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Патент USA US2403716

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J‘1]Y9,1946-
“I HIGOLDBERGETAL '
N. v2,403,716
COMBINE-2D AMPLIFIER AND POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT
Filed Feb. 7, 1944
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WFLTEE 6‘. THOMPSON
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July 9,1946. ‘ . '
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H. GOLDBERG ETAL
COMBINED AMPLIFIER AND POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT
Filed Fella. 7, 1944
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2,403,716
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INVENTORS
BY
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‘Patented July 9, 1946
Es PAT~E~NT._ “FF-ICE _
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‘ 2,403,716 ‘
‘ “ COMBINED “AMPLIFIER‘A‘ND‘ POWER 4
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‘SUPPLY CIRCUIT “
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‘
“Harold ‘Goldberg, Irondequoit, and Walter 0.1, l
‘
Thompson,
Rochester,
Y., ,ass‘ignors‘ to
,
Stromber‘g-Carlson. Company, "Rochester,
‘Yr,
‘
‘ . “a corporation of New York-i‘ ‘
. ‘Application February '7, 1944,“>S“eri|al,No. 521,450 ‘7 I ‘ ‘
‘ ‘
TCIaimS.
‘(Cl.'1‘7‘1—97‘)
1.
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and power-supply circuits. ‘
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In. Fig. ‘.1,‘_there is illustrated a diagrammatic
showing ofa‘ra’dio‘ locat‘or system in which the
This .inventionrelates to combined ampli?er .
.
locator of the pulse .echo type,‘ there is utilized a.‘ ‘
present invention is‘i‘ncorporated. At'the ‘left of
the broken line inthis ?gure, there is, illustrated
so-called driver which applies periodic pulses ‘of
relatively high voltage, such as ‘nine hundred
volts,‘ to the grid of an electron tube included
plyj? togethercwithlthe combined ampli?er-clip
In a. radio locator and especially in a radio
a modulator ‘comprising ‘a driverf5 ‘(which genera
ates control pulses?) with itsadirect current sup- ‘
power supply unitsupplies to ‘the ampli?er-clip
perwcircuit‘ljarid power ‘supply circuit B‘of the.
present invention; The ampli?er-‘clipper delivers,
order of ?fteen thousand volts and the ampli?er
:of the present‘invention, comprisesa magnetron]
ina so-called ampli?er-‘clipper. ‘A highvoltage ‘
pulses Pl‘; Theportionof thelo‘cator systemat
per, a high anode voltage. For example,v in one:
particular locator this anode voltage ‘is of the’ "the right of the. broken line,"butuforniing ‘no part
‘transmitter 91‘ to‘deliver radio frequency ‘explor
ing pulses PZ‘and also comprises a receiver 12
clipper supplies to the load, a clipped and squared
pulse ‘at twelve thousand volts and twelve am
peres.‘~
‘
“i
-' with itsiindicator I3 together with‘a‘transmitter '
‘r
In the. past the power supply and ‘amplifier
and receiver switch unit II ‘for alternately con
units utilized what wasconsidered to be the‘ irreg
ducibleminimum ‘of components, However, in
' necting the transmitter‘and the receiver to -.a co
axial line Ida ‘and thence to an antenna‘ assem
‘ ‘ accordance with the present invention,the num
bly‘ltr
The presentinvention
J
v.is] particularly
.‘ a. v .‘directed.
ber of ‘components usedin said, unitslhas been sub
stantially xreducedgbyi having .certainqoi; these
components perform notyonly their ‘conventional
‘functions: but‘also the; functions‘ usually: per;
3 to the: ampli?ereclipper circuit], together with
a‘ highvoltage direct ‘current power supply .8.‘ > A
‘conventional form of‘these circuits .usijngla‘ half
wave recti?er‘, ‘is ,shownfin .‘FigLQZ;‘Likewise, a
conventionalrform of these circuits results when
formed by‘ certain‘components eliminatedin the
present novel construction. This reduction is ex?
tremely useful particularly in equipmentfor use
i the‘ ‘full‘iwave doubler ‘ recti?er ‘ shown in @Fig. 3, is
‘substituted for the ,half. wave rectifier ‘whichis
inairplanes. For example, in one type of equip
disconnected .atlterminal markedlB?-l- and ‘the
ment, it was impossible, prior to theivdiscqvery of r
the present‘ invention, to design ‘a, thoroughly
reliable modulator ‘unitfor use under ‘the severe
‘ 13+ connection of the "full ‘waverecti?er is “COXl- ' l .
31.v
nectedito that terminal.
7
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‘
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In accordance with. knownpractice, thehalf
conditions imposed by the ‘necessity ‘of ‘ operating
‘ . suchlequipment in aircraft?yingat high altitudes ‘ ‘ wave recti?er (Fig. 2")“ comprises a diode D, a ?lter.
condenser C] and an iron; ‘core transformer T
connected to an alternating current source A. C‘.‘,
under extremeqconditions ‘of, temperature ‘and
humidity.
.
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1.‘
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‘
‘ vFor a clearer understanding of the invention,
- as shown. Alsoin accordance with knownfprac‘-‘
‘rice, the full wave recti?erdoubler‘of Fig; 3; com-‘
referenceis made to thefollowingdescription and
claims when ‘taken with the drawings in which:
prises the two diodes D and DI, ?lter condensers ‘
C‘f, Cf and the iron core transformer .T ‘con-.
'nected to'a source -‘of alternating current A. C‘., as
Fig. 1 is adiagrammatic showing of a radio
locator system having a modulatorincluding a
combined ‘ampli?er-clipper and power supply ‘of 40 shown. No explanation ‘of. the operation of these
recti?er circuits or their relative advantages is
the present invention indicated vat ‘the left of the
necessary since they are well known.
broken ‘line and having-at the right of‘this broken.
The ampli?er-clipper (Fig. 2) includes a tetrode
line a given load-_;such_as:a transmitter with its
‘related means @for; transmitting exploring pulses
and a receiver with its indicator for ‘the-“return
ingor re?ected exploringpulsesy
“
“ ‘ ,
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1
Fig. 2‘ is ashowing ‘of a conventional. ampli?er
‘ Iiihaving a control grid IT, a screen‘ grid IS,‘ a
‘ cathode is and an‘anode 23, the screen grid being >
i normally supplied "with ‘a voltage Vs." It will be
understood-that a triode‘ or pentode tube maybe
used‘ instead .of the tetrode It; -When in‘ use, the ‘ ‘
clipper with its‘ half wave , power supply; .
. Fig. 3 is a showing of a‘full wave ‘doubler recti
?erwhich lcanrbe‘ substituted, for the half. wave
recti?er
of‘Fig. 2;
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i
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H
Figs. 4 and 5 are‘successive steps in the im
provement inq-the circuit ‘arrangement ‘of Fig. 2;
‘6 and 7 are jsuccessive ‘steps, {in the im-‘
‘movement in the ‘circuit arrangement ofFig. 2 .
when- the, ‘half ‘wave recti?er thereof is replaced
bythefullwaye-recti?er-of Fig. 3;yand
‘
‘ ‘
Figs. ‘8 “and 9 are‘diagrams ,useful in setting
‘ forthuthe, electricalecharacteristics ‘of a recti?er
tube and a transformer, respectively. p i
L H 60
tetrode or ampli?er tube 16 is ‘ordinarily biased‘ to
cut-oil‘, so that during‘ the time that ‘no ‘pulse
P is supplied to the gridv ‘l‘l‘thereof ‘by the driver ‘ “
5, i the ‘amplifier "tube ‘does not aconduct,.~ia'nd““the
‘coupling capacitor lCichar‘g‘es- with the‘ ‘polarity
shown, to ‘approximately the voltage B supplied
bythe power supply. When a pulse? from driver
.5 causes, theggrid ‘ll of the amplifier- tube l6‘ to
become positive totthepoint. of saturation, this
tube is rendered conducting.
Condenser C be
gilns‘to‘discharge ‘through anode Ziiand cathode
isle-f the-tube l5 and through the parallel ‘com
2,403,716
.
3
4
I
bination of Z2 and the load L, which includes the
which utilizes all ‘of the capacitance in. C and
magnetron 9. This produces a voltage across the
parallel combination of Z2 and the load L equal
to the condenser voltage less the anode space‘ "
drop between anode 20 and cathode I 9 in the
ampli?er tube. During this time, the power sup
ply or recti?er tends to discharge through Zl and
the ampli?er tube it but the discharge current
is kept small by reason of the impedance 2|;
When the driver pulse P ends, the ampli?er tube 10
It is again rendered non-conducting so that the
condenser C stops discharging. At the same
time, the voltage across the load L drops to ap
proximately zero, and condenser C, whose voltage
dropped during the time it was discharging, is re
charged by the power supply through impedance
Zl and the parallel combination of the load L
and impedance Z2.‘
‘
_ Impedance Zl, may be a pure inductance, or
pure resistance, or a combination of both, the 20
latter being shown herein and respectively desig
none‘ in Cf.
