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Патент USA US2403680

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July 9, 1946‘
L, M_ POT-rs
I
-
CIPHERING SYSTEMl
Filed Oct. 19, 1942
' FIG. I
'
2,403,680
~
'
2 Sheets-Sheet 1'
'62
INVENTOR
LOU IS M. POTTS
July 9, 19460
1.. M. POTTS
cIfHERINe SWEW
Filed Oct. 19, 1942
I
2,403,680
7%»
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG. 2
'INVENTOR
LOUIS M._ POT TS
\MIM_
'
2,403,680
Patented July 9, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE; 1
Louis M. Potts. Evanston, Ill.,- assignor to. Tele
type Corporation,‘ Chicago,- 111.; a corporation
of Delaware
Application October 19, 194,12, Serial N0. 462,523
18 Claims.
(Cl; 178L221)
2
1
This invention pertains to prir'lting telegraph
systems and particularly to a system for the trans
mission and reception of secret telegraph mes
In order to encipher messages by the present
system the elements ofthfe' original code‘ combi
nations are‘ combined with the elements" ‘(if code
sages.
combinations provided by a key tape. In‘ this
‘Secret signaling systems are desirable for naval,
military and civil purposes wherein it ‘is required
that messages be rendered uninterceptabl'e by
arrangement, opposite‘ conditions; that is, with
one element of the original code combination
communication by tapping signal wires and in
radio communication by means of receiving api
spacing; produce‘ spacing‘. signals. vThis Jprje_
marking: and with'th'e‘ corresponding element of
the key code‘ combination spacing; produce a
persons unauthorized to receive them. The Sur
marking signal.“ Like conditions, however, that
reptitious interception of messages may ‘be ac
complished, for example, in the case _of wire 10 is', with both elements marking or both elements
paratuses tuned to the proper frequencies.
sumes;,jer"course; that each (if the e'l'ements‘j‘fdf
tnejre'spective code combinations are rented-1 to
each‘other' That is‘, the“ No. 1' element of. the"
is the provision of a reliable and practical tele 18 originalcodeicombinatio’n'is combined with the
The primary object of the present invention
graph circuit arrangement for rendering mes
No‘. 1': element’ of the key'co‘de combination, and‘
sages unintelligible to' unauthorized persons.
Another object of the present invention is the
provision of a ciphe'ring system for telegraph
so f6rth.'.To1take‘ aspe'c'i?c“ illustration‘, let it
phering unit that is easily and readily attach
able and detachable to standard telegraph print
ing apparatus having transmitting and receiving
the B'audot' code’ is composed 'consecutivelyjof
I assumed that it' ‘is, desired t6 'en‘c'ipher ‘ the
letter-TR” which in the Baudotco'de‘ is composed
messages including an electrical circuit system 20 consecutively of spacing, marking, spacing;_mark¥
which is automatically conditioned either to en
assumed that the‘ key tape‘ with‘ which the par;
cipher or decipher signals according to the di
ti'cul‘ar‘ enciphering operation ism beperrcrmed
rection of transmission.
occupies“ apositien' whereat ‘it is‘ conditioned‘ for
A further object of the invention is to provide
a portable self-contained enciphering and‘ deal. 25 prcduci'ngthe letter “Y”;combination which’in
facilities.
I
y
marking; spacing; niarkin‘g',‘spacing, and marking
cohd'ition's. Under the“ assumed conditions, the‘
enciphering operation wouldresult in thei'proi
In one form, the invention utilizes a receiving 30dilation; of an all marking or “letters” combina
ticn since in this‘ particular‘illustration’opposite
distributor by means of which a set of ?ve ref
ceiving relays are conditioned upon the receipt
of enciphered or deciphered signals and a key
tape transmitter for providing key signals. The
key signals are combined with the signals pro-#
vided by the receiving relay and produce‘ result
ant signals which are transmitted by means‘ of
a. transmitter-distributor to a transmitting re
lay having a pair of associated transmitting con
(fOl‘lditiOIlS Of all the‘ elements of “R.” and _“Y”
code combinationsv are provided. This will be
readily apparent; from the’ following chart'where
léllllér “Ml’? indicates 2. Ih'ELI‘kil‘lg‘ C'On‘d‘itidn
arid the‘ léttbyi‘ “S” indicates a‘ spacing condition.
12
s,
tacts, only one of which is effective for transmis'e 40 ‘Originalsignal"‘R”;__;l..__l _____________ __ M
sion at a time dependent on the direction of
transmission.
Key sign'al “Y” ______________________ “1-..,
Encipliered signal “letters” ____ .; _________ _ _
lVI
.
w.I
4-5
3 .")?
7.
A second form of the invention features the
use of a double wound relay for enciphering and
It is} understoda that ‘both; the- transmitting
deciphering messages. One winding of the relay 45 and’ receiving end of a telegraph line will be
equipped‘ with idential key‘ tapes; which during? ’
is under the control of key signals and the‘ other
messagetransmiss'icn wi-ir occupyidentical posi
winding is under the control of either enciphered‘
tions. The key tapes are advanced‘ ammg'rrans
or original signals dependent upon the’ direction
mis'si‘onmto continuously modify the key signal,’
of transmission. In this instance; two' distribu
tors are provided, one for key signals and the‘ 50 but both‘ tapes‘ occupy
position at all times.
other for either the original or enciphered sig
the same cam-spending
station which receives .
enciphered signals is thus enabled’ to decipher the
nals.
