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Патент USA US2403679

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__ July 9,1946;
Filed Oct. 19,1942
2,403,679 >
8 Sheets-Sheet 1
July 9, 1946.
FiledOct; ‘19, 1942
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BY J55.
Patented July 9, 1946
Louis M. Potts, Evanston, 1:11.; assignor to Tele- .
type Corporation, Chicago, -Ill., a corp‘ora'tion’of
Application October 19, 1942, serial‘ No; 462,522
28 Claims.
(01. use-2'2)
This invention pertains to printing telegraph
systems and particularly to a system for the
transmission and reception of secret telegraph
take a speci?c illustration let it be assumed that
it is desired to encipher the letter “R,” which in
the Baudot code is composed consecutively of
spacing; marking, spacing, marking, and spacing
Secret signalling’ systems are desirable for
naval, military and civil purposes wherein it is
necessary that certain messages be rendered un
interceptible by unauthorized persons. The sur
key tape with which the particular eneiphe'ring
operation is to be performed occupies a position
conditions. ‘Let it be further assumed that the
wherea-t it is conditioned for producing the letter
“Y” ‘combination which in‘the Baudot code is
reptitious interception of messages by unauthor
ized persons might be accomplished, for example, 10 composed consecutively of “marking, spacing,
in the case of wire communication by tapping
marking, spacing, and: marking conditions.
signal wires or in the case of radio transmission
Under theseassumed conditions‘ the enciphering
by receiving apparatuses tuned to the proper fre
operation would result in the production of an
all-emarking“ \or “letters” combination since in
It has been proposed as exemplified by the G._S. 16 thiscase opposite conditions of all the elements
Vernam Patent No. 1,310,719, dated July 22, 1919,
of the "RI" and “Y” code combinations are pro
to provide a system for sending enciphered mes
vided. This will be readily apparent from the
sages in which the ?ve unit Baudot code is em
following chartwherein the letter M indicates a
marking condition and the letter S indicates a
ployed. In general, the ciphering system'de
scribed in the Vernam patent utilizes an arrange
spacing conditien.
ment wherein one set of ?ve contacts are con
trolled by either enciphered or original signals
_-1 2 ‘ 3 4 ’ 5
and a second set of ?ve contacts are controlled
by key signals provided through-the instrumen
tality of a key tape. The two sets of contacts are
“Y”. _____________________
signal “letters”__
->__1 M
_S; _M
M ,M
operated in synchronism to control jointly a set
of ?ve relays in order to encipher or decipher
It is to belunderstood that both‘thé transmite '
messages according to the direction of trans
ting and receiving ends of ; a telegraph line will
As is well known in the printing telegraph art 3.0:. be equipped with identical key} tapes, winch
during message transmission will occupyiden
the individual code combinations of the five unit
tical positions during each signalinterva'l'. ‘ A
Baudot code are made up of a series of marking
station which receives encipheredsignals is thus
and spacing impulses which are customarily in
enabled tov decipher, the unintelligible signals
the form of current impulses representative of
marking conditions and no current impulses rep 35" transmitted’ over the telegraph line by combining
theenciphered signalswith the key signals pro- 7
resentative of spacing conditions. In start-stop
vided _by its keyvtap‘e. To illustrate a deciphering
telegraphy which is herein employed the ?ve unit
operation the ekampl'e given above in connection
code is preceded by a start or spacing impulse
with the enciphering operation will‘ be continued
and followed by a stop or marking impulse.
I In order to encipher messages by the system 40"
and it will be assumed that a receiving station
that is, with one element of the original code
received the Venciphered; signal; namely, “letters.”
The_“Y” combination provided by the key tape
at the receiving station can now’be combined with
the “letters” combination to decipher the en
ciphered signal to thereby reproduce the original
combination marking and with one element of
the key code combination spacing, produce a
of the present invention the elements of the
original code combination are combined with the
elements of code combinations provided by a key
tape. In this arrangement opposite conditions,
signal “R” as clearly shown in the following
marking signal. Like conditions, however, that
is with both elements marking or both elements
spacing, produce spacing signals.
This pre
sume's, of course, that each of the elements of
the respective code combinations are related to
Enciphered si a1, “letters”,
Keysigna1“Y”__.‘ ______ __'
Original signal “11" ________ __
‘M ‘MN-7M
______ __
‘M ,i S
each other. Thus the No. 1 element of the ‘orig
nal code combination is combined with the No.1
The use of mechanically controlled and’ oper
element of the key ‘code combination etc. To v65 ated signalling arrangements have demonstrated
advantages not obtainable in systems which are
for the most part electrically controlled. Elec
trically controlled systems which usually include
receiving and transmitting commutator distribu
tors and relay controlled contact arrangements,
while advantageous for certain requirements, do
not operate with the e?iciency and comparatively
slight maintenance a?orded in mechanical sys
tems. A mechanical enciphering arrangement
employing permutation code combinations with 10
its attendant advantages over electrically con-.i
trolled systems has thus far notbeen proposed.
Mechanical enciphering systems are particularly
desirable for the transmission of secret messages
All necessary equipment for the ciphering unit
will be contained in a small portable receptacle
that may be conveniently carried for use at loca
tions having standard printing telegraph ap
paratus. A set of plugs are included with the unit
to enable the unit to be quickly and easily asso
ciated with standard telegraph apparatus.
The invention may be more readily understood
from the following detailed description and the
drawings wherein:
" Fig. 1 is a. simpli?ed diagram of two outlying
stations associated with central office exchanges;
‘Fig. 2 is an illustration of a portable ciphering
.unit embodied in the present invention included
wherein it is advisable that signal distortion be
kept to a minimum and that maintenance trou
bles do not delay communicating operations.
Accordingly the primary object of the present
invention is the provision of a simple, reliable
and practical system and apparatus for render
portion of the starting mechanism embodied in
ing messages unintelligible to unauthorized per
the present invention;
in a carrying case;
Fig. 3 is a front elevational view of the main
embodiment of the invention, partly in section
and partly broken away for the sake of clarity;
Fig. llv is a fragmentary perspective view of a
Fig. 5 is an end elevational view of the ap
paratus shown in Fig. 3;
Another object of the invention is to provide
a system and apparatus for precluding the un
authorized interception of messages by mechani
tion switch used in connection with the inven
cal operations established in response to the re
spective control conditions.
Fig. 6 is a detailed perspective view of a direc
Fig. 7 illustrates the circuit employed in the
A further object of the invention is the pro
vision of a portable mechanically operated cipher
ing unit which may be readily‘ associated with
main embodiment of the invention;
Fig. Bis a. detailed view of a portion of the start
ing mechanism, another View of which is shown
standard printing telegraph apparatus used for
telegraphic communication.
in Fig. 4 ;
Fig. 9 is a sectional view of the clutch release
A feature of this invention is the employment
of direction switching means for automatically
conditioning a ciphering unit for either encipher
ing or deciphering operations dependent upon the
direction of transmission.
An additional feature of the present invention
bail, taken on line 9--9 of Fig. 5;
Fig. 10 is a detailed view of the start bar oper
ating mechanism;
Fig. 11 isa detailed view of the stop bar operat
ing mechanism;
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary viewof the tape feed
is the provision of a mechanical enciphering unit
in the form of a regenerative repeater.
7 Other features and advantages of the inven
tion will appearas the description progresses and
accordingly the invention should not be limited by
the speci?c recitals appearing above.
The invention herein described utilizes a port
able mechanical ciphering unit in the form of a
regenerative repeater resembling the regenerative '
repeater illustrated in Patent No. 2,105,173 to W.
J-. Zenner et al. dated January 11, 1938. The unit
includes a signal transmitting contact lever oper
able sequentially by a series of selector bars in
accordance with the joint control exercised over
the bars by a series of levers which may be under
the direct control of a key tape or in a modifica
Fig. 13is a view‘ illustrating the operation of a
code bar;
Fig. 14 is a detailedview of the tape feeler bail;
Fig. 15 is a front elevational view of a modi?ca
tion of the invention;
Fig. 16 is an end elevational view of the modi?
cation shown in Fig. 15;
17 is a circuit diagram for‘ use with the
modi?ed form of the invention; and
Fig. 18 is an alternate form of clutch 'release
Referring now to the diagram shown in Fig. 1
there is pictorially illustrated portable ciphering
units '20 shown in enlargement in Fig. 2 which
may by plug connections, be readily associated
tion of the invention under the control of a set of 65 withstandard printing telegraph units 2| and
22 which are respectively connected with central
telegraph offices or exchanges 23 and 24. At the
central office 23 there may be provided a print
spond to either enciphered or deciphered signals.
ing telegraph unit 25 with which there is per
It isunderstood, of course, that other equivalent
means of control may be employed.
60 manently associated a ciphering unit 26. This
iillustration is, of course, merely exemplary how
The proposed construction includes a com
?ve code magnets and a single armature'lever
controlled by a selector magnet which may re
plete circuit system for operation of the unit
ever and instead of being connected in an ex
which controls directional switching means for
automatically enciphering or deciphering mes
sages dependent on the direction of transmis
sion. In one form of the invention a direction
change, the units 2| and 22 may if desired be
connected directly or permanently to each other.
