling one of the gimbal rings to
solenoid circuit has been closed momentarily, said 70 the other to cause them to tilt in unison, means
means including an'electro-magnet with its arma
for securing one of the supports rigidly to the
ture carried by the servo ring, means forming an
craft to .be steered so that the craft is free to pro
electro-magnet circuit including an electro-mag
vide one of the three freedoms of movement of
netic circuit closer comprising a fixed contact and
one of the gyroscopes, and means for rotating the
. a movable contact carried by the servo ring and 76 other support about a vertical axis to cause a
15
precessional movement of its associated gyro
scope.
.
.
28. The combination of a craft free to turn in
space about a vertical axis, a gyroscope carried
by the craft and providing two degrees of rota
tional freedom of'its spinning motor, the third
degree of freedom being provided by the craft,
and control means operatively responsive to any
tilting of the spinning body out of its normal
plane of rotation for imposing on the spinning
body a force tending to further tilt the spinning
body out of its normal plane‘of rotation.
27. The combination of a craft free to turn in
space about a vertical axis, a gyroscope carried
by the craft, means tending to restore the craft
to its preset course when acted upon by external
influences tending to cause the craft to veer of!
its course, said means operatively controlled by
the gyroscope to impose a force on its gimbal
ring to move it in the same direction in which
it was tilted by the action of the craft in so veer
inß off its course.
28. The combination of a body free to turn in
ment on its gimbal ring, and including a revers
ible electric motor, a reversible switch for con
trolling the direction of rotation of the motor and
a control gyroscope operatively connected to said
reversible switch whereby the direction of tilt of
the gyroscope gimbal ring is controlled selectively
by the movement towards starboard or port of
the body.
31. The combination of a body free to turn in
space, gyroscopically energized means for steer
ing the body, said means including a gyroscope
having suiîicient power capacity to turn the body
when a force is applied to the gimbal ring of
the gyroscope sufficient to effect such steering,
and means for applying such force.
32. The combination of a body free to turn in
space, a turntable mounted on the body for rota
tion about a vertical axis, a gyroscope mounted
on the turntable and acting normally on the body
to steer the same, means acting to lock the turn
table to the body, and means controlled by the
movement of the gyroscope gimbal ring into an
extreme tilted position to release the locking
space, mechanism for steering said body compris
33. The combination oi.' a body free to turn in
ing two gyroscopes each including a gimbal ring 25
space, a turntable mounted on the body for rota
whose axis of turn is fixed relative to the body
tion about a vertical axis, a gyroscope mounted
and are disposed parallel to each other, a linkage
on the turntable and acting normally on the body
connecting the two gimbal rings to cause one to
means.
’
~
to steer the same, means acting to lock the turn
turn the other, a pair of trunnions fixed to the
body for supporting one of the gyroscopes, a sup 30 table to the body, means controlled by the move
ment of the gyroscope girnbal ring into an ex
port mounted for rotation about a vertical axis
treme tilted position to release the locking means,
for supporting the other gyroscope, a reversible
and means controlled automatically by the move
electric motor for turning said support, and
ment of the gimbal ring into its normal position
means for controlling the reversibility- of said
to lock the turntable to the body.
electric motor.
34. The combination of a support. a turntable
29. `'I'he structure kdefined in claim 28 and `in
which said last named means includes a motbr
mounted on the support, means including a lock
ing latch for locking the- turntable to the sup
port, a gyroscope mounted on the turntable, and
forming a motor circuit including said motor,
40 electromagnetically actuated means controlled by
said reversing device and said third gyroscope.
the movement of the gyroscope for moving the
30. The combination of a body free to turn in
latch to and from its operative locking position.
space. mechanism for steering said body, said
reversingdevice, a third gyroscope and means
mechanism including a gyroscope, a control for
the gyroscope for imposing a precessional move
CHARLES M. HAYMAN.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 585 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа