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Патент USA US2403696

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July 9, 1946.
Filed Aug. 14, 1944
. aI
(/‘ ‘f
Patented July 9, 1946 r
Harry C. Warner, San Francisco, Calif.
‘Application August 14, 1944, Serial No. 549,379 ' 8 Claims.
(Cl. 179-10041)
parts between, which terminals H and I2 extend
My present invention relates to electrical sound
reproducing apparatus, and more particularly to
from one end for connection with a vacuum tube
ampli?er circuit. At their other end the halves
of the housing H) are provided with diagonally
disposed and registering half-round grooves l3
that will provide a cylindrical seat for two rela
tively soft rubber collars l4 and i5 within which
a record needle supporting member I6 is pivot
ally mounted. Carried by the member ii there
a device for providing a modulated input signal
current for a vacuum tube amplifying system.
An object of the invention is to provide anew
and novel form of current modulating device
which is particularly adapted to operate in con
junction with a sound responsive device, such as
a phonograph pick-up or microphone, to provide
an input signal current for a vacuum tube am
pli?er circuit.
10 is a suitable thumbscrew I‘! by means of which a
needle [8 may be secured within the support It.
Extending inwardly, and also carried by the sup
port It, there is an operating arm l9 that
is adapted to control a variable'resistance device
medium may be varied in a new and novel manner 15 20 which embodies what are now considered to
be the novel aspects of my present invention. As
to provide a signal current for the input of a vac
here shown, the variable resistance device 20 is
uum tube amplifying system.
in the form of a small capsule which is positioned
A further object of the invention is to provide
within a recess 2| formed in one side of the hous
a phonograph pick-up device of novel construc
tion for use with a vacuum tube amplifying sys 20 ing l0 so that its axis will be approximately in line
with a projection of the axis of the record engag
tem of the type employed to reproduce the re
ing needle I 8. As will hereinafter appear, the de
cording upon a sound record.
vice 20 is believed to operate on the principle of a
Other objects and advantages of the invention
variable resistance and it is here shown as being
will be in part evident to those skilled in the art,
and in part pointed out hereinafter in the fol 25 connected at its ends through conductors 22 and
23 to the terminals II and I2 which in turn are
lowing description taken in connection with the
adapted to connect with the input terminals of a
accompanying drawing, wherein there is shown
vacuum tube ampli?er circuit.
by way of illustration and not of limitation, pre
Reference is now made to Figures 2 and 3 of
ferred embodiments of the invention.
In the drawing;
30 the drawing for a more detailed description‘ of
the invention as embodied‘ in a device suitable for
Figure 1 is a. substantially normal-size view of
use as above indicated. In these ?gures the device
the invention as embodied in a pick-up for the
20 illustrated in Figure 1 is shown on a greatly
tone arm of a phonograph,
enlarged scale. As at present constructed, the
Figure 2 is an enlarged sectional view with
unit or capsule has a diameter of approximately
parts broken away and showing details of con
Another object of the invention is to provide
a current modulating device of the resistance type
in which the resistance of a liquid conducting
struction of a preferred embodiment of a feature
seven thirty-seconds of an inch and an overall
of the invention,
length of one-half inch, and the amount of liq
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional view taken
uid required as a variable resistance medium, as
will hereinafter appear, amounts to approximately
along line III—III of Figure 2,
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic wiring diagram 40 two full drops. In its preferred form the device
showing a system of connections by which my
device may be associated with the input of a
vacuum tube amplifying circuit, and
Figures 5 and 6 are diagrammatic views show
ing other adaptations of the invention.