The portable unit 20 may .be readily carried in
its carrying case 21 so that the unit may be con
switch bar is employed which is operated either
veniently used at different locations, where stand
to one of two positions depending on the direc
tion of the signals. The second form of direc
tional switching employed features the use of a
contact operating lever having‘ a pair of trans-.
mitting contacts and a switching system which
renders‘ one or the other of the contacts effective
ard printing-telegraph apparatus is available. ‘
for transmission according to the direction of
By reference to the drawings, the main em
bodiment of the invention will now be described
in detail; In Fig. 5 is illustrated a motor 3|
which by gear 32 drives ‘gear 33 to which there is
fixedly secured a relatively long operating shaft
.34.; The'shaft-34 is journalled at one end in a
75 bearing 35 which is fitted in a frame 36. A bear+
ing 31 carried by bracket 38 attached to the
against the notch 84 by the stop arm 42. The‘ dam
frame 38 also supports the shaft 34. A cam
sleeve 4| freely mounted above shaft 34 has as.
tion'and to be again stopped when the stop arm
sleeve isthus enabled to make a single revolu
once more abuts against the notch 84 of the gate
latch 83.
and codebar operation cams 44 to 48 inclusive.
Positioned below the cam sleeve ‘4| is a‘ series
Also carried by cam sleeve 41 is start bar cam 5|
of ?ve code bars 85 which are mounted for slid
and stop bar cam 52. In addition thereto cam
able and pivotal movement within the comb mem
sleeve 4| carries direction control bar cams 53
bers .86. A series of springs 81 normally urge
and 54 best illustrated in Fig. 6 and a. clutch
release cam 55. The right-hand end of ‘cam 10 their associated code bars 85 upward and to the
right-hand position as clearly illustrated in Fig.
sleeve 4| as viewed in Fig. 5 consists of ‘an in-,
13.~ 'Thecomb members 88 have also mounted
tegral disc flange 59 and the opposite end of
therein a start 'bar 88 and a stop bar 89» (Figs.
the sleeve supports a ?ange 5'I threaded thereon.
5, 10 and 11,). The start bar 88 is mounted for
At the corresponding end of shaft 84 is ?xedly
secured a flange disc 58. Between ?anges 56 and 15 counterclockwise pivotal movementas viewed in
Fig. 10 about thepost 9| and is provided with a
58 is positioned a felt friction member 59. At
bifurcated portion 92 for engagement with the
the intermediate portion of shaft 34 a sleeve
post 9 I. The bar 89 is normally urged in a clock
6| which carries a flanged portion 62 is mounted
wise direction about pivot 9| by a spring 93. vThe
for a slidable movement by means of a splined
connection with adjustable nut ‘49. Interposed 20 stop bar 89 is arranged for clockwise pivotal
movement, as illustrated in Fig. 11 about its as-_
between ?ange discs 62 and 51 is a friction felt
sociated bifurcated portion 94 which engages post
member 63. Secured to the shaft 34 is the ad
95. A spring 95 normally urges the stop bar 89
justable nut 49 which bears against a compression
in a counterclockwise direction.
spring 59 to urge the spring against the flange
In addition to the code bars as, the start bar
disc 62 thus to urge the entire sleeve 4| .to the
sembled upon it a stop arm 42, a flutter cam 43
right as viewed in Fig. 5.
In Figs. 4 and 8 the start mechanism is illus
trated which permits the rotation of the cam
sleeve 4| through the slip friction clutch ar
88 and the stop bar 89, the comb members 86
also mount a direction switch bar 91 and a direc
tion control bar 98 best illustrated in Fig. 6.
The code bars 85, the start bar 88, the stop
rangement provided by the friction felt members 30 bar 89, and the control bar 98 are all operable
by associated T-shaped operating levers 99 which
59 and 63. As is well known in the printing tele
are pivoted about shaft H9 and‘ controlled by
graph art, cam sleeve 4| is released for rotation
their respective cams. The upper portion of each
upon the reception of the start impulse which
T-lev'er is in engagement with its associated cam
precedes the ?ve unit code combination and is
stopped upon receipt of the stop impulse which 85 and the lower portion of each lever is in bearing,
engagement with its associated bar.
, ,
is received after the completion of the ?ve unit
Thepurpose of the direction bar 91 (Fig. 6),
code combination. As will be further described
is to’v condition the direction switch I99 accorde
in detail either a selector magnet 64 (Fig. 4) or
ing to the direction of transmission. When the
a start magnet 65 may receive the start im
pulse in order to release the cam sleeve 4|. Ac 40 switch I96 occupies its normal position to the
left, it is in position to control the enciphering
cording to Fig. 3 armature lever 66 of selector
and retransmission of outgoing messages origi
magnet 64 is pivoted about shaft 61 and is urged
nating at the station whereat the ciphering unit
in counterclockwise direction by a spring 68.
is located, whereas when it is moved to the right
Armature lever 69 associated with the start mag
net 65 is pivoted about shaft I9 (Fig. 5) and like 45 it is in a position to control the deciphering of
incoming messages. The control bar 98 normal
wise normally is urged in a counterclockwise di
ly is urged to the right and in an upward di
rection as viewed in Fig. 3 by a spring 1|. Ar
rection by spring I92, and the bar 98 may pivot
mature lever 66 carries a laterally extending pro
in either a clockwise or a counterclockwise di
jection ‘i2 (Fig. 4) engageable with an adjust
able screw ‘I3 of stop lever ‘I4, which is pivoted 60 rection as will immediately hereinafter appear.
The resiliency of the contact springs associated
about the stud ‘I5, upon de-energization of se
with the direction switch I69 suffices normally
lector magnet 64. Likewise armature lever 89
to urge the direction bar 91 to the left or trans
associated with start magnet 65 carries a verti
mitting position due to the engagement of the
cally extending portion ‘I6, which engages an ad
justable screw 'l'i mounted on the stop arm ‘I4. 55 lateral projection I93 with the insulating portion
I94 of the direction switch.
It is, therefore, obvious that de-energization of
either magnet 64 or 65 may cause a clockwise
movement of the stop arm ‘I4 as viewed in Fig. 4.
When signals are outgoing from the associ-_
ated station apparatus, the selector magnet 64
84 which is normally in blocking relationship
plained, direction control cam 53 will operate
above described operation takes place, the notch
82 of lever ‘I9 moves out of the path of gate latch
83 and the stop arm 84 is now enabled to over
come the force of a spring 85 associated with
lower portion of the T-lever pushes against the
control bar 99. Since the upper portion of the
armature lever is now in blocking relation with
the control bar 98 the control bar will be moved
the gate latch due to the greater force exerted
in a clockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 6.;1 that
receives a spacing or no-current start impulse
Clockwise pivotal movement of stop lever ‘I4
will cause its projection I8 to bear against a pin 60 therefrom, thereby enabling the armature lever
66 to‘ move away from the selector magnet in a
member 39 to operate a bell crank 49 (Fig. 8)
counterclockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 3.
which is pivoted at ‘I8 to thereby cause clockwise
When this occurs the upper portion of the arma
pivotal movement of lever ‘I9 against the in?u
ture lever 66 will move from beneath the notch
ence of its compression spring 8|. At its lower
end lever ‘I9 has a notch 82 which in the stop 65 portion I95 of the control bar 98 directly to un
derlie the lower portion of the control bar. 7 As
position of the apparatus locks a gate latch 83
cam‘ sleeve 4| starts rotation, as previously ex
pivoted at 99. Latch 83 carries a notched portion
its T-shaped operating lever 99 to move the lever
with the afore-mentioned stop arm 42 which is
?xedly secured to the cam sleeve 4|. When the 70 in a clockwise direction as shown in Fig. 6. The
is, the right-hand end of bar 98 will move down
upward or spacing position. The start bar 88 has '
a comparatively large notch I24 in order to insure
that there will be no interference with the upper
wardly. This‘ will have no effect upon the ‘direc
tion switch I00 inasmuch as it is desired at this
time to‘allow the direction switch to remain in
portion of the selector magnet armature 66.
its normal transmitting position.
- Code bars 85 (Fig. 13) may be freed to shift to
However, when signals are incoming from a re
their marking or right position under the in?u
mote station, start magnet 65 will receive a start ence' of springs 81 by means of tape feeler levers
impulse of no-current or spacing nature to set
I25 in accordance with the permutations sensed in
the sleeve 4I into rotation. ‘Under these condi
)a key tape I26 (Fig.- 3) by feeler pins I21 which
tionsthe selector magnet 64.remains energized 10 are carried by the tape feeler levers I25. Tape
and ‘consequently its upper portioncontinuestto
feeler- levers I25 in their non-sensing or clockwise
underlie the notch I05 of the direction control bar
position as viewed in Fig. 13 bear against the pro
98.’ Therefore, when sleeve 4I is released cam 53 .
jections IIO of the code bars~85 to urge the code
operates against its T-lever'99thereby totilt the
bars to the left against the in?uence of their
direction control bar 98 in aicounte'rclockwise 15 associated springs 81. The tape feeler levers I25
direction about rod 9| as a fulcrum. ' When this
occurs the control bar strikes the lower arm of
are pivoted at I60 and are urged in a counter
clockwise direction as viewed in Fig. 3 by springs
I20 so that when a perforation is sensed by a
I01, thereby causing the bell crank to rock ina
particular feeler lever its feeler pin may project
clockwise direction. This causes the vertical arm 20 through the tape due to the force exerted by
of the bell crank to engage the bent over flange
spring I20.
portion I08 of the direction-switch bar 91 there
To control the operation of the key tape mech
by shifting the direction switch bar 91 to the
anism there is provided a second cam sleeve I3I '
right. When this occurs the ?ange portionl03
which is mounted upon the shaft 34. Sleeve I3I
of the direction switch bar 91 engages the in
carries an integral collar I32 against which abuts
sulating portion I04 of switch I00 to operate the
one end of a compression spring I33, the other
switch to the right-hand position as shown in
end of which is in abutting relationship with a
a ‘bell crank member I06 which is pivoted at
Fig. 6.