‘
unintelligible signals - transmitted over the" tele
A third form of the invention closely resembles
g-r'ap'hi line- by combining enciphered signals with
the second form except that two separate? relays‘
are employed for transmitting purposes instead 55 key signals: provided by its‘ key tape. To. illus-‘
t'rate' a‘ deciphering operation, the example given
of a double wound relay.
2,403,680
3
above in connection with the enciphering opera
tion will be continued and it will be assumed
that a receiving station received the enciphered
start magnet 44 releases distributor 45 for the
reception of a signal code combination from sta
tion unit I I at this time, and the distributor is
signal; namely, “letters.” The “Y” combination
provided by the key tape at the receiving station
brought to rest upon the impression of the stop
5
can now be combined with the “letters” combi
nation to decipher the enciphered signals to
thereby reproduce the original signal “R” as
clearly shown in the following chart:
1
Enciphhered signal “letters”- Key signal “Y” __________ __
__
Original signal “R” _______________________ _.
M
M
S
2
3
4
lows: From battery 52, through the winding of
10 relay 5|, over conductor 53, through segment 54
.of the distributor, over the brushes 55, and
5
M'M
through conducting ring 56 to ground. As brush
55 moves off segment 54, the circuit for relay -5I
is broken, whereupon armature 51 is released to
open contact 49 to break the energizing circuit of
start magnet 44, and moreover, direction relay
WEE
Ms
SM
or marking impulse upon magnet 44, which fol
lows after every ?ve-unit code combination. In
the rest position of the distributor 45, a circuit is
made for relay 5| which may be traced as fol
The invention may be more readily understood
39 becomes locked up over the following circuit:
from the following detailed description and the
drawings wherein,
From battery 35, through contact tongue 36 of
direction relay 31, over conductor 33, through the
Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram of the main em 20 winding of direction relay 39 (now energized),
bodiment of the invention;
through its associated contact tongue 6|, over
Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram of a second form of
conductors 62 and 63, through contact tongue'5‘I
the invention;
of relay 5i (now de-energized) and through con
Fig. 3 is a circuit diagram of a third form of
tact 58 of the make-before-break contact 48 to
the invention; and
‘
ground.
Figs. 4 and 5 are schematic views showing
methods of interconnecting communicating sta
tions.
tact tongue 64 is held attracted so that transmit
ting contact 25 of transmitting relay 26-is shunted
Referring now to Fig. 1, the ?rst form of the
invention will be described in detail. In order to
facilitate the description of the ?rst embodiment
of the invention, it will be assumed that a local
station comprising unit II desires to communi
out of circuit over conductors 21 and 65 inasmuch
‘ as at this time it is desired to transmit from
station II to the remotestation over the. trans
mitting contact 51.. This prevents theoperation
of contact 25 from interfering with the opera
cate with an outlying station over a loop circuit
tion of the circuit under the first assumedconj
dition with station I I transmitting. At this time,
indicated at I2. In order to make a local record
and check the operation of enciphered signals,
a check printer I3 is provided which, by means
of the plug and jack arrangement shown at l4,
may be readily plugged into the loop circuit.
Similar plug and jack connections for the sta
tion unit II and the loop I2 are shown respec
tively at I 5 and I6.
the direction relay 39 also ‘holds its associated
tongue 68 in its attracted position so thatcon
tact tongue ‘I3 associated with relay ‘II is‘shunt
-' ed out of circuit and rendered ineiTective, in view,
40
The apparatus is provided
with a manually-operable switch shown gener
ally at IT, by means of which the local station
unit II may be conditioned to transmit and re
ceive either regular telegraph messages or en
.
With direction relay 39 thus energized, its con- '
of the fact thatit is necessary at this time that
outgoing signals which are transmittedfthrough
the relay ‘II do not interfere with the operation
of the circuit. This shunting circuit is as fol
, lows: From contact tongue 68, over conductor 12,
45 through contact tongue ‘I3 (if it should be at
tracted by its associated receiving relay 'II) over
conductor ‘I5, over conductor ‘I5, and overcon
mit or receive enciphered messages, switch I‘! is
ductor ‘I6 back to the contact tongue 68.
operated to its upper or coding position, and
The operation of direction relay 39 further re
conversely, when it is desired to transmit or re 60 sults in the attraction of its contact tongue'TI to
ceive regular telegraph messages, switch I‘! is
deprive direction relay 3'! of battery so that the
positioned to its lower position.
local station unit II matr assume complete con
The circuit for the local station unit II may
trol of the circuit, and therefore signals from
ciphered messages. When it is desired to trans
be traced as follows: From battery I8 through ‘
a remote station at this time will be ineifectual to
the winding of receiving relay 22, over conduc 55 seize control of the circuit. After every'revolu
tors 23 and 24, through contact tongue 25 of
tion of the distributor 45, brushes 55 return to
transmitting relay 26, over conductors 21 and
their rest position whereat the previously de
28, through tongue 29 of switch I‘I, over conduc
scribed circuit is made to the relay 5| which by
tor 3i , through the station II, back over the con
its operation attracts its tongue 51 to breakthe
ductor 32, through tongue 33 of switch I1, and so locking circuit to relay 39 to return the circuit
over conductor 34 to ground.
to normal in preparation for subsequent. opera
When local station unit I I commences to trans
tions.