In Figure 1 of the drawing, for the purpose of
illustration, I have shown my invention as em
bodied in a pick-up device, such as may be used
20 comprises a length of relatively soft rubber
tubing 24 that is adapted to-be closed at its ends
by means of electrodes 25 and 26 that project into
the ends thereof so as to form an air-tight liquid
45 containing chamber 21 therebetwcen which is
adapted to be ?lled with a liquid resistance me
dium. As here shown, the electrodes 25 and 26
are each provided with an annular recess 28 into
which the ends of the tubing 24 are clamped by
upon a sound record. In this showing the nu 50 means of suitable binding rings 29. Extending
between the electrodes 25 and 26 there is a spac
meral I0 designates a supporting housing of in
ing member 30 of insulating material which is
sulating material, such as is now generally used
seated at its ends within the electrodes 25 and
as a mounting for a piezo-electric crystal of a
to electrically reproduce the recorded program
phonograph pick-up device.
ri'his housing 10
26 in such a manner that they will be held in
is constructed in two substantially symmetrical 65 properly spaced relation with respect to each
other. This spacing member 30 has an annular
collar or enlargement ll intermediate its ends
which is chamiered so as to provide for a sub
39. This electrode 2,5 is also shown as connected
through a capacitance 40 to the grid 3'! of the
stantially knife edge engagement thereof with the
inside wall of the tubing 24, and at one point
vacuum tube 38. At the other side of the device
20 the electrode 28 is connected through a con
around its circumference, as is more clearly shown
in Figure 3 0f the drawing, this annular collar
and through a grid leak resistance 42 to the grid
31 of the vacuum tube 36. A plate coupling-rm
or enlargement 3| is provided with a notch or cut
ductor 4| to the grounded side of the filament 3|
sistance 43 is also here shown as connected across
away portion 32 that serves to provide a con
the plate or output circuit of the vacuum tube 36.
stricted conductance path in the liquid resist~ 10 This output circuit also has‘a blocking capaci
ance medium contained within the chamber 21.
tance 44 in one side thereof. When the device 20
As is more clearly shown in this latter figure of
is connected in this manner, it is believed that a
the drawing, the rubber tubing 24 is adapted to
current flow will be established through the con
be engaged on its outer surface, at a point im
mediately adjacent the notch or cut~away por 15 ductor 35, the coupling resistance 34 and the con
ductor 33 to the electrode 25, and from there
tion 32, by the operating member I9 previously
referred to as actuated in accordance with the
movements of the record engaging needle l8 when
the latter is operating upon a sound recording.
In Figure 4 of the drawing I have shown a dia~
grammatic circuit by means of which my inven
tion may be associated with a vacuum tube ampli
fier circuit. At this point it should .be stated that
while it is believed that the operation of my im~
proved device is based upon the principle of a
variable resistance as a modulating means, it is
to be understood that this action may be ac
counted for by some other theory. The nature
of the liquid resistance medium does not appear
to be of major importance, but it has been found
that grain alcohol or, in fact, ordinary whiskey,
may be used as a resistance medium between the
electrodes 25 and 28. The fact that an alcohol,
as distinguished from an acid electrolyte, has been
through the variable resistance medium to thc
electrode 25 and via the conductor H to ground
at the point of connection with the filament ll
of the vacuum tube 36. Now, with this current
flowing through the variable resistance medium
of the device 20, it will be seen that when the
recording needle I! is stationary, no change will
occur in the nature of the conductance path be’
tween the electrodes 25 and 26 and, therefore, a.
substantially uniform ?ow of current will prevail.
However, when the nature of the conductance
path formed by the resistance liquid medium in
the constricted zone of the chamber 21 is varied,
as by movements of the record engaging needle
I8, it is believed that these changes will produce
a modulation of this current which will then be
transmitted through the condenser 40 and the
grid leak resistance 42 to the grid 31 of the vacuum
tube 36, and in this way the vacuum tube 36 will
found to be particularly effective in this instance, 35 operate to produce an ampli?ed signal current
may be due to its inactivity with respect to the
that may be used to operate a loud speaker or
rubber tubing. There is also the known fact
other similar device. It is also conceivable that
that the alcohols have a high inductive capaci
the circuit through the variable resistance liquid
tance value and it is, therefore, possible that the
medium of the device 20 may also be subjected
use of such a liquid resistance medium may in 40 to a high frequency carrier current originating in
some way involve a capacitive change in the cir
the plate circuit of the vacuum tube 35 upon
cuit between the electrodes 25 and 26. In any
which the modulated signal current may be.
event, it has been demonstrated by actual use
that a device constructed as above described is
While I have illustrated and described my in
capable of providing for the reproduction of re 45
vention as embodied in a device for use in con
corded music in a much smoother and more satis
nection with the reproduction of phonograph re
factory manner than is possible with the best
cordings, it will be readily understood that the
piezo-electric crystals now on the market for this
device 20 may be found useful in other ?elds.
purpose. Among other advantages, it has been
found possible, by changing the resilience or 50 For example, as shown in Figure 5 of the draw
ing, it may be used in connection with a sound
thickness of the tubing 24, to provide for almost
wave responsive microphone by operating the
any desired frequency response. For example, a
device 20 in association with a sound wave inter
thin walled tubing has been found to be very
cepting diaparagm 45 or, as shown in Figure 6
responsive in the higher frequency range, while
in the lower frequency range the response is more 55 of the drawing, wherein the device is illustrated
as associated with a mechanically operated de
pronounced as the thickness of the tubing 24 is
tector device 46 that may be placed against any
increased. Another point is that by changing
the nature of the liquid and/or the length of the
current path therethrough, it will be possible to
match the input impedance of any ampli?er cir
cuit with which the device may be used. And
?nally, it has also been discovered that the oper
ation of the device is not affected by changes in
temperature or humidity, which is a character
istic not possessed by the so-called piezo-electric
crystal microphone and pick-up devices.
In operation, when the device 20 is associated
with a vacuum tube ampli?er circuit, as‘ dia
grammatically shown in Figure 4 of the drawing,
vibrating surface for the purpose of reproducing
electrical impulses corresponding to the move
ments of a vibrating member.
While I have, for the sake of clearness and in
order to disclose the invention so that the same
can be readily understood, described and illus
trated speci?c devices and arrangements, I desire
to have it understood that the invention is not
limited to the specific means disclosed, but may
be embodied in other ways that will suggest them
selves to persons skilled in the art. It is believed
that this invention is new and it is desired to
claim it so that all such changes as come within
one of its electrodes, as for example, the electrode 70 the scope of the appended claims are to be con
25, will be connected through a conductor 33,
sidered as part of this invention.
a coupling resistor 34 and a conductor 35 to the
Having thus described my invention, what I
positive side of the output or plate circuit of a
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
vacuum tube 38, which tube is here shown as
1. In a phonograph pick-up of the character
having a control grid 31, a ?lament 38 and a plate 75
described, the combination of a supporting hous
ing adapted to be carried by the tone arm of a
phonograph, a stylus pivotally mounted'upon
and extending from ‘said housing adapted to en
the combination of an input tube having ?la
ment, grid and plate connections, a variable re
sistance medium comprising spaced electrodes
with a column of conducting liquid therebetween,
gage a sound record, a deformable liquid con
circuit connections between one of said electrodes
and the plate and through a capacitance to the
grid of said vacuum tube, 'a circuit connection
taining receptacle having spaced electrodes
mounted therein and adapted 'to be connected in
the grid circuit of a vacuum tube with the plate
to ground potential of said vacuum tube im
between the other of said electrodesand the fila
ment grounding circuit of said tube, whereby the
uid within said receptacle forming a variable 10 plate potential of said tube will be impressed up
on said liquid through said electrodes, and me
conductance path between said electrodes, and‘
chanical means responsive to sound wave im
means operated by movements of said stylus
pulses adapted to ‘vary the cross-section of said
adapted to deform said receptacle and'thereby
column of conducting liquid between said elec
change the conductance of said liquid in accord
pressed therebetweenya current conducting liq
15 trodes, whereby .a modulated current correspond
ance with the recording upon a sound record.
ing to the response of said sound wave responsive
. 2. In a phonograph pick-up of the character
means will be impressed upon the grid of said in
described, the combination of an insulated sup
porting housing adapted to be carried by the tone ' put tube.