Substantially simultaneously with the
operation of cam 53 to depress the lever 99, cam
collar I34 of sleeve I35 which has a splined con- 1
nection with the sleeve I3I. Spring I33 tends to
urge the collar I 34 to'the left as clearly illus
trated in Fig. 5. The sleeve I 35 constitutes the
driven portion of a position clutch indicated gen
erally at I36. The sleeve I35 also carries a cam
54 also carried upon sleeve 4| operates to release
the bell crank latching lever I09 which is pivoted
at H0 and is normally urged into operative rela
tionship with the cam by a spring III. The bell
crank I09 has a horizontally extending latching
stopping surface I31 which cooperates with the
arm II2 having a downwardly projecting point 35 extension I38 of the clutch release bail I39 which
which is adapted to engage notch H3 of the di
carries outwardly extending pivot arms I4I (Fig. >
rection switch bar 91 when the switch bar is
9) supported on the pivot'shaft I42. A spring
moved to the right, as just explained. The arm
I43 normally urges the clutch release bail in a
II2 of bell crank I09 therefore is immediately
clockwise direction as clearly shown in Fig. 9 by released upon the rotation of the cam sleeve M
it's attachment to the tail portion I44 of the bail.
and thus latches the bar 91 in its right-hand
The-extending arm I38 in the stop position of
position during the reception vof incoming signals
from the remote station. Near the end of its rev
olution, cam 54 operates again to move the bell
sleeve I3I is normally in blocking relationship
with respect to the stopping cam surface I31 and
therefore urges the sleeve I35 to the right as
crank I09 in a counterclockwise direction as 45
viewed in Fig. 5. This maintains the driven por
‘viewed in Fig. 6 thereby to release the projecting
portion II2 from the notch H3 of the direction
switch bar 91. The direction switch bar 91 ac
tion I35 of clutch I36 out of engagement with the
driving portion I45 of the clutch which is ?xedly
secured to the shaft 34. Bail I39 also carries a
projection I46 for following engagement with cam
cordingly is shifted to the left under the in?uence
of the contact springs of switch I00, which are
55 carried by sleeve 4 I.
in a ?exed condition when the switch is posi to
When the sleeve M has almost completed its
tioned to the right.
revolution and is about to cause the sending of
Positioned below the code bars 85, the start
the stop impulse, as will later appear, cam 55 will
bar 88, and the stop bar 89 is a substantially
function by its engagement with the follower arm
Y-shaped retransmitting lever H4 (Fig. 3) which
I46 to tilt the bail MI in a counterclockwise di
has laterally extending projections I I 5, I I6, which
rection (as viewed in Fig. 9) to release the pro
underlie all of the just mentioned bars“ An in
jection I 38 from the path of the cam stopping
sulated contact arm H1 is attached to the pro~
surface I31 of the driven sleeve I35 of clutch
jection H5, which operates transmitting contact
This, enables the spring I33 to shift the
II8. The Y-shaped lever I I4 is pivoted at point
clutch member I35 to the left to enable the posi
H9 and may be moved to either a counterclock
tive engagement of clutch I36 to release sleeve
wise or clockwise position and be retained in
I3I for rotation. Sleeve I3I carries thereon a
either position by the jockey arm I2I pivoted at
tape feed cam I5I and a feeler bail cam I52. As
I22 and normally urged in a counterclockwise di
‘sleeve I 3I rotates, feeler bail cam I52 operates
rection (Fig. 3) by a spring I23.
to permit a follower I53 of tape feeler bail I54
When cam sleeve 4| is ‘started into rotation,
pivoted at I60 to move in a clockwise direction
the direction switch bar 91 is operated as indi
under the in?uence of spring I55 as clearly de
cated, and invariably start cam 5i (Fig. 10) oper
picted in Fig. 14. This operation removes the
ates, by means of its T-shaped operating lever
feeler pins, I21 from the holes of the tape I26
99, start bar 88 which is rotated in a counter 70 due to the engagement ofvprojection I10 of the
clockwise direction about pivot 9|, thereby cause
ing the lower portion of bar 88 to contact the
arm II6 of the Y-shaped lever II4 to tilt the
feeler bail with feeler levers I25. With the‘feeler
pins’ I21 momentarily held in this position cam
I5I_operates against the follower I56 of a tape
Y-shapedlever H4 in a counterclockwise direc
feed bail I51 pivoted at I41, which under the in-,
tion whereupon contact arm I I1 is operated to its 75 ?uence of spring I58 rotates bail I51 in a couné -
terclockwise direction as viewed in Fig. vl2. This
causes feed paw1 I59 Which is pivoted to the bail
is now receiving its No. 1 impulse, is also marking
at this particular time it will have pulled up its
at I5I to advance the feed ratchet I52 one step.
armature lever 66 so that the armature lever is
Feed pawl I59 is urged against the teeth of the
in alignment with the notch 90 of the No. 1 se
feed ratchet by means of a spring I53.
lector bar 85, there being a similar notch on all
Cam I5| next acts against the follower I56
of the other code bars 85. The No. 1 code bar
to rock bail 15? in a cleckwise direction to bring
operating cam 44 will at this time operate its T
back the stepping pawl I59 in position for the
shaped'operating lever 99 to cause the depression
next stepping operation. Immediately after this
and. pivotal movement of the No. 1 code bar 85.
operation cam I52 operates against the follower 10 Since notch 95 is in'alignment with the upper
I53 of the tape feeler bail I54 to permit the feelers
portion of armature lever 66 the bar will pivot
about the post BI causing the bar 85 to'engage
the projection N6 of the Yeshaped lever II4, to
I21 to sense the tape.
An alternate form of clutch release mechanism
is shown in Fig. 18, wherein an interponent is
tilt the Y-shaped lever [I4 in a counterclockwise
provided between the cam 55 and the follower 15 direction to cause the contact arm Ill to move to
its up or spacing position. At this time jockey
arm I46 of the form of clutch release mechanism
arm I2! will hold the Y-lshaped lever H4 in its
shown in Fig. 9. Referring to Fig. 18, the clutch
release bail 539 is provided with a pair of pivot
selected position. It will be understood however
that when the Y-shaped lever I M'ha's previously
arms 54I supported on the pivot shaft 542. A
spring 543 normally urges the clutch release bail 20 been tilted to the desired position it will not need
to be again shifted.
in a clockwise direction by its attachment to the
‘It is thus readily apparent from the above de
tail portion 544 of the bail 539. The upwardly
scription that whenever a tape feeler lever I25 is
extending arm 538 is comparable to arm I38'of
in its' marking position and the selector arma
the form shown in Fig. 9, and serves to maintain
the driven portion of the clutch out of engage 25 ture lever is also in its marking position that a
spacing signal will be sent by the retransmitting
ment with the driving portion thereof during stop
contact arm I".
intervals. The bail 539 is also provided with an
arm 546 (comparable to arm I45), which in the
In response to a spacing con
dition, the feeler pin I21 will not ?nda perfora
tion in the tape and, hence, bar 85 will remain
present instance is not directly cooperable with
in its leftward position, as viewed in Figs. 3 and
13. Also, the selector magnet 65 will be de-ener
strumentality of an interponent 55I depending
gized, and its armature 56 will be biased to its
from a bell crank 552 pivoted at 553. Bell crank
counterclockwise position by spring 58, whereby
552 is held in its clockwise or counterclockwise
the notch 95 of bar 85 will be aligned vertically
position by a detent 554. When bell crank 552
is in its clockwise position (shown in Fig. 18) , the 35 with the free end of armature 65. Thus, it is
further apparent that when'both the tape feeler
interponent 55I is operative between cam 55 and
lever and its particularly associated code bar are
arm 546 to tilt the bail 539 cyclically to effect the
both in the spacing position that a like condition
release of stop arm 538 to permit engagement of
will occur and the contact operating arm Ill
the clutch elements. On the other hand, when
the bell crank 552 assumes its counterclockwise 40 willbe tilted in a counterclockwise position'to its
up or spacing position since the upper'extremity
position (by manually operating the vertical arm
of armature lever 65 will be opposite a notch 90
of the bell crank), the interponent 55I will be
of a code bar 85. When, however, opposite con
raised out of cooperative relations with cam 55
ditions exist between the selector lever 56 and a
and arm 546, thus rendering bail 539 non-oper
ative. In the latter position of the bell crank, 545 particular code bar 85, the particular code bar
will pivot in a clockwise direction due to the
the repeating mechanism becomes a plain re~
blocking condition obtained by the upper extrem
generative repeater by rendering the tape step
cam 55, but cooperates therewith through the in
ping and sensing elements non-operative.