Such an improved circuit design
shown in Fig. 4, is the conventional circuit using
the half wave recti?er power supply but omitting
the condenser C)‘, which is employed in all con
ventional circuits. The operation is exactly as
described before except that condenser C is re
charged directly through the agency of the trans
former and recti?er but without the cooperation
of condenser Cjf The power line ripple is equiv
alent to that of a conventional circuit using a ,
total capacitance equal to condenser C but the
output pulse performance is equivalent to a con
ventional circuit with a coupling capacitor equal
to C. Thus both the bene?ts of high‘ coupling
capacitance and adequate?ltering are obtained.
A conventional circuit with the total capacitance
of C divided between condensers C and Cf will
‘have the same ripple but poorer pulse perform
ance.
.
.
The combined ampli?er and full-wave doubler
recti?er of Figs. 2 and 3 cannot be modi?ed in the
nated 2| and 22. Ordinarily, wire wound re
sistors of the inductive type may be used. The
manner shown in Fig. 4. Here the form of cir
function of impedance ZI is to prevent the dis
cuit improvement, that is, in the case of the full
charge of the power supply unit 8 during the 25 wave recti?er, is not merely effected by the elim
pulse. This impedance must not, however, be
ination of the ?lter condenser Cf. Instead, the
made of a size such that the charging current
coupling capacitor C has been replaced by two .ca
to condenser C gives rise to excessively large
pacitors 2C, 20 in series, of half the voltage rating
power losses. Impedance Z2 is also a combina
and double the capacitance. These capacitors
tion of inductance 23 and resistance 24. It is 30 serve both‘ as coupling and ?lter capacitors. The
needed only when the load is a unilateral or a very
combination in practice requires the same vol
non-linear device such as a magnetron 9. Such
ume and weight as the single capacitor C since
a load acts in similar fashion to a diode, and if
high voltage capacitors are usuallybuilt by con
it were not for impedance Z2, condenser C could
necting low voltage ‘capacitors , in series. The
never be charged by the power supply 8.
35 circuit performance is as previously described'ex
Since it is usually desirable that the modulator
deliver a ?at-topped output pulse, it is necessary
cept that the coupling capacitor network is
charged directly through the full wave recti?er
that the voltage across condenser C shall not fall
doubler circuit, Impedance Z3 serves avpurpose
more than some small percentage of the voltage
similar to that served by impedance Zl . The ad
to which it is initially charged. ‘This means that 40 vantages of the circuit are those already given for
the total charge "IAT” delivered to the load L
during the pulse (where I is the peak current
the half wave circuit of similar design.
,
,
It has been discovered thatthe circuit arrange
and AT is' the duration of the pulse) must be a
ments of Fig. 4 and Fig. 6 can be further im
small percentage of the total charge in the con
proved by the elimination of impedance Z! , in the
denser at the beginning of the pulse. If the drop 45 arrangement of Fig. 3 and bythe elimination of
is small, it is given, approximately, ‘by
impedances Zl and Z3 from the arrangement of
Fig. 6, provided that certain of the retained com
ponents have’appropriate characteristics. This
is possible since a, recti?er tube has an inherent
Thus if the requirements on the output pulse are
50 dynamic impedance and a power transformer has
known, the minimum value of condenser C can
an inherent leakage inductance. In other Words,
be determined.
a recti?er tube may be represented as an ideal
' Since the charging of the power supply ?lter
recti?erD in series with a resistance R (Fig. 8)
condenser Cf takes place at the power line fre
and a power transformer may be represented as
quency or a multiple of it, the voltage across con
an ideal transformer T with the secondary wind
denser C)‘ and across condenser C‘will have a 55
ing thereof in series with‘ the resistance RT and
power line ripple component. The amount of
the leakage inductance LT of this winding (Fig.
ripple will depend, to a large degree on the total
9).