6.‘ In a variable resistance unit for a current
arm of a phonograph, a stylus pivotally mounted
upon and extending from said housing adapted 20 modulating device, the combination of a pair of
spaced electrodes, a tubular rubber sleeve secured
to engage a sound record, a tubular rubber re
at its ends around each of said electrodes and
ceptacle having spaced electrodes closing the
forming a liquid containing chamber therebe
ends thereof and adapted to be connected in the
tween, means between said electrodes operating
input circuit of a vacuum tube with the plate to
ground potential of said vacuum tube impressed 25 to divide said chamber into two parts with a re
stricted communicating passageway therebe
therebetween, 'a liquid medium within said recep
tween, a current conducting liquid disposed with
tacle forming a variable conductance path be
in said chamber forming a variable resistance
tween said electrodes, and means operated by
between said electrodes, and means including a
movements of said stylus adapted to deform said
tubular receptacle between said electrodes to 80 sound wave responsive device adapted to distort
the wall of said tubular sleeve adjacent said re—
thereby vary the cross-section and conductance
- stricted passageway, whereby the overall resist
of said liquid between said electrodes in accord
ance of said liquid conducting \rnedium will be
ance with the recording upon a sound record.
changed in accordance with the operation oi’
3. In a control device for vacuum tube circuits,
the combination of a tubular non-metallic mem
ber having current conducting electrodes form
ing closures at the ends thereof, a current con
ducting liquid forming a conductance path with
in said tubular ‘member between said electrodes,
said means.
7. In a control device for vacuum tube circuits,
the combination of a capsule-like unit compris
ing an elongated yielding body portion of insu
lating material having current conducting elec
means forming a constricted cross-section of said 46 trodes sealed in and closing the ends thereof to
provide a ?uid containing cavity, a ?uid medium
liquid. at a point between said electrodes, and a
disposed within said capsule and forming a cur
sound wave responsive means adapted to deform
said tubular non-metallic member at the point . rent conducting path between said electrodes,
of said constriction to thereby change the over 45 and means associated with the yielding body por
tion of said capsule adapted to exert a deform
' all conductance of said liquid between said elec
ing pressure thereupon, whereby the conductance
trodes in accordance with sound wave impulses to
. of the current path through said ?uid medium
between the electrodes at the ends of said cap
4. In a sound wave control device for vacuum 50 sule will be varied in accordance with the oper
which said sound wave responsive means may be
ations of said means.
tube circuits, the combination of a grid con
8. In a control device for vacuum tube cir
trolled vacuum tube, a receptacle having opposed
cuits, the combination of a capsule-like unit hav
and insulated electrodes mounted therein and
ing a yielding body portion of insulating mate
adapted to be connected through a capacitance
in the grid circuit of said vacuum tube, connec-‘ 55 rial, current conducting electrodes sealed in the
wall of said capsule and forming therewith a
tions whereby the plate'potential of said vacuum
closed ?uid containing cavity, a ?uid medium
tube is impressed across the space between said
disposed within said capsule between said elec
electrodes, a liquid current conducting medium
trodes and forming a current conducting path
disposed between‘ said electrodes, means located
between said electrodes forming a restricted cur 60 therebetween, and means associated with the
yielding body portion of said capsule adapted to
rent path in said liquid, and mechanical means
exert a deforming pressure thereupon, whereby
responsive to sound wave impulses adapted to
the conductance of the current path through
vary the cross-section of the restricted current
said ?uid between said electrodes will be varied
path in said liquid in accordance with the nature
or sound wave impulses to which said mechani 65 in accordance with the operations of said means.
cal means is exposed.
5. In a sound reproducing vacuum tube circuit.
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