The mechanical ciphering operation ofv the, '
code bars 85 will now be described. It has been
previously mentioned that the present ciphering
system was predicated upon the use of combined
signals provided by a key tape and a selector
magnet in which opposite conditions of the indi
vidual elements of the code combination produced
marking conditions, While like conditions such as
both marking or both spacing produced spacing
' impulses.
With this system in mind the descrip
tion will proceed. In order to describe this phase
of the invention it will be presumed that the cam
sleeve 4| has been released for rotation by'receipt
of the start impulse and that the tape I25 cc‘
cupies a new position as has just been described
above, and that the feeler pins i2? are now con- ,
ditionecl for a sensing operation. If the No. l
feeler pin of the pins I21 should now be sensing
a perforation, its associated feeler lever IE5 would
be urged in a counterclockwise direction by spring
ity of the selector armature lever 66. In other
words, under this last mentioned condition, the
notch 90 of the particular code bar operated will
be offset with respect to the upper extremity of
the armature lever 65 so that the upper portion
of the lever acts as a fulcrum point, and when
the associated T-leVer 99 is operated, the particu
lar code bar will pivot in a clockwise direction to
engage the proiectiton N5 of Y-shaped lever I I4
thereby to position the contact operating arm I IT
for a marking operation, unless, of course, it has
already assumed such position in a preceding code
The upper portion of selector armature lever 55
is beveled as indicated at I59 Fig.v 13 while each‘
code bar 85 has formed thereon a groove “5!.
Thisarrangement insures the locking of selector
lever 65 during a marking operation when a par
ticular code bar 85 pivots in a clockwise direc
tion, as previously explained, and thus gives the
so-called knife edge selection. When a spacing
I 29. This enables the No. 1 code bar 35"to be
operation‘ takes place, however, the armature
pulled to the right as viewed in'Figs. 3 and 13 and 70 lever 55 engages in the notch 90 provided by this
under the in?uence of spring a? due to the re
particular code bar and is, therefore, restrained
moval of the feeler lever from projection N5 of
from movement so that no special locking means
the code bar. This sensing of a perforation indi
is needed.
cates a marking condition in the'No. 1 element
of key tape I25. If the selector magnet 64, which
After'every ?ve unit, combination is trans
mitted, stop cam 52 is invariably effective to send
a marking or stop impulse.
By reference to Fig.
11 it can be seen that the stop bar 89 has no
notches formed therein and that the bar 89 is piv
oted about the post 95 at its bifurcation 94. Bar
89 therefore may only rotate in a, clockwise di
rection as shown in Fig. 11. Bar 89 will be in
variably operated to tilt the Y-shaped lever I I4 in
generally at 226 which is composed of a con
ventional arrangement including a condenser 22‘!
and a resistance 228 provided for the purpose
of obtaining a steady direct current flow.
With direct current provided as just described,
a circuit may be traced from positive lead 23|,
through contact 232 now in its left position, over
a clockwise direction to condition the contact arm
conductor 233, through the lower left-handcon
i I‘! to send a marking impulse, due to the engage
ment of the stop code bar with the projection N5
of the Y-shaped lever I I4.
Selector armature lever 66 is Provided with an
upstanding follower arm 10 (Fig. 4) which‘ is
adapted to engage the ?utter cam 43 held by the
tact 234 of switch 235, inasmuch as switch 235
has been previously positioned in its downward
or enciphering position. The circuit then extends
over conductor 236, through plug 206, to station
apparatus 2| with a return path over conductor
231, through contact 238, over conductor 239,
sleeve 4|. Just prior to the beginning of each 15 through contact 24! of direction switch I00
signal impulse the flutter cam 43 acts to move
(switch I00‘ now being in its left-hand position
the armature lever 66 towards the selector mag
for transmission from its associated local sta
net 64 to assist operation of the selector magnet
tion to the remote station, as previously ex
when marking impulses are received.
plained), over conductor 242, through the selec
Referring now to Fig. 7, the circuit adapted 20 tor magnet 64, over conductor 243, through con
for use in connection with the just described
tact 244, over conductor 245, through contact
mechanical 'ciphering arrangement will now be
246 of current switch 205, over conductor 24'!
explained. It will be presumed that station 2|
to negative potential. It is therefore found that
desires to communicate with a distant station 22
under these conditions the selector magnet 64
connected respectively to central exchanges 23 25 is energized, and that consequently sleeve 4| of
and 24 as also shown in Fig. 1'. The distant sta
the transmitter unit 2| is held from rotation. At
tion 22, of course, will be provided with a me
this time there extends also to the ciphering
chanical ciphering unit similar to the one which
has just been described. In view of the fact
unit a second circuit afforded by the connec
tion of the plug 208 to the jack 209 which is
that all locations do not provide both alternating 30 associated with the loop circuit which runs to
and direct current there is included with the
the central exchange 23. This circuit can now
ciphering unit means for providing either A. C.
be traced as follows: From one of the potential
or D. 0. current and a manually operated cur
conductors provided at the central exchange over
rent switch 205 in order to condition the system
conductor 25 l , through the lower right-hand con
foroperation with either alternating or direct 35 tact 252, of switch 235, over conductor 253,
current outlets so that the same unit is suitable
through contact 254 of switch I00, over conduc
for use at any station independent of the kind
tors 255 and 256, through the start magnet 65,
of current supply. As viewed in Fig. 7, when
over the conductor 251, through retransmitting
the switch 205 is positioned to the left it is in
contact H8, over conductor 259, over conductor
its alternating current position, however, when 40 26|, through contact 262, over conductor 263,
the switch is positioned to the right it is in its
through contact 264 of switch I00; and over con
direct current position. In order to condition
ductor 255 to the other conductor provided with
the unit for operation, the operator inserts
opposite potential at the central exchange 20.
switch plug 206 into the jack 201 and switch
At this time start magnet 65 is energized.
plug 208 into the loop jack 209. The power plug 45
Thus, when station 2| commences to transmit,
2“ is then plugged into a convenient outlet
each code combination will be preceded with the
already present in standard equipment.
start impulse to de-energize selector magnet 64
For the purpose of the present description it
and release the cam sleeve 4| to operate the me
will be presumed that the particular place at ' chanical ciphering unit as already explained, and
which the printer 2| is locatedis provided with 50 also to send a stop or marking impulse at the
alternating current and therefore the switch 205
termination of each code combination to ener
will be positioned to the left. With station 2|
gize selector magnet 64 to stop sleeve 4|. The
about to transmit a message to the distant sta
contact arm II‘! will therefore be operated to
tion 22 current now flows over power conductor
2|2 of plug 2| I, through contact 2|3 now in its
left-hand position, over conductor 2|4, winding
of coil 2|5, over conductor 2|8 through contact
2“, over power conductor 2|6 to the opposite
side of plug 2| I. This induces in the secondary
power winding 2| 6 an alternating current for
motor 3| as follows: Over conductor 2|9, through
contacts 22 |, to the motor 3|, also over conductor
222, through contacts 223 to the motor 3|. The
purpose of the secondary coil 2|6 is to provide
a compensating medium for changing from alter
nating to direct current to maintain a stabilized
operating condition of the motor. However the
details of this arrangement need not be de
scribed since there are various methods of pro
viding for either alternating or direct current.
The energization of coil 2|5 also excites an addi
tional secondary coil 224 which by means of the
recti?er indicated generally at 225 transforms
the alternating current into direct current. As
sociated with the recti?er is a ?lter indicated
make or break the circuit to the central exchange
65 to transmit, "under the control of key tape I26,
enciphered signals. It will be understood of
course, that the enciphered signals will be re
peated at the central exchange 23 and ‘eventually
sent to the distant station 22.
It will now be assumed that the distant station
22 desires to transmit to the local station 2| and
it will be particularly pointed out how the direc
tion switch I00 is operated to its opposite position
to receive signals from the remote station. The
65 transmitting arm H1 is now in its marking po
sition during a rest period and it will be assumed
that a condition is encountered in which the sta
tion 22 commences to transmit. When the start
impulse is received from the distant station, start
magnet 65, which is normally energized in the
circuit previously described, will become de-ener
gized and will permit its armature lever 69 shown
in Fig. 4, to engage screw 11 of stop arm 14 to
release cam sleeve 4| for rotation. Since at this
76 time the selector magnet 64 remains in its ener
'gized condition when the T-lever 39 pushes against
the control bar 08 by means of the control cam
53, the upper portion of armature lever 65 (now
power lead 2I2, through contact. arm 2I3 (swung
to its right-hand contact), over conductor 28l,
through contact tongue 246 (also ‘in its right
hand position), over conductor 245, through con
tact 244. (now closed, because switch I00 is oper
ated to its left-hand position for transmission
attracted) will underlie the notch I05 of the
control bar 98. Therefore, the bar will be en
abled to rotate in a counterclockwise direction
as viewed in Fig. 6 against the in?uence of spring
I02 due to the clearance provided by notch I05.