'
.
'
mit, the just-described circuit is interrupted and
As the original signals are received‘ from sta
relay 22 is de-energized due to the transmission ; - tion unit II by the local relay 22, contact tongue
of the start or no current signal. When this
8| is operable to make and break the following
occurs, the following circuit is established: From 65 circuit, according to whether marking or spacing
battery 35, over tongue 36 of direction relay 31,
impulses are being transmitted: ‘From battery82
over conductor 38, through the winding of di
through the windings of the receiving relays 83
rection relay 39, over conductor 4|, through con
‘ (receiving marking signals), over conductors, 8t
tact tongue 42 of receiving relay 22 (now de 70 to 8B, dependent upon the code combination be?
energized), over conductor 43, over conductor 46,
ing transmitted, through associated segmentsf89,
through the winding of start magnet 44 associ
over brushes 9|, over the solid conducting ring
ated with receiving distributor 45, over conduc
92, over conductors 93 and 12, through contact
tor 41, and through contact 49 of make-before
tongue 68 (now attracted) of direction relay 39,
break contact 48 to ground. The operation of 75 over conductors ‘I6 and 95-and through ‘the con-,
23,403,686‘
5
.
I26 or I21, and through a-contactltongueVIZIto ,
ground;
When a particular receiving relay 83'becomes
energized over the just-described circuit, it‘is
locked up as follows: From battery 82, ‘through
the Winding of a particular relay "83, over its
contact tongue 96, over conductor
6
conditioned‘ for operation through; a tape reel-er
contact tongue- I22, over either the conductor
tact tongue 8| of local receiving relayL22 (when
marking signals are being receivedv and receiving
relay 22 is accordingly energized) to ground.
In order to provide for the previously ‘ir'iene
tioned ‘overlap condition, the lower twovreceivi
ing relays 33 will cooperat‘e’by means of their
tongues I2I with the lower two tape feelericoni
97, '- and
tact tongues I22 in a slightlydifferent manner; ,
through contact 98 of locking relay 99 to ground.
Prior to the reception of each signal code-‘com 10 Whenv either-of the lower two tape'feelei‘ contact
tongues I-22 move to ‘their lower, or marking po
bination, locking relay 99 is momentarily‘ ener
sition',» upon the sensing of‘a perforation in‘- the
gized to break previous locking circuits, which
key tape, a circuitis completed upon the opera, .
may have been completed over the following cir- '
tion of overlap control relay Ii4I.- 7' only" the one
cuit: From battery IIII, through‘the‘winding' of
locking relay 99, over conductor I02, throuEh_seg 15 eration of thelowermost overlap relay .I'SEI ‘will be _,
described; The Circuit iS-aS fOllOWS'I Fl‘Oh'li?éittéi’Y ' ment I93‘ of the distributor 45", over‘lthe brushes
I32, through the winding of relay l‘slfover con-'4
55, and through the solid conducting ring'56 to
ground.
ductorI42', through feeler-coritact I22; over con
ducto'r I44, through contact tongue I45 of over:
lap control relay I4I (when operated) toi'g'round};
When contact tongue I45 is attracted by? over
lap control relay I4I, as will be later explained,
‘
In order to effect the enciphering of out-going
messages and the deciphering of incoming vmes 20
sages, there is provided in the ciphering system of
the present invention, a key tape transmitter in
make-before-break‘ contact I46 will be'operated
dicated generally at II I which utilizes a key tape
to break a previousrlocking circuit for either of
H2, It will be understood, of course, that each
the overlap relays I3I if they have been pre
viously energized in a preceding signal co‘de'com'e
station will be provided with identical key tapes
which occupy identical positions during commue
nicating operations. The only prerequisite is that
bination. This locking circuit extends ‘from ‘bat
tery I32, through the winding of relay I3I, over
at any particular instant or communicating op
contact tongue I5'I,.conductor I52, and through
eration, the key tapes at the interconnected sta
tions be identical, because the key tapes may be 30 make-before-break contact I46 to ground.» It'i's
thus apparent that if in the immediately precedf
di?erent at different times or operating periods.
Enciphered or deciphered signals dependent upon
ing signal combination lower tape" feelers~I22
were in their spacing positions their associated
the direction of transmission, are delivered to
overlap relays I3'I would not have been operated’,
the transmitting relay 26 through the instru
and consequently’, although tongue ' I45 willoper‘;
35
ate, it will not; unlock any circuit inasmuchla's
Shortly after the operation of the receiving
there was'jno circuit previously preparedffor‘the
distributor 45, segment H4 thereof is traversed
relays I3VI. The‘ operation of tongue I45'a1so per;
by the brush 55 and a circuit is completed to the
forms the function of providing ground over jc'o'n- .
start magnet H5 of the transmitting distributor
H3 from ground, through solid conducting ring 40 ductor I44, through the windings of relay I31I>if
th'eyjajre" prepared by a'marking condition of feel;
56, over brushes 55, through segment H4, through
ers I22 fora marking operation in the next posie
the winding of start magnet H5, and through
tionofkey ta'peIIZ.
