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Патент USA US2403693

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July 9, 1946,
Filed Déc. l2, 1941
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/0 À
resented July e, 194s
James Urmston, Montclair, N. J., 4assigner to
C_allender’s Cable à Construction, Co., Ltd.,
London, England
Appuentien neeemhell 12, 1941, serial No. 422,650
7 Claims.
(ci. 174-410)
'_Ifhis invention relates to an improvement in
guished from a material such as so-called sponge
electric cables, and has for one-of its objects the
provision of a cable which is capable of carrying
relatively large currents but which at the same
time is suillclently buoyant to float in water,
The usual electric cable combining conductor
rlëgber in ï‘whichtl'íe'cells communicate with each
There are several methods of making the core.
One method is to incorporate i'nto an unvulcan
ized rubber compound a gas-producing material,
_ and insulation has a density 'much greater than
that is, a*materlalwhi‘ch- decomposes and gives
oftgas when heated', vso :that when the rubber
water~,~and it is one of the purposes of this inven
tion to 'alter the construction of such cables and
compound is being vulcanized by heat the gas
to incorporate therein a buoyant ¿element of low 10 thereby f_ormed will expand the rubber into a
body having myria'ds of :non-»intercommunicating
average density thereby to produce a cable -pos
sessing sufllcient buoyancy to enable the same to
cells. The walls of the cells are ‘very thin and
exceedingly so in the' caseci highly gassed ma
'I'he cable of the present invention, therefore,
- terial, so that diffusion of gas from or bursting
comprises-a‘fcombination- of conductor, insulation 15 of the cells on the outside surface can be expected,
and: buoyant- material eminently -fitting 'the ca
causing -progres'siveï'deiiation‘of the cells from
ble for carrying relativelylargecurrents on the
outside to inside the nialteriad~`
surface o! water, the cable being at th'e same time
Aside iromïthe-‘fact that the cable core is cel
highly resistant to" `deterioration and damage
without impairing the necessary and highly de
sirable flexibility-of the cable.
lular, 'it is'to be noted'that the core may be made
20 from various materials.' " By way of example, ma
terials such as natural rubber, artificial rubber
and thermoplastics may be mentioned, and any of
More specifically the present invention pro- '
vides an electric cable in which the conductor is
built up about a core of highly buoyant material,
these can be made cellular by vvadding gas-pro
the conductor -in turn being properly insulated 25
As to the skin or sheath or covering in which
the 'core is enclosed: As above pointed out the
cells oi vthe core vare thin-walled, and a certain
ducing' compounds and then heating.4
with water-ex`cludinginsulating material.
" Still more specifically the present invention
provides a cable such as'above briefly outlined in
amountv of gas" diffusion-and >cell bursting is to be
expected, with a consequent decrease'in the over
which the core referred vto is of cellular material,
that~is, a material composed of myriads of gas 30 all dimensions of the core. It is tov prevent'this
' filled non-communicating cells, the conductor be
ing stranded'cir-braided,- preferably the former,
loss of gas and consequent decrease in the core
that I provide the skin, sheath or covering.
about this core.l Thecore-may be continuous or
There are many Ways in which this element can
it may be in relatively short lengths.- When rela#
tively short lengths are employed then partitions
be producedf In the case of a continuous core.
the core may be drawn through a latex bath and
then vulcanized; or a layer of rubber may be
or discs of wood, for example, are provided be
tween adjacent lengths, which function to act as ,
lapped >around the core' material. In the case of
short lengths the' cpre- compound can be enclosed
a support for the’stranded conductor when the
latter is subjected to longitudinal stress.l ' About
the core is a non-metallic- sheath or skin or cov
in u'nvul'canized rubber. " In all cases the skin can
be applied to the corelmateriai before the latter
eringl which is relatively gas impermeable. This
skin will extend over the entire length and ends
ofthe' core- where the core is continuous, and in
the case of the discontinuous core, above referred
to, the skin may be continuous throughout the
has-been'heated, so that upon `heating the core
length of the core, or each individual length may
of the mould or container in which the vulcani
be completely enclosed in a skin or'sheath. The
skin or sheath may be integral‘with or separate
zation takes place.