When this occurs, the direction control bar 98
from the local station to the remote station) , over
conductor 243, through winding of selector mag
net 64, over conductor 242, through contact 24I,
will engage the horizontally extending portion 10 over conductor 239, through contact 238 (of
switch 235), over conductor 231, through jack
of bell crank I06 to rotate the bell crank I06 in
201 and plug 206, through the printer apparatus
a clockwise direction to enable its vertically ex
at station 2I, back through plug 206 and jack,
tending arm to engage the bent over ?ange E08
201, over conductor 236, through contact 234, over
of the direction switch bar 91 to move the direc
tion switch bar 91 to its right-hand position. 15 conductor 233, through contact tongue 232 (now
engaging its right-hand contact), over conduc
When it reaches this position, it is locked up
tor 282, through contact tongue 2" (now on its
through the action of control cam 54 as ex
right-hand contact) and then over power lead
plained, for the duration of a signal code com
2I-6. When signals are being received at the 10
bination and is then released. It will thus be
seen that during transmission from the distant 20 cal station 2I it will be understood that direction
switch I 00 will be positioned to the right and
station, before the receipt of each code combi
nation, the direction switch bar 91 will be oper
under this condition, direct current will be fure
nished by the central station 23, through the se
ated to its right-hand position.
lector magnet 64, as already explained. Direct
When the direction switch bar 91 is moved into
its right-hand position, several circuits are con 25 current for the motor 3|, will be furnished over
an obvious circuit, through contact tongues 22|
ditioned by the direction switch I00 to be herein~
after described. To indicate ?rst what actually
and 223.
occurs at this time, it may be generally stated
General Operation
that due to this switching operation, selector mag
net 64 is now placed in the loop circuit from the 30
‘The operation of the main embodiment of the
invention will now be explained in a general way.
central exchange, over conductors 25I and 265.
When signals are to be transmitted from the
Also a circuit now is traceable through the local
local station to the remote station, the selector
printer 2| by Way of the contact operating arm
magnet 54 of the unit 2I associated with the local
I I1. It will thus be obvious that when the incom
ing enciphered signals (from the remote station) 35 station receives the original code signals from
are received by the selector magnet 64, they will
the local station. During the reception of the
original code signals, the tape feeler levers I25
be deciphered, and the deciphered signals will
be printed as original signals in the printer 2|
cooperate with the projections of the code bars
inasmuch as at this time the contact operating
85 to maintain the bars either ‘in their left posi
arm I I1 is in circuit therewith.
40 tion as shown in Fig. 13, or‘ to permit them to
move to the right position. ‘The tape feeler. levers
I25 are, of course. under the control of the key
The ?rst circuit, that is the circuit to the cen
tral exchange, will now be traced as follows:
tape I25. Therefore dependent upon the posi
Over conductor 255, through contact 264, over
conductor 263, through contact 256 (switch I05 45 tion of‘ notch 90 of a particular code bar 85 with
respect to the position of the upper extremity of
now being to the right), over conductor 261,
through the winding of selector magnet 54, over
selector magnet armature lever 60, the code bar
conductor 268, through contact 259, over con
is rocked either to a clockwise or counter
clockwise position to transmit either a marking
ductor 253, through contact 252, over conductor
25!, to the central exchange. The second cir 50 or a spacing element to the remote station by
cuit to be prepared is as follows: From negative
potential provided by the local recti?er, over con
ductor 241, through switch 205 (at contact 245),
over conductor 245, through contact 215 (now
closed) over conductor 218, over conductor 259,
through contact H8 and contact arm I I1, over
the conductor 251, through start magnet 05, over
conductor 256, through contact 211 (now closed),
over conductor 239, through contact 238 of switch
235, over conductor 231, through the printer 2|,
over conductor 236, through contact 234, over
conductor 233, through contact 232, and over
conductor 23I to positive potential provided by
the recti?er 225. It will be readily seen, then,
that as incoming enciphered signals are received
by the selector magnet 54 they are deciphered, as
has already been mentioned, and contact arm.
I I1 operates to make and break the local circuit
according to the combined in?uence of the in
coming signals and the key tape signals to con
trol the printer 2I which prints the signals in
their original or deciphered condition.
When direct current is available, the following
circuit is established when the local station 2|
means of the retransmitting contact arm I I1.
When signals are being transmitted in the
opposite direction; that is, from the remote sta
tion to the local station, start magnet 65 operates
to place the ciphering unit into operation and
to shift the switch I00 to its right-hand position
as ‘shown in Fig. 7. At this time, selector magnet
54 is placed in circuit with the remote printer ‘
and therefore receives enciphered signals under
conditions. The key tape sensing levers
I25 now cooperate with the code bars 05 and
selector magnet ‘64 to transmit signals over con
tact arm H1 in regenerative repeater fashion to
the local station inasmuch as at this time a local
65 circuit is made through the contact arm H1 at
the local station ZI.
M odi?catio‘n
A modification of the invention is shown in
70 Figs. 15., 16, and 17, which will now be described
in detail. This modi?cation features the use of
code magnets in place of the tape sensing levers
employed in the?rst’described embodiment of
the invention and also the use of a transmitting
is transmitting to the distant station 22: From 75 con-tact member having a pair .of contact arms,
only one of which is eilective at a time dependent
upon the direction of transmission.
Since in the modi?cation of the invention the
direction about its pivot 38! (as viewed in Fig. 15)
to operate the make-before-break contact 382 for
a purpose which will hereinafter appear, which
position is maintained during the rest or stop
tape sensing levers for shifting the code bars
have been omitted, a second cam sleeve is unnec
essary for the sensing and tape stepping func
tions. In the modi?cation, the direction switch
It will be understood that, as signals are re
ceived by the selector magnet 364, a start impulse
will precede each code combination to cause the
bar has also been omitted and switching is now
performed by means of a relay system.
release of the cam sleeve 34!. This causes the
It is felt unnecessary to describe again por 10 start cam 353 to operate the start bar 354 for
sending a start or no-current impulse by means
tions of the instant embodiment of the invention
of the contact operating arm 3!1, Immediately
which are the same as the ?rst embodiment and
therefore such portions will be described only
thereafter, the ?ve code combination impulses will
where necessary for the sake of clarity. Refer
be transmitted under the control of the code bars
ring now to the drawings, 334 represents a con 15 352 associated with their respective code bar cams
tinually driven shaft comparable with shaft 34
35!. At the termination of the transmission of
the code combinations stop cam 355 operates to
described in the ?rst embodiment of the inven
tion. The release of a sleeve 34! is accomplished
position code bar 356 to control the contact op
by a selector magnet 364 and clutch mechanism
erating arm 311 to its marking or current posi
such as has already been described, except that 20 tion. As already mentioned, the ?rst embodiment
the release of the sleeve 34! is accomplished
of the invention may be consulted for detailed
solely by the selector magnet 364 in View of the
opera-tions which are similar in Figs. 15, 16, and
17, and which therefore have not been repeated in
fact that in this embodiment of the invention,
the start magnet has been dispensed with.
Sleeve 34! is released by the operation of gate
latch 383 which acts upon the stop arm 342 in
tegrally associated with the cam sleeve 34!. Cam
sleeve 34! carries a series of ?ve transmitting
cams 35! which are sequentially operable to con
trol a series of ?ve transmitting code bars 352.
Cam sleeve 34! also carries a start cam 353 for
controlling the start bar 354, a cam 355 for con
trolling the stop bar 356 and a contact operating
cam 351, the purpose of which will hereinafter
the present description.
Referring now particularly to Fig. 17, the cir
cuit for operating the modi?ed form of scram
bling unit will be described in detail. A local
station 40! is equipped with a combination key
board transmitter and printer of any well-known
type, which is designed to communicate by means
of central o?ices or exchanges 402 and 403 with a
similarly equipped distant station indicated at
404, which is provided with a ciphering unit 405,
identical in construction with the ciphering unit
35 employed in the modi?ed form of the invention.