,
f
l
‘3
"
battery H9 to ground, to place transmitting dis
Overlap control relay I41 ‘is momentarily ener1
tributor I I3 in operation. It is, therefore, observ
able that the transmitting distributor" H3 lags l gized'at' each cycle of operation of‘distributo'r 45 >
prior to the transmission of the si'gnalicode‘com‘e
behind receiving distributor 45, the purpose of
bination over the following circuit: F'rom‘bat;
which is to provide an overlap arrangement to
mentality of a transmitting distrlbutor H3.
secure the proper margin of operating time for
tery I41, through, the winding of relay I41‘, over
time interval.
tions of tongues I33 of'ove'rla'p relays I3I and the
c'ondhctor I53, through the contact segment I54
the ciphering operation, to insure that the re-~v
ceiving relays 83 and the key tape I I2 are prop 50 of ‘distributor 45, over conductor ring 56, to
ground. In accordance with the‘ combined posi
erly conditioned for operation at the required
tongues I2I of the lower two receiving‘ relays 83, 7
As the receiving relays 83 respond to signals,
ground may be furnished when ‘marking condi
associated tongues or armatures I2l are either
attracted or not, depending upon whether a
marking or a spacing signal is impressed on stor
ing relays 83. The circuit for the upper three
tions occur over either conductor‘ I34 or I35,
through the contact tongue I33, o'v'e'r' conductor
I55, through brush I56, over' the solid conducting
ring I24 and over conductor 123', throughvth'e
winding of transmitting relay‘26 to battery I I6.
receiving relays 83 is so designed with respect to
the upper three tape feelers I22 of key tape I I2
that a marking signal will be produced when the
' During eachrevolution o’f distributor“, Step1
tongues I 2| of the relays 83 are conditioned to a
ping magnet I20 is operated to step the key tape
position opposite to that of the corresponding
to a new position as steppingcontrol relay I'39'is '
tape feelers I22. On the other hand, when a par
ticular contact tongue I2I moves to a position
similar to the position assumed by its associated
tape feeler I22, the circuit is conditioned to pro
duce a spacing signal; therefore, when contact
a
momentarily energized over the following'circiiit:
From battery, through the winding .of~ relay I 39‘,
over‘ conductor I49‘, through brushes 55 and over
the solid conducting ring 56in) ground. jlleelay"
I39‘ attracts" and then- releases it's/tongue I59 to
control‘ an obvious‘steppingi‘circuit‘to aerate
tongue I 2I and tape feelers I 22 are bothv mark‘
ing or both spacing, a spacing signal will be sent.
magnet I20. ‘Due to the overlap'féatlire which; '
The circuits for making signals may be traced To
‘ '
has been described'the stepping’ina'gnet is’ eperg
as follows: From battery H6, through the wind
ing of transmitting relay 26, over conductor I23,
through the solid conducting ring I24 of the
transmitter distributor H3, through brushes I56
and segments I I1, over a particular conductor I55
a
ate'd While the fourth and ?fth sighals'al‘é being‘
transmitted since overlap} relays I 3| I are ldck'ed
up and retairithe fourth and ?fth elements or the
signal. code of the prenous'rcode ‘co'lhbiha?ié?'
‘
7
impulses by the key tape I I 2. When spacing sig-_
break contact 48 associated with relay 5|, to
ground. Therefore, at this time, the distributor
45 is released for a cycle of operation through the
operation, of start magnet 44 and the direction
relay 31 is energized and becomes locked up over
the following circuit after brush 55 passes off of
segment 54_to cause the de-energization of relay
5|: From battery 35, through tongue 11 of direc
nals are provided in the fourth and ?fth elements
of a ‘key code combination by the key tape,
tongues I33 of the overlap relays I3I will remain
unattracted in spacing position.
As relay 26 is affected by the enciphered sig
nals, its contact tongue 61'is, opened and closed
according to the signals that are being trans
mitted to the remote station. The signals trans
tion relay 30, over conductor I64, through the
winding of direction relay 31, through contact
tongue I12 (now attracted), over conductors 62
The key signals (that is, the signals controlled by
and 63, through tongue 51 of locking relay 5| and
the key tape) are provided only for the code im
through make-before-break"contact 48 to ground.
pulses and not for the start and stop impulses;
The attraction of tongue 36 by the direction re
the latter impulses being invariable and aresup
‘ plied independently of the key tape by the dis 15 lay 31 breaks the possible operating circuit for ‘di
mitted, are, of course, start-stop code signals.
rection relay 33 so that again it is apparent that’
the station which ?rst seizes'cont'rol of the sys
tribll?Ql‘ segments I I8 and II9,of_ the distributor
I,I3. Sincethe normal stop condition of the line
is marking,~the stop impulse impressed on ‘the line
is controlled by the energized relay 26, whose cir
tem prevents the other station from operating
during a signal code combination.