As above pointed out the skin or sheath func
y from the core, but for easecf manufacture the
integral construction is preferred.
material can be formed into la; cellular mass and
the core and skin vulcanized'simultaneously.
The external dimensions of the finished prod
uct would be determined by the size and shape
tions the walls of the cells on the sur
50 face ofthe core and- prevent excessive gas diffu'
sion and bursting of the cells; the skin, however,
Reverting to the material of the core: The core
has been referred to as constructed of "cellular"
material,v and as above pointed out this term -is
to `bel interpreted to Acover a material composed
which is relatively gas impervious, serving to re
tain any-gas which might‘escape from the cells.
In the accompanying drawing several embodi
of gas-lilled-"non-communicating cells, as :listinf
_ments of the cable have been illustrated.`
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal section of
a cable constructed in accordance with one em
bodiment of my invention; .
r'ig. 2 is a section on the une z_-z of rig. r1;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of another em
bodiment of the invention;
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of still another
embodiment of the invention; and
Figs. 5 and 6 are cross sectional views of two
that this cable is punctured, allowing the gas t0
escape from the space between the core and tube,
it will be apparent that the lengths I8 will ex~
pand thereby illling the tube 2li and forcing it
against the conductor to prevent the ingress o!
sunlcient water to sink the cable.
The construction in Fig. 6 is similar to that of
Fig. 5, except that the skin I8 of Fig. 5 has been
omitted. When using this type of construction
10 I prefer to use the same kind of gas between the
other embodiments of the invention.
Referring to the drawing in detail as shown
core I6 and the tube 20 as is employed in the cells
in Figs. 1 and 2, the cable includes a buoyant core
of the core, to reduce diffusion of gas from the
4 of cellular material provided with a gas imper
meable skin or sheath 8. A conductor 8 is built
In both Figs. 5 and 6 I may employ continuous
up about the core and is conveniently made-of 15 cores as distinguished from relatively short
copper strands braided Ior stranded about the
lengths, if desired.
core. Insulation l0 which surrounds the conduc
For purposes of clarity I have made no at
tor may be rubber or any other suitable water
tempt in any of the drawings to show the 'cells
resistant material.
of the core material.
Thegcore 4 in this embodiment of the invention 20
A5 above pointed out the core may be made
is continuous throughout the length of the cable.
from various materials-_not necessarily of rub
The gas impervious skin or sheath 6 also extends
ber-but in all cases must be composed of my
continuously the length of the core. and about the
riads of gas-filled'non-communicating cells. The
ends of the core as well. As above pointed out
mode of making the core material does not con
the core is of lcellular material, that is to say, it 25 stitute part of this invention, inasmuch as the
is composed of myx-lads of gas-filled thin-walled
core material may be made by processes existing
non-intercommunicating cells. It is evident that
prior to this invention.
this skin or sheath supports the walls oi.' the cells
The skin or sheath of Figs. 1 to 5 is essential,
on the surface of the cellular core, and prevents
and as described may be continuous throughout
excessive diffusion of gas through the cell walls, so the length of the cable or discontinuous j it may
while any gas that might escape is retained by
be separate lfrom or integral with the core ma
the skin. This construction prevents detrimental
terial; but in all cases it must be relatively gas
loss of gas from the core I and consequent shrink
impermeable, suñ‘iciently so in any event to pre
age of the core, so that the danger of sufiicient
vent any substantial loss of gas out `of the core.
water entering the cable between the core and 35
It is to be uderstood that various changes may
conductor to sink the cable is avoided.
made in the details of construction and ar
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated
rangement of parts hereinabove shown and de
in Fig. 3, the core, which is of the same material
scribed wlthout departing from the spirit and
as the core 4 already referred to, instead of ex
scope of the invention.