When it is desired to attach the ciphering unit
As already mentioned, whereas in the ?rst em
bodiment of the invention the code bars were
to any standard telegraph printing station, plug
shifted to the left or to the right uinder the
and jack connections may be made at 406 and 401
control of tape sensing levers, the code bars are
which will connect the local station 40! to a
now similarly controlled by a set of code magnets 40 switch 408 and similarly connect the loop from
36! which may be operated from a key tape
the exchange 402 to the same switch at the plug
transmitter 362 (Fig. 17). In response to sig
connection 401. When switch 408 is positioned to
nals from the key tape transmitter 362, arma
its up position, signals may be transmitted direct
ture levers 363 associated with respective code
ly from station 40! to the central office 402 with
magnets 36! are moved to the left or right as 45 out any enciphering operation taking .place.
viewed in Fig. 15 to enable their associated code
However, when it is desired to encipher the sig
bars 352 to assume similar positions. Similarly,
nals, the switch 408 may be manually positioned
selector magnet 364 positions the armature lever
to its downward position and for the purposes of
366 to the left or right as pictured in the same
the present description, it will be presumed that
view to cooperate with the notch 330 in each
the switch has assumed such a position. In ad
code bar to enable the code bars to tilt to a
dition the ciphering unit will be provided with a
counterclockwise or clockwise position as has al
plug 403 which may connect with any convenient
ready been described in connection with Fig. 1.
alternating current outlet to provide the current
This tilting operation is provided by the opera
to a motor 4! !. The unit will be further equipped
tion of the transmitting code cams, which se
with a recti?er indicated generally at 4!2 which
quentially operate associated T-shaped operating
will provide positive current over conductor M3,
levers 393. A Y-shaped lever 3!4 is moved to its
and negative current over conductor 4!4, as is
marking or spacing position under the combined
well known in rectifying circuits of this type.
in?uence of signals received by the selector mag
It will be presumed for the ?rst portion of the
net 364 and by the code magnets 36!, to operate 60 present description, that the local station 40! de
the pair of contact arms 3" to their marking or
sires to transmit enciphered messages to the re
spacing position, to control the signal contact
mote station 404. Normally, the selector magnet
mechanism 3I8. As indicated in Fig. 17, the
364 in the rest condition of the apparatus is ener
contact mechanism 3!8 comprises two sets of re
gized, as is common practice in start-stop teleg
transmitting or repeater contacts 426 and 446,
raphy, over the following circuit: From negative
one set being associated with each of the pair of
conductor “4, over conductor 4l5, through se
arms 3I1. The contacts 426 are effective when
lector magnet’354, over conductor 4l1, through
signals are incoming from a remote station 404
tongue MB of receiving relay 4!!) (now de-ener
(Fig. 17) through the ciphering unit 400 to the
gized), over conductor 42!, and over conductor
local station 40!, and contacts 446 are e?ective
422 to positive conductor 4l3. When the ap
when signals are outgoing from local station 40!
paratus at the local station 40! is in its rest posi
through the ciphering unit 400 to the remote
tion, winding 423 of the double wound repeating
relay 424 is energized over the following circuit:
station 404. Just before the end of each revolu
From positive conductor 4!3, over conductor 425,
tion of cam sleeve 34!, contact cam 351 will move
the bell crank lever 380 in a counterclockwise 75 through contact 426, over conductor 421, through
winding 423 of relay 4124, over conductor 428,
through tongue 429 of switch 408 (now in its down
fere with the outgoing tsign'als, inasmuch as the
circuit to contacts 426 has now been shunted
position) , over conductor 438, through the printer
apparatus at station 481, over conductor 432,
tongue 433 (in its down position), and over con
out of the transmitting circuit. Transmitting
contact 446 is rendered effective for transmission
atthis time since its shunt circuit (hereinafter
ductors‘ see and M5, to the negative conductor
described),. which is normally closed, is now
opened, inasmuch as contact tongue, 448 of relay
When, therefore, local station 48! transmits the
433 is attracted to open the shunt circuit for said
start impulse, the just described circuit is' broken
transmitting contact so that signals may be re
at the transmitting contacts M6 at the local sta 10 peated thereby to the distant station. , Normally
tion 46L in a well-known manner, causing con
the shunt circuit for contact 446 is as follows:
tact tongue 43! associated with the double wound
relay 424 to be released. When this occurs, the
following circuits are established: From negative
lead 4E4, over conductor 432, through relay 433,
(which now becomes energized), over conductor
Over lead 455, through closed contact 448 of un
operated relay 433, and over lead or conductor
It is assumed that-signals from station 401 are
being repeated by the repeating relay 424 which,
434, through winding 435 of the double wound
relay 4H3, over conductor 436, through contact
tongue 43l (now released) of relay 424, and over
by opening and closing its contacts 43| causes
the signals to be repeated again by the ener
gization and de-‘energization of the winding 435
of the double-wound relay 4l9. Therefore, se
lector magnet 364 will be similarly conditioned
conductor 422 to the positive lead 4E3. - Thus, at
this time both relay 433 and relay 4l9 become en~
ergized. W'hen relay 4l9 becomes energized,
tongue 413 associated therewith is attracted and
consequently the previously described circuit to
so that its armature lever 356 cooperates with
the armature levers 363 ‘of the code magnets 36|
to control the Y-shaped transmitting lever 314.
The central o?lce 462 will transmit signals to
station 464 as its loop circuit extends through
the contact 446. Thus the loop circuit is con
ditioned to receive marking and spacing impulses
the selector magnet 364 is broken, causing the re- .
lease of the cam sleeve 34! for a cycle of opera
tions, in a manner which is well-known in start-
stop telegraphy. When relay 433 operates, it looks
up over the following circuit, since as cam 35l
commences to rotate, the make-before-break con- -
according to the operation of, the Y-shaped lever
3|4. This circuit is as follows; From conductor
45], through tongue 452 of switch 488, over; the
conductor 453, through the winding 454 of dou
ble-wound repeating relay 441,v over conductor
tact 382 is permitted to operate to close its contact
‘334 and open its contact 385 to enable the es
tablishment of the just mentioned locking circuit
of relay 433: From positive conductor 4E3, over
conductor 431, through contact 384 (now closed),
over conductor 438, through tongue 433 of relay
433, through the winding of relay 433 and over the
conductor 432 to the negative lead 414. In addi
tion the double wound repeating relay 441 is
locked up over the following circuit in order to 40
prevent the repetition of signals back into the
originating circuit when outgoing signals are be
ing transmitted (sometimes called echo suppres
sion) : From negative potential lead 4I4, through
the right-hand locking winding of repeating re 4,5
lay 445, over conductor 443, through tongue 444
of relay 443 (now closed), over conductor 445.
over conductor 422, to positive lead 4l3, Since
the winding 454 of repeating relay MI is in the
455, to the contact 446, ~ over conductor, 456,
through tongue 451 of switch 488'to the loop con
ductor 458 which leads to. the central o?ice-iden
ti?ed as 462. It will be understood thatat-the
,end of each cycle of operation the make-before
break contact 382 will operate to openv the look
ing circuit extending over, conductors 431 and
438 to the relay 433 so that the circuitwill be
returned to its normal condition.
The operation of cam 351 at the termination
of each cycle of operation, through the operation
of contact 382, causes the energization of step
ping magnet 46! which steps the key tape at
the key transmitter 362 to anew operating ,po
sition. This circuit is as follows: From positive
conductor 4i3, over conductor 431, through con
same circuit with contacts 445, and if relay MI
tact 385, over conductor 462 associated with
was not thus locked-up, said relay would be op
cable 463, over conductor 464, through stepping
erated in consonance with the vibrations of con
magnet 46l, over conductor465, over'conductor
tact 446, thus operating its armature 432 to dis
466, over conductors 461, 468 and 469, then over
turb the control of selector magnet 364 by re
conductor-M5 to the negative lead wire 414.
pea-ting relay 424. In a similar manner, the re 55 Therefore, during each cycle of operation step
peating relay 424 will be locked up in a circuit to
ping magnet 46! will operate to step the tape
be described later, in order to prevent the re
peating relay 424 from sending signals back into
the originating circuit while incoming signals
are being received from a remote station.
to a new position.
The code magnets36| which are controlled by
the key tape transmitter 362 are controlled'by
60 the now to be described circuit. From positive
At this time, contact 426 is rendered ineffective
lead 4l3, over the conductor 41!, and over con
for transmission and conversely, contact 446 is
ductor 418 to the key tape bus, bar 412, ‘which
conditioned for operation in the following man
is in this manner normally provided with posi
ner: The fore-described energizing circuit for the
tive potential. Thus, when a tape feelerin the
double-wound repeating relay 424 is provided 65 tape transmitter 362 senses a perforation, a-cir
with a shunt or by-pass to positive battery M3 at
cuit will be established to its respective code mag
junction 429 on conductor 421, so that after the
_ nets as follows: From positive bus bar 412, over
?rst start impulse has become effective, the con
tacts 423 will be shunted. This shunt circuit ex
tends from junction 426 over armature 441 (when
attracted as previously described), over conduc
the particular conductor 413 associated with the
tors 445 and 422 to positive source 4L3. It is
therefore found that when contact arms 311
move to their marking positions, the closure of
contact 423 will be ineffective, so as not to inter
particular feeler pin, over conductor 413a, thence
through the associated code magnet 36l to-con
ductor 431 which acts as a. negative bus bar over
the following circuit; Over conductor. 438, over
conductor 469, and then over conductor 415 to
negative lead 414. Therefore, according to the >
marking and spacing conditions of the key tape
associated, with the .:key :tra'nsmitter 36-2 code
:magnets "413 will be .energizedrunder :marking
:conditions .andr-de-zenergized'tunder spacing con
'‘ 'Ihezoircuit'willmow'be described inrconnection :
this time that selector :magnet 364 will be oper
ated according .to incoming enciphered signals
'rece'ivedifromrremote station 404 .as relay 44:!