‘
7
When direction relay 31 operates, contact
cuit under this condition extends from battery 20
> tongue I 13 associate'd'therewith is attracted’so
II6, through the winding of relay 26, over con
that contact'tongue 61 of transmitting relay 26
ductor ‘I23, over solid ring I24, over brushes I56,
is short-circuited in order to suppress interfer
and through stop segment II8 to ground. Then
ence by this contact with the circuit at this time.
upon initiation of transmission, when start mag
net II5 is energized and brushes I56 are caused 25 This circuit is as follows: From ground, through
contact tongue I13 of relay 31, over conductors
to traverse the segments, the traversal of brushes
I14 and I50, throughcontact tongue 61 to ground.
I56 over the start segment IIS will produce a no
It is thus obvious that when‘ the contact tongue
current condition on the line, since no battery is
connected to the start segment IIB. Hence, the
51 operates inasmuch as, it is directly grounded,
circuit previously traced for relay 26 will j be 30 it will not cause the repetition of‘signals at this
broken, and relay 26 will become de-energized to
Operationfof direction relay 31 further causes
release its armatures 61 and 25 to, transmit start
impulses, either to the line I2 or to the local unit
the attraction of its associated contact tongue
II, depending upon' the short'circuit condition
I15, and ground for the storing relays is fur
of said contacts 61 and 25, as previously described. 35 nished over the following circuitLFrom battery
time.
’
‘
'
‘
This causes the opening and closing of loop circuit
I2 to operate a printer at the remote station.
This circuit is traceable as follows: From ground,
82 to a particular receiving relay 83, over one
of the conductors 84 to 88, through its associated
contact segment 89, over brushes SI, through
through transmitting tongue 61, over conductor
I50, through the Winding of relay 1|, over con
ductor I51, through the lower switchtongue I58
of switch I1, over conductor I59, throughlthe
plug and jack connection I6, through the out
the solid conducting ring 92, over conductor 93,
through contact tongue 13 of relay 1|, over con
ductor 14, through contact tongue I15 (now at
tracted) of direction relay 31, to ground.
going part of the loop to the remote station, back
through theplug connection I6, through the plug
connection I4 of the check printer I3, over con
ductor I6I, through switch tongue I60 of switch
I1, and over conductor I62 to battery I49. The
'
Distributors 45 and H3 will act in the same
manner as when signals were being sent. out or
45
transmitted, .to_ now decipher the incoming sig
nals to cause the deciphered signals to be re
peated by the transmitting relay 26. It Wi11'b8
remembered that contact tongue 61 of transmit
enciphered signals which will be printed by the
ting relay 26 is now short-circuited and’ ren
check printer I3 are also transmitted over the 50 dered ine?‘ective for transmission. However, at
outgoing loop circuit I2 to the remote station
this time, transmitting contact tongue 25 ‘is con
either directly or through a central telegraph
omce or exchange. The system having now been
described with respect to transmission of outgo
ditioned for operation and may make and break
the circuit to the local station unit II to enable
the local printer to print the incoming signals
ing enciphered signals, a description will now be 55 in their original or deciphered condition. This
given wherein enciphered signals are received
circuit is as follows: From battery I8, through
over the loop circuit I2 from a remote station and
the winding of local receiving relay 22, over con
are deciphered by the ciphering system.
ductor 23, over conductor 24, through contact
Since the normal condition of the remote sta
tongue 25 (when attracted) of transmitting relay
tion in its idle or rest position is marking (cur
26, over conductor 21, over conductor 28, through
rent on the line conductors), the relay 1I will be
upper contact 29 of switch I1, over conductor
energized over the previously described circuit
3|, through the local station unit II, over con
including conductors I51 and I62. Thus, when
ductor 32, through tongue 33 of switch I1. and
code signals are received from the remote station,
over conductor 34, to ground. The circuit shown
the start impulse will cause relay 1| to become 65 in Fig. 1 therefore provides a ciphering system
de-ene'rgized. When this occurs, contact tongue
in which messages may be either enciphered or
I63 of receiving relay 1| is released and the fol
deciphered dependent upon the direction of trans
lowingvcircuit is ‘completed: From battery 35,
through contact tongue 11 of relay 39, over con
ductor I64, through the winding of direction re
lay 31, over conductor I65, through contact
tongue I63 of receiving relay 1| (now'de-ener
mission.
,
'
Another form of the invention about to be
described is shown in Fig. 2. The circuit shown
in Fig. 2 resembles the circuit shown‘in Fig. 1.
gized) , over conductor 46, through the winding of
Particularly, in this form of the invention there
is provided no overlap feature, and a double
start magnet 44 of the receiving distributor 45,
woundtransmitting relay 205 is employed in
over conductor 41, through the make-before-_ 75 stead, ofa single wound. transmitting relay 26.
2,403,680
9.
The circuit for Fig. 2, therefore, will only be
described with respect to the portions wherein it
varies from the disclosure of Fig. 1.
In the modi?cation, a distributor 2M and a
distributor 202 are driven in synchronism upon
the same rotary shaft, and at a speed suitable for
.
1'0‘
_
signals and the other winding conditioned for
spacing signals, the relay will become unbalanced
and its transmitting tongues 234' and 2351 at- .
tracted. . In other words, the two windings of
double wound relay 205 are wound reversely, and
thus have the effect of neutralizing-each other
when current is present in both windings, so
that a condition of current in both windings is
the speed of transmission used. When start mag
net 203 receives the start or noecurrent impulse
the same as current in neither winding, and in
at the commencement of transmission, the dis
tributors are released for operation, and both 10 both cases the armatures 234 ‘and 235 will be
released. On the other hand, current in- one
brush arms now move together. Storing relays
winding and no current in the other winding.