. tending continuously throughout the cable as in 40
I claim:
Figs. 1 and 2, is made in relatively short lengths
l. An electric cable comprising a central flex
designated I2. These relatively short lengths are
ible core of cellular material composed of gas
spaced from each other by a partition or dise i4
nlled, non-intercommunicating cells, a relatively
preferably of wood. - These wooden discs act as a
gas-impermeable skin or sheath around the lon
support for the cable conductor to prevent pulling
surface of the core, an annular flexible
down of the same when the cable is subjected to
a longitudinal stress.
In this embodiment of the invention each core
length I2 is completely enclosed in a relatively
gas impermeable skin or sheath 6 which is the
same as the skin or sheath 6 of Figs. l and 2.
The embodiment of the invention illustrated;
in Fig. 4 is identical with that of Fig. 3 except
that instead of providing a gas impermeable skin
or sheath 8 for each individual core length, the
skin or sheath is continuous and completely en
closes the core lengths and thediscs i4.
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated>
in Fig. 5 I provide a. buoyant cable comprising
relatively short lengths of cellular material, these
lengths being designated i6. They are similar
to the lengths I2 of FigßB/Y in that each is com
conductor about the skin or sheath, and an in
sulating and Water-excluding covering surround
ing the conductor, the whole assembly `'providing
a flexible cable which will float on water.
2. An electric cable comprising a continuous ‘
ilexible core of cellular material enclosed in a
relatively gas-impermeable covering, an annular
ilexible conductor built up about the core, and
an insulating water-excluding covering surround
ing the conductor, the assembly providing a flex
4ible cable capable of iloating in Water..
3. A buoyant electric cable comprising an an
nular ilexible conductor, an insulating water
excluding covering surrounding the conductor,
and a core of cellular material composed of gas
ñlled, non-intercommunicating cells surrounded
pletely enclosed in a gas impermeable skin or
sheath IB. These core lengths, in practice, will
by a relatively gas-impermeable non-metallic
covering substantially filling the space within
be separated from each other vby conductor-sup
the annular conductor.
4. A buoyant electric cable comprising an an
porting wooden discs similar to the discs i4 of 65
nular flexible conductor, an insulating water-ex
Figs. 3 and 4. Surrounding the core assembly is
cluding covering surrounding the conductor, and
a rubber tube 20. Gas under pressure is intro
a core substantially filling the space within the
duced between the skin I8 and this tube, sum
conductor, said core including relatively short
cient pressure being employed to cause the tube
to contact the conductor 8 >throughout the length 70 lengths of cellular material, each length being
completely surrounded with a relatively gas-im
of the cable, and also to compress the core
permeable covering.
lengths, which, so long as they contain their orig
5. A buoyant electric cable comprising an an
inal >gas charge and are not placed under com
pression are of such dimensions as to illl the tube
nular ilexible conductor, a core substantially
2li to hold it against the conductor. In the event
filling the space within the conductor, said core
including relatively short lengths oflcellular ma
and water-excluding non-metallic sheath sur
terial composed of gas-illled, «non-intercommu- «
rounding the conductor.
nicating cells, each length being individually and
completely enclosed in a relatively gas-imper
meable covering, rigid means for-supporting the
7. A buoyant electric cable comprising a cen
tral core comprising relatively short lengths ot
a material composed of non-intercommunicating
conductor, and an insulating water-excluding
covering surrounding the core length and sup
porting means.
6. A buoyant electric cable comprising a cen
gas-filled cells. each length being completely sur
tral‘core having non-intercommunicating gas
illled cells, a relatively gas-impermeable skin or
sheath surrounding said core, an annular ilex»
ible conductor about the core, and an insulating
rounded by a relatively gas-impermeable skin or
sheath, wooden discs »intermediate adjacent core
lengths, an annular flexible conductor about the
10 core, and an insulating and water-excluding non---
metallic sheath surrounding the conductor.
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