operates its tongue 482 ‘and causes the operation
oithe double-wound :repeating relay 419, ‘which
~with :the zreceiptrto'f signals‘ ifrom ‘the outlying or
remote :stations 404 which :are encipheredby
means. of :the iciphering" unit "M15 .and {then trans
mitteduthrough central o?ices :403 :and 14.02 to the
slocalsstation ‘401. Atzthis time thecircuitto'ithe
tnorma’lly senergized :repeating relay :4411, @which is '
~similar:to thernormally‘ienergized repeating'relay
:by its contact tongue 418 repeats the incoming
signals to the selector magnet 364. As has already
been ;mentioned, vwhen ‘cam :35‘! reaches its istop
positionthesrelay circuits are broken and the sys
tern "is conditioned for reception inreither direc
The device according to the present invention,
iArzlfis zbroken upon the receiptlof as‘tart or spac
ing impulse from the remote station 404. This
Jin'itiatesa. cycle‘ ofzoperation ‘by: the release‘ aof :cam
sleeve 2341, as has ‘been :previously described in
of course, ‘has :many ‘applications. Illustrative of
‘tongue A452 ‘of switch ; 408, over "conductor ~45! ‘to
is now done in nor-malpractice. When the desired
one :adaptation of the ‘portable 'ciphering =unit
described herein, said ,unit may be readily carried
‘about and attached . to any printing telegraph
tsubstationzequipment and :the party may be able
detail. The circuit extending to ‘the irepeatin'g
‘to communicate secretly with any other >substa_
relay 441 is :as i'ollows: iFrom sourcelof potential
.tion having a :similar unit vattached. ,After the
:at centralz'o?ice 4'02, 'over'conductor 1458,.through
~contact145=1 of switch 408, ‘over ‘conductor 455, 20 ‘unitris plugged .in :and the switch - operated to the
plain vmessage position, communication may be
,throughgcontact M8, over conductorli'i, through
"established to the {desired station by transmitting
operating winding 454 of the double-wound re
plain English to lthe'oentral 'oi?ce or exchange as
peating vrelay '4'“, ‘over conductor '453, through
the-other source 1potentia1=at the-central of?celOZ. 25 station ‘is connected :and-a similar unit has been
attached 'at the 'called station, the two cipher
' 'At’this time, lwhenithe start limpulselis'transmitted
key mechanisms or units are set in exact corre
from !the remote station-‘404, relay i441 williibe
spondence-either ‘according ‘to :a special ‘code sent
‘come de-energize'd and 1its‘ltongue'482'will The ‘re
at the time or according to prior information
'ieased‘to-es'tablis‘h akeircu‘it iforlre‘lay'iliil 9 and-relay
484 as ‘follows: From positive lea'd l413,-over-con 30 received by independent means, or by a pre
arranged schedule. When .thesettingshave been
"ductor 1422 through tongue ‘4820f rélea'ting relay
veri?ed, the SWibChéZZt each station is operated to
441, over conduc'tor'lll?, through the winding
the ciphering ‘position "and enciphered transmis
;sion may proceed.
vIt will be understood ‘that ‘various changes and
negative Ilead {41-4. “when relay‘ 484 ‘becomes ~en 35
modifications may be ‘made in ‘the present inven
ergized'iitlislockednp as cami~35lloperatesto ‘close
tion without departing from the spirit and scope
‘the contact
as follows: TF'rom positive lead
thereoi, and the invention should accordingly be
413 , :overiconductori?il , through contact F381, 'over
limited only by “the appended claims.
conductor #38,? ‘through itongue ‘4911, through ‘the
What is claimed is:
‘winding of relay£484;:over conductor 432 itoinega 40
1. .=In a signalingvdevicaa seriesof members,
itivei'lead‘lili-t. :Operatiomof relay 1484-:also :causes
one corresponding" to each ‘element of a ‘code,
the locking up of the-repeating 1relay>424ito spre
means to set the-members in one vor-the-otl'ier of
this relay \operating at this itime'iin order
two positions accordinglto the marking or spacing
tha't?its contact 'tongue'i4‘3il :maymot interfere
'483Jof1relay '41 9, ‘over conductor 186-, through :the
fwindingso’f lre‘lay-’4~84,~~over conductor 1432 to the
with signals in the :circuit. ‘This ‘circuit is as ‘
ipos'itive‘ lead 4 I 3,‘ over conductor
422, over-conductor‘ 445, ‘to contact (tongue 1451-2 10f
relay??, over conductor :493, through the look
ing winding 494 ‘of relay :4-24, :over the conductor
485, and ‘over the conductor Quito the negative
conductor '14“.
hitter ithe ?rst ‘start fimpulse has become *effec
tive, {transmitting contact-‘446% ‘bridged lover the
‘following shunt circuit already described above:
Ovcr‘conductori455, ‘through contact 448~oi~=re1ay
nature of the cor-respondingv element of a ?rst
signal, an instrumentality moved to ‘one or the
other of two positions {according to the spacing
or-rmarking nature :of a ‘corresponding element
of a second signal, alcontact,-and means tooper
ate the ‘contact by saidseries of members accord
ing to the relative natures of the corresponding
code elements of the two signals,
‘2.'.In a signaling device, a signal tape sensing
device, a ?rst element movable under control of
said sensing device to one or ‘the other of ‘two
483 (inasmuch 're‘lay ‘433 is now de‘energi-ze'di),
thenv over conductor 491. It is ‘thus apparent at
.this-itime ithat ithecperation of contact “Si-there
vafter ‘will produce _no ‘harmful ‘result ‘in ‘the ‘cir
positionsac'cording to the spacing or marking
nature of .asignal, asingle signal receiving mag
‘now ‘openand the previously ‘described circuit
ing and ‘the other ‘to vmarking according'to the
relative position of the :?rst element and the
.net, a member movable under control of said
magnet to one or the ‘other of two positions ac
cording to the marking or spacing nature of a
cuit in view of the shunt ‘circuit provided there -60 second
simultaneously voccurring signal, :a second
for. Contact 42$,”however, is now free to operate,
element, and means to move the second element
due "to ‘the "fact ‘that contact ‘44"! of relay ‘433 is
in ‘either of :two ways, one corresponding to spac
- ‘does not shunt out the ‘contact ‘426.
Therefore, a circuit *is made ‘to ‘repeate de- - '
~ ciphered signals to ‘the 'loca-l'printer 4M as fol
‘lows: From positive ‘lead 413, over conductor'4-2'5,
through'zcontact 1426 ~"(now operating“), over con
ductor 421, through win-ding’ 423 of relay 424
3. .In a secret code transmitter, an element
moved ‘according .to .a signal of plain English, a
series of elements set in permuted position .ac
cording to an enciphering code, and means to
' l(-now looked) , over conductor 428,‘ through tongue 70
transmit an enciphered signal controlled by the
$28 of switch 408,-over conductor-430, through'the
mechanical interaction of the two sets of ele
printer ‘at station 401, and ion ‘a return path :over
conductor 432, through tongue 433, over con
4.111 a secret code transmitter, an element
ductor 4.69 .andiover eon'duc'tord 1'75 .to ‘the ‘negative
source :of potential 14:11. It is further .apparentet ; -m'oved according to a signal of plain Eng-1ish,:a
series of elements set in permuted position ac
cording to a deciphering code, andv means to
transmit a deciphered signal controlled by the
mechanical interaction of the two sets of ele
5. In a secret code transmitter, a single mag
net, means to transmit to the magnet start-stop
permutation code signals representing a plain
message, a set of , permutable code elements,
means to set the elements according to an en
ciphering code, and means controlled by the
magnet and the elements to transmit enciphered
start-stop signals.
6. In a secret code transmitter, a single mag
‘ I 12. In a telegraph message ciphering unit, a se-'
ries of- selector elements, code members forcon
trolling saidelements in accordance with key sig
nals, electromagnetically controlled means re
sponsive to received code signalimpulses operable
in conjunction with. said vcodemembers for vfur
ther controlling said elements in accordance with
the receipt of. enciphered or deciphered signals,
and signal transmitting means operable by said
elements in accordance with the jointcontrol
exercised over said elements by said code mem
bers and said electromagnetically controlled
13. In a telegraph. message ciphering unit, a
net, means to transmit to the magnet start-stop 15 series of selector elements, code members for con
permutation code signals representing a plain
trolling said elements in accordance with key
message, a set of permutable code elements,
signals; electromagnetically controlled means re_
means to set the elements according to an en~
sponsive to receivedcode signal impulses operable
ciphering code, and all mechanical means con
in conjunction with said code members for fur
trolled by the magnet and the elements to trans 20 ther controlling said elements in accordance with
mit enciphered start-stop signals.
the receipt of enciphered'or deciphered, signals,
7. In a transmitting device, a, signal control
and a signal emitting means sequentially oper
ling member, a single magnet, a ?rst element as
able in accordance withthe jointlcontrol ‘exer
sociated with said magnet and positioned accord
cised over said elements by said code members
ing to a ?rst primary signal impressed on said 25 and said electromagnetically controlled means.
magnet, a sensing means, a second element also
associated with said sensing means and positioned
according to a second primary signal sensed by
said means, timing means to operate the member
to transmit a second signal whose nature is de_
termined by the relative positions of the said ?rst
and second elements.