254 will be conditioned in the manner described
will have the effect of attracting. both armatures
in connection with relays 83 of Fig. 1 to ener
234 and 235, but only one armature willbe effec
gize the left-hand winding of double wound
transmitting relay 205 when marking conditions 15 tive for transmitting'signals, since the circuit
including the other armature will have been
occur, over the following circuit: From battery
short-circuited. The circuit in Fig. 2 is in other
20!), through the left-hand winding of relay 205,
respects similar to the circuit shown in Fig.1,
over conductor 236, through the conducting ring
and it is therefore deemed unnecessary to dee,
201, over brush 299, through a particular seg
ment 208, over a particular conductor 2H now 20 scribe again the circuit in detail.
‘
'
Another form of the invention is shown in Fig.
3 which is similar to that shown in Fig; 2 except
that instead of the employment of, a single dou
ble wound transmitting relay, as relay 205, there
following circuit: From battery I39, over con
ductor 2l3, through the winding of a particular 25 are provided two separate transmitting relays
conditioned, through a particular contact tongue
M2 to ground. As a particular storing relay
204 becomes operative, it is locked up over the
receiving relay 234, through contact tongue 215
now attracted, over conductor2l5, and through
25I and 252 operable by the identical circuit
shown in Fig. 2. a In the drawings, conductor 356
is the same as conductor I50 of Fig. 1, and con
contact tongue 2H (when released) of relay 2l8
ductors 321, 356, and 328 are‘ respectively the
to ground. In the rest position of the distributor
20l, preceding each signal code combination, re 30 equivalent of conductors ‘21, 66, and 28 of Fig. 1.
Relay 25! is operable either by enciphere'd' or
lay 2l8 is energized to attract its contact 2|‘!
original signals to control its transmitting con
and thus break any locking circuit which may
tacts 253 and 254. When the local station unit
have been previously established in the immedi
255 is transmitting enciphered signals over loop
ately preceding signal code combination. This
circuit is as follows: From battery 2H3, through 35 circuit 256 to a remote station, contact 253 is
effective and contact 254 isv shunted out of the
the winding of relay 218', over conductor 2l9,
circuit
due to the operation of the direction send- '
through segment 220 of distributor 2!“, over
brush 209, through segment 221,, to ground.
ing relay 25'! which attracts its contact. tongue
364. On the other hand, when incoming: sig
In synchronism with the operation of the stor
ing relays 204 to control the left-hand winding 40 nals are being received from the distant station
contact253 is short-circuited due to' the closure
of the double wound transmitting relay 235, key
of contact 258 upon the operation of :the direc
signals are furnished for control of the right
tion sending relay 259. At this time’ the'direction
hand winding of said double wound transmitting
relay251 is unoperated and armature v364 is re
relay through the instrumentality of a key tape
222. Prior to the transmission of signal code 45 leased to render transmitting contact 235 .e?fece
combinations under the control of the key tape
It has already been explained that the cipher
tive.
.
.
-
~
transmitter during each cycle of operation, tape
stepping magnet 223 is operated, to step the tape
ing system herein employed, is'predicatedupon
the combination of key signals‘ provided by a
to a new position, over the following circuit:
From battery I98, through the stepping magnet 50 key tape with either original or encipheredsige
nals. Under opposite operating conditions, that
223, through segment 224 of distributor 25!, over
is, with one element of the code, provided .by
the brushes I91 and throughv the segment I96
the key signals, marking, and a corresponding
to ground.
element of the code, provided by an enciphered
The circuit for the right-hand winding of re
or original signal, spacing, produces a marking
lay 205 is as follows: From battery, through the 65
condition
of the signaling line. Like'conditions,
right-hand winding of relay 205, over conduc
however, that is, with both elements of ‘the code
tor 221, through solid conducting ring 228 of dis
marking or both elements of- the code spacing,
tributor 232, over the particular segment 229
produce spacing conditions of the-signaling line.’
conditioned, over a conductor 23!, through a
Referring again to the circuit shown in Fig. '3,
60
tape feeler contact lever 232, through the lower
it can be seen that. accordingv to the provision
or marking ‘contact I35, and over the conductor
of key signals for the relay 252 contact tongue
23l will be operated, and it is'fapparent that
mitted to a remote station, transmitting con
ground may be carried over either conductor 252‘
tact tongue 234 is rendered e?ective as herein
or 263 to the contact tongue 253, of relay 2_5|
before described in connection with con-tact 65 when
opposite conditions exist. vAs contact 253
tongue 61 of Fig. l, and transmitting contact
moves back and forth, it makes and ‘breaks the
tongue 235 is rendered ineffective by the short
circuit to the remote station over the loop cir
circuit including conductors 3-21 and 356 and con
233 to ground. When signals are'being trans
tact 354. On the other hand, when signals are
being received from a remote station, contact 70
tongue 234 is short-circuited and contact tongue
235 is rendered e?ective for transmission.
When opposite conditions exist in the windings
of the double wound transmitting relay 235, that
is, with one winding conditioned for marking 75
cuit 256 thereby to transmit enciphered Signals
to the remote station.
'
‘
‘
However, when incoming signals are received
from the remote station over line 255, receiving
relay 25! receives signals in their enciphered
condition, and its associated contact 254 is adapt
ed to cooperate with contact 264' to make and
2,403,680
11
12
break the circuit to the local printer 255. At
this time contact tongue 364 of direction relay
251 is open and consequently in this direction of
transmission, conductors 321 and 366 do not pro
ing circuit disposed between said positions, and
automatic means in said circuit comprising a pair
vide a shunt circuit.
of relays, one responsive to an initial signal from
one of said positions and the other responsive to
an initial signal from the other of said positions
to cause the circuit to act in an enciphering man
ner or a deciphering manner according to which
Conductor 2'“ now re
ceives battery through the winding of relay 212,
over the conductor 2'“, through the conductor
3B6 providing battery for transmitting contact
relay receives the initial signal.
264 which may be extended over either conduc
5. In a signaling system, a double wound relay.
tor 212 or 213. Therefore, contact tongues 254 10 means to transmit to one winding start-stop
and 264 will operate together to make and break
permutation signals, means to transmit to the
the local circuit to the printer 255 according to
other winding similar permutation code signals
signaling conditions.
only which have the reverse e?ect of signals in
In Figs. 4 and 5 are illustrated schematically
the ?rst winding, and contacts operated by the
a method of connecting intercommunicating sta 15 relay to transmit start-stop signals in which only
tions, whereby a convenient way of reversing the
the code element of the signals are modi?ed by
loop circuit at said stations is provided. As pre
the second winding.
viously described, the loop circuit of the system
6. In a ciphering system, means to generate
shown in Fig. 1 extends from ground, through
signals including an invariable .starting portion
20
contact 61, over conductor I50, through the wind
and a variable portion representing information,
ing of relay ‘H, over conductor I51, through
means to generate ciphering signals, having an
switch l1, over line loop l2 to the distant station
invariable blank portionand a variable code por
and returning again through the switch l1, and
tion, means to operate the two generating means
then over conductor I62 and through battery I49
in step so that corresponding elements of the two
to ground. It may be desirable to provide bat
signals are simultaneous, and means controlled
tery from the distant station, so, to accomplish
by the two simultaneous signals to generate a
this, result the conductor I62 and the ground lead
third modi?ed signal in which corresponding ele
from contact 6‘! have been shown as connected to
ments are generated substantially simultaneously
a connecter block 40!. On any telegraph line,
with the corresponding elements of the ?rst and
battery is usually supplied at one end of the line 80 second mentioned signals.
_
and ground at the other, and the installer has
speci?cations. which instruct him to strap cer
tain terminals together. By means of the present
invention, it is only necessary to show different
7. In a ciphering system, means to generate
start-stop permutation code signals representing
information to be communicated, a regenerative
repeater controlled by said signals, andcipher
strapping on the connector block to indicate the 35 ing means to determine the marking or spacing
di?‘erent types of circuit. In Fig. 5, the outlying
character of the code elements of the regenerated
signals impulse by impulse as the corresponding
stationsare indicated as connected through an
exchange 402.
It is to be understood that various changes and
modi?cations may be made in the present in
vention without departing from the spirit and
scope thereof.
_ What is claimed is:
> 1. Ina telegraph system, a double wound relay,
impulses are received.
40
,
8. In a ciphering device, two transmitting dis-7
tributors of start-stop permutation code signals,
means to operate the two distributors in phase
under control of said code signals, means to de
termine the character of the code impulses trans
45 mitted by one distributor according to informa~
means to transmit to one winding of said relay
tion to be communicated, means to determine the
start-stop permutation code signals, means to
character of the code impulses transmitted by the
transmit to the other winding code signal ele
other distributor according to a prearranged
mentsonly so that each of the corresponding
plan, means to invariably repeat the start im
code elements in the two signals occur at the
pulse unaltered, and means to generate en
same time, and means to generate signals con
ciphered signals under control of the two sets
trolled by the contacts of said relay.
of signals.
2. In a ciphering system, two circuits, on one
9. In a ciphering system, a signaling circuit, a
of which plain signals are always transmitted
?rst station, a second station, transmitting and
and in the other of which enciphered signals are
receiving telegraph apparatus at each‘ station,
always transmitted, a circuit adapted to encipher 55 a single ciphering key mechanism at each sta
plain signals and to decipher enciphered signals,
tion associated with both the receiving and trans
a ?rst relay in one of said circuits, a second relay
mitting apparatus at that station, means to con
in the other circuit, a ?rst contact in the ?rst
trol the receiving apparatus at each station by
circuit, a second contact in the second circuit,
the transmitting apparatus at the other station
means to operate both contacts according to the 60 over said circuit, means to condition the key
output of the ciphering device, means to control
mechanism for enciphering or deciphering ac
the input of the ciphering device according to the
cording to the direction of transmission, and
operation of either relay, and means to render
automatic means comprising a pair of relays, one
65 responsive to an initial signal from said ?rst
tacts ineffective according to which relay receives
station and the other responsive to an initial
an initial signal.
signal from said second station, to alter the key
one of the relays ineffective and one of the con
3. In a repeater, means to transmit to said re
mechanism conditioning means at intervals‘ ac
peater signals comprising a start impulse and a
cording to which relay receives the initial signal.
plurality of variable code impulses, means to in 70
10. In a ciphering system, a ?rst station, a sec
variably repeat the start impulse unaltered, and
ond station, a circuit connecting said stations,
means to modify the code impulses according to a
prearranged plan.