8. In a regenerative repeater, a ciphering and
deciphering system including a signal receiving
magnet, signaling contact mechanism, a key sig
nal mechanism-means to operate the key signal
mechanism in step with signals received by the
magnet, and means to operate the contact mech
anism tovtransmit signals like the signals re
14. In a telegraph message ciphering unit, a
series of selector elements, a key tape for pro
vidingykey signals, a set of sensing levers for con
trolling said elements in accordance with key tape
signals, electromagnetically controlled means re
sponsive to received code signal impulses operable
in conjunction with said sensing levers for fur
ther controlling said‘ elements in accordance with
the receipt of enciphered or deciphered signals,
anda signal transmitting means operable by said
elements in accordance with the joint control ex
ercised over said elements by said sensing levers
and said electromagnetically controlled means.
15. In a telegraph message ciphering unit, a
ceived in the magnet but modi?ed by the key 40 series ‘of selector elements, a set of code magnets
signal mechanism.
for controlling said elements in accordance with
9. In a telegraph exchange system, a plurality
the receipt of key signals, signal responsive means
of central o?ices, a plurality of substations asso
ciated with each central o?ice, telegraph trans
mitting and receiving apparatus at each substa
tion, means at the central o?ices to connect any
substation to any other for telegraph communi
cation, ciphering units, each including a signal
operable insynchronism with said code magnets
in accordance withthe receipt of enciphered or
deciphered signals for .further controlling said
elements, and signal transmitting means, operable
by said elements in accordance with thejoint con
trol exercisedover said elements by said code
responsive selector mechanism comprising a ro
magnets and said signal responsive means. ,
tatable selector cam drum having a helically ari 50
1,6. A telegraph message ciphering system for
ranged series of cam projections and adapted to
enciphering outgoing signals and deciphering in
respondto plain or ciphered signals, elements
coming signals, including aciphering unit, a di
controlled sequentially by said cam drum to
rection', switch associated with said unit and mov
thereby generate corresponding ciphered or de
able to an encip-hering' or a deciphering position,
cipheredsignals,v and means to attach said unit 55 signal responsive means in said unit, and means
to the apparatus at each of any two substations
selectively controlled by said signal responsive
so that plain messages are transmitted and re
ceived and ciphered messages are transmitted
through the circuits of the telegraph system.
10. In a ciphering system,‘ a single signal re
means to move said switch to said ciphering or
deciphering position according to the direction of
signal transmission.
1'7. A telegraph message ciphering system for
ceiving control magnet, a single signal transmit
ting contact, ciphering mechanism intermediate
enciphering outgoing signals and deciphering in
ciphering mechanism. -
unit‘for a deciphering operation upon receipt of
coming signals including a ciphering unit, a cir
the magnet and contact to operate the contact to
cuit for operating said unit including a selector
transmit signals corresponding to signals re
magnet, and an auxiliary magnet associated with
ceived by the magnet but as modi?ed by the 65 said. circuit for automatically conditioning said
11. In a telegraph system, a magnet, means to
transmit to the magnet start-stop permutation
code signals, representing information to be com
municated, a single contact, and entirely me
incoming enciphered signals from a remote sta
18. In a telegraph message ciphering unit, a
70 series’of selector bars, code members for selecting
chanical means between the magnet and contact
said bars in accordance with key code combina
to cause the contact to transmit similar start
tions, signal responsive means comprising a rotat
stop permutation codesignals in which the code
able selector cam drum operable in synchronism
elements are modi?ed according to a prearranged
with [said code members for further controlling
75 said bars, sequentially in accordance with the re
ceipt of enciphered or deciphered codecombina
deciphering telegraphic messages electrically-con
tions, and a signalrtransmittingimeans sequen
nected to said means, saiddevice'comprising ‘sig_-.
tially, operable by said barsin accordance with
nal controlled means responsive to received tele-‘
the joint control exercised over saidbars by said
code members and said signal responsive means,
graph signals,>a plurality of cams rotated intimed
relation with the receipt of signals by said signal
19. In a'telegraph system,-a plurality of sta
tions,‘ sending and receiving apparatus at each
cam followers, a series of ‘?oating'members co
station, and an electromechanical enciphering
and deciphering means removably connectible
with each apparatus, said means-comprising in a
unitary structure a1codedf instrumentality for
controlling enciphering and deciphering opera
controlled means, a corresponding plurality of
operable with said followers, a corresponding
series of magnets connected to said sensing means
for determining the reciprocatory positionment
of ‘said members, meanscontrolled by said signal
controlled means 'forgoverning the tiltability of
said ?oating members, transmittingmeans, and
tions, a signal controlled means responsive 'to're
meansactuated by'said‘?oating members under
ceived signals,» a selector, mechanism coopera
tively'related tosaid electromechanical means 15 the combined influence of saidptape sensingmeans
and said :signallcontroll'ed means to control said
and said signal controlled means, and means ef
transmitting means to transmit enciphered or
fective' under the combined influence ofv said
deciphered messages.
electromechanical means and said. signal con
24. In a telegraph system, a plurality of: sta
trolled means to transmit enciphered or de
20 tions, sending and receiving apparatus at each
ciphered messages.
station, an enciphering and deciphering means
20. Means for enciphering and deciphering tel
associated withteach apparatus, means electri
egraphic messages comprising means for sens
cally connected’ to said means for sensing the
ing the coded record in a tape perforated accord
coded‘record‘of a tape perforated according to
ing to a predetermined plan, signal controlled
a predetermined plan, said ?rst mentioned means
means responsive to'received telegraph signals,
comprising a signal controlled means responsive
selector mechanism common to said sensing
to received signals, a plurality of cams rotated
means and said signal controlled means, said
in timed relation with the receipt of signals by
selectorlmechanism comprising a rotatable se
lector. cam drum having’ a helically arranged
said signal controlled means, elements controlled
series of cam projections, elements controlled 30 sequentially by said cams, and a regenerative
sequentially‘ by said, cam drum, transmitting
start-stop repeater operative under the combined
means,’ and means effective under the com
in?uence of said tape sensing means and said sig
nal controlled means, through the instrumental
ity of said elements, to retransmit enciphered or
bined in?uence of said sensing means and said
signal controlled means, through the instrumen
tality of said elements, for» controlling said trans
mitting means‘to' transmit enciphered or de
ciphered messages.
21. In a device for enciphering and decipher
ing telegraphic messages, means for sensing the
coded‘record of a tape perforated according to
a predetermined plan, signal controlled means re
sponsive to received telegraph signals, a plurality
deciphered message signals,
25. In a telegraph system, a plurality of sta
tions, sending and receiving apparatus at each
station, and an electromechanical enciphering
and decipheringmeans associated with each ap
paratus, said means comprising in a unitary struc
ture means for rendering each unit‘ removably
connectible to its associated apparatus, a coded
of cams rotated in timed relation with 'the'receipt
instrumentality for controlling enciphering and
of signals by said signal controlled means, a cor
deciphering operations, a signal controlled means
responding plurality of cam followers, a series of 45 responsive to received signals, and means for
?oating members cooperable with said followers,
combining the effectiveness of said'instrumental
means on said members cooperable with said
ity with the e?ectiveness of said signal controlled
sensing means for determining the reciprocatory
means to produce enciphered or deciphered mes
positionment of said members, means controlled
by said swignal controlled means for governing the 50
26. In a telegraph system, a plurality of sta
tilta'bility of said ?oating members; transmitting
tions, sending and receiving apparatus at each
means, and means actuated by said ?oating mem
station, and an electromechanical enciphering
bers under the combined influence of said tape
and deciphering means associated with each ap
sensing means and said signal controlled means
paratus, said means comprising in. a, unitary
to control'said transmitting means to transmit 55 structure means for rendering each unit remov
enciphered or deciphered mmsages.
ably, connectible to its associated apparatus, a
22. In a telegraph system, a plurality of sta
coded instrumentality for controlling enciphering
tions, sending and receiving apparatus at each
station, and an enciphering and deciphering
and deciphering operations, a signal controlled
means responsive to received signals, transmitting
means associated with each apparatus, said means 80 means, and means effective under the joint control
comprising means for sensing the coded record
of said instrumentality in said signal controlled
of a tape perforated according to a predeter
means for operating said, transmitting means to
transmit enciphered or deciphered message sig
mined plan, a signal controlled means responsive
to received signals, a plurality of cams rotated
27. In a telegraph system, a plurality of sta
in timed relation with the receipt of signals by
tions, sending and receivingtapparatus at each
said signal controlled means, elements controlled
station, and an electromechanical enciphering
sequentially by said cams, and a regenerative
start-stop repeater operative under the combined
and deciphering means associated with each ap
paratus, said means comprising means for ren
in?uence of said tape sensing means and said
signal controlled means, through the instrumen 70 dering each unit removably connectible to its as
sociated apparatus, a coded instrumentality for
tality of said elements, to retransmit enciphered
controlling enciphering and deciphering opera
or deciphered message signals.
tions, a signal controlled means responsive to re
23. In combination, means for sensing the
ceived signals, a pair ‘of transmitting contacts,
coded record-of a tape perforated according to a
predetermined plan, a device'for enciphering and 76 a switching system effective according to the di
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