4. In combination with a repeater, two line po
means to transmit information in, both directions
over the circuit, a single variable key ciphering
mechanism at each-end of the circuit operable
75 on signals in either direction and means compris
sitions, a combination enciphering and decipher
- 2,403,680
13
ing a pair of relays in each ciphering mechanism,
one responsive to an initial signal from said ?rst
station and the other responsive to an initial sig
nal from the second station, for ‘automatically
conditioning said mechanism for operation ac
cording to which relay receives the initial signal.
11. In a ciphering system, a ?rst station, a
second station, a circuit connecting said stations,
means to transmit information in both directions
over the circuit, a single variable key ciphering‘
mechanism at each end of the circuit operable
on signals in either direction, and automatic
means comprising a pair of instrumentalities in
each ciphering mechanism one responsive to an
initial signal from said ?rst station and the other
responsive to an initial signal from said second
14
15. In a telegraph system for enciphering and
deciphering messages, a ?rst distributor, a second
distributor, a third distributor, a plurality of
storing relays connected to said ?rst distributor,
acorresponding plurality of contacts controlled '
by said storing relays and connected to said sec
ond distributor, means for sensing a. tape per
forated according to a predetermined plan, a
plurality of contacts controlled by said means
and connected to said third distributor, a double
wound relay having one winding connected to
said second distributor and the other winding
connected to said third distributor, and transmit
ting contacts controlled by said double wound
relay according to the combined in?uence of said
second and third distributors to transmit result- '
ant signals.
16. In a telegraph system for enciphering and
deciphering messages, ?rst, second, and third dis
tributors, a plurality of storing relays connected
12. In a telegraph system, a ?rst station, a
to said ?rst distributor, a corresponding plural
second station, transmitting and receiving ap
ity of contacts controlled by said storing relays;
paratus at each station, a ciphering key mecha
and connected to said second distributor, means
nism, and automatic means comprising a pair of
for sensing a key tape, a plurality (of contacts
instrumentalities in each mechanism, one condi
tioned in response to an initial signal from said 25 controlled by said means and connected to said
third distributor, a double wound relay having,
?rst station and the other conditioned in re
one winding connected to said second distributor
sponse to an initial signal from said second sta
and the other winding connected to said third
tion, to alter the key mechanism for each sig
distributor, transmitting contacts controlled by
nal transmitted and each signal received accord
30 said double wound relay according to the com
ing to which instrumentality is conditioned.
station to alter the two key ciphering mecha
nisms variably at intervals according to which
instrumentality receives the initial signal.
13. In a telegraph system, a signaling circuit,
a ?rst station, a second station, telegraph appa
ratus at each station, means to operate the ap
bined in?uence of said second and third distribu
tors to transmit resultant signals, and means
capable of being automatically conditioned to en
paratuses for communicating information in
cipher or decipher said signals according to the
either direction over the circuit, a key mecha
nism at each station, a pair of instrumentalities
in each mechanism, one conditioned in response
to an initial signal from said ?rst station and the
other conditioned in response to an initial sig
nal from said second station, and means to alter
direction of transmission.
the two key mechanisms according to which in
strumentality is conditioned so that said mech
anisms are continuously in step between two
17. In a telegraph system, two stations, a com
munication circuit connecting the said two sta
tions, telegraph transmitting and "receiving ap
paratus at each station, ciphering apparatus asso
ciated with each station, and automatic means
comprising a pair of relays, one conditioned in
response to an initial signal from one of said 1
two stations and the other conditioned in re- '
consecutive signals independent of the direction 46 sponse to an initial signal from the other of said
two stations, to cause the ciphering apparatus to
of transmission of the signals.
14. In a telegraph system for enciphering and
deciphering messages, a ?rst station, a second
station, a distributor at each station, a plurality
act in an enciphering manner or a deciphering
manner according to which relay receives the
initial signal.
'
'
18. In a telegraph system, two stations, a com
of storing relays connected to said distributor,
means for sensing a tape perforated according 50 munication circuit connecting saidtwo stations,
telegraph transmitting and recording apparatus
to a predetermined plan, contacts controlled by
at each station, two sets of siphering apparatus
said means, means effective under the combined
intermediate the two transmitting and ‘recording
in?uence of said distributor and said sensing
means to transmit resultant signals, and means 55 apparatuses, and automatic means comprising a
pair of relays, one conditioned in response to an
comprising a pair of instrumentalities, one con
initial signal from one of said two stations and
ditioned in response to an initial signal from said
the other conditioned in response to an initial
?rst station and the other conditioned in re—
signal from the other of said two stations, .to cause
sponse to an initial signal from said second sta
tion, capable of being automatically conditioned 60 each ciphering apparatus to operate in an en
ciphering manner or deciphering manner accord
according to which instrumentality is conditioned
ing to which relay receives the initial signal.
to effectuate the enciphering or deciphering of
the said signals stored in said storing relays.
'
LOUIS M. POTTS.
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