It is possible, therefore, by proper choice of
capacitance of C plus Cf, and the average load
‘current. For minimum ripple, the total capaci
components to substitute these inherent circuit
of the total capacitance; the drop in output volt
vide the recti?er doubler circuit of Fig. 7. It
tance must be made as large as possible. It (3O elements for Z! in Fig. 4 to give'the half wave rec'
ti?er of Fig. 5 and for Zl and Z3 in Fig. '6 to pro
should be noted that while the ripple is a function
age during each pulse is a function of the cou
pling capacitance, C, only.
should be noted, however, that this substitution
cannot be done in the conventional circuits of
In general, the‘ obstacles to small size and 65 Figs. 2 and 3 but is possible only after the ?lter
weight in a modulator or pulser of this kind are
the inevitable large sizes of high voltage compo
nents. Generally speaking, the smallest and light—
‘est vdesign will also be the most ef?cient if the
design is achieved by the elimination of elements
condenser or condensers Cf, Cf have been re
moved.
a
The capacitances and connections represented
by dotted lines (Figs. 5 and 7) are the unavoid
70 able stray capacitances inherent in the trans
formers. For short pulses, it is necessary to de
sign the transformers so that these stray capaci
tances are kept small. It is also necessary that
the transformers be designed to stand pulse'volt
tors may be accommodated, the best design is one 75 ages since the transformers are actually pulsed
which dissipate power or else by the use of ele
ments in their most useful condition.
‘ If only a certain volume of high voltage capaci
2,403,716,
5
_
in these improved circuits but are not pulsed in
the conventional circuits of Fig. 2 and 3. For use
with certain magnetron loads, it is sometimes
necessary to restore impedance Z3 into the
doubler circuit Fig. '7 for the purpose of damping
out certain undesirable transients. The circuits
sh'own in Figs. 5 and '7, allow better performance
than the conventional devices (Figs. 2 and 3)
said electron tube being normally biased to cut
off, means for periodically applying positive volt
age to said grid to render said electron tube con
ducting, a load circuit, a capacitor coupling said ‘
anode to said load circuit, and a power supply
unit including a recti?er and a transformer, said
recti?er being provided with a cathode and with
a plate, said diode being conductively connected
‘ to said anode through a connection devoid of
‘and with a weight reduction of as much as twenty 10 inductance or resistance elements, said trans‘
withfewer components, and with smaller size,
‘ pounds in certain models, as compared with prior
former comprising‘ a primary winding connected
to a source of alternating current :and a sec
devices.
What we claim is:
.
ondary winding having one terminal thereof con- . ‘
nected to said plate, the cathode return of said
an ampli?er including an electron tube provided 15 electron tube and the low potential side of said
load as well as the remaining‘ terminal‘ of said
with a cathode, an anode and a control grid,
secondary windingbeing at a common potential,
said electron tube being normally biased to cut
the stray capacitances of said unit being reduced
o?, means including said grid for intermittently
1. In an arrangement of the class ‘described,
rendering said tube conducting, aload circuit,
to a low value.
‘
‘
6. In an arrangement of the, class described.
a capacitor coupling said anode to said load, a 20
an ampli?er including anelectron tube provided ,
power supply unit including a diode recti?er, and
with a cathode, an anode and a control grid, said
a conductive connection substantially devoid of
electron tube being normally biased to cut off,
means
for periodically applying positive voltage
ode recti?er to said anode.
2. In an arrangement of the class described, 25 to said grid to render said electron tube conduct
ing, a load circuit, two capacitors connected in
an ampli?er including an electron tube provided
series so that their voltages add, said capacitors
with a cathode, an anode and a control grid,
serving to couple said anode to said ‘load circuit,
means including said grid for‘ rendering, said
any physical impedance element linking said di
tube conducting, a load circuit, a capacitor cou
a recti?er including a transformer and two di
including a diode recti?er, and a conductive con
transformer havinga primary winding. and a
secondary winding, said primary winding being
pling said anode to said load, a power supply unit 30 odes, each having a cathode and a plate, said
nection substantially devoid of any‘ physical im
pedance element, linking said unit to said anode,
the inherent impedance of said diode recti?er
alone serving to limit the current ?ow through 35
said connection.
I
3. In an arrangement of the class described,
‘ an ampli?er including an electron tube provided
with a cathode, an anode and a control grid,
connected to an alternating current source, one
terminal of said secondary winding being con
ductively connected to the commonterminals of
said capacitors, the other terminal of said sec
ondary winding being joined by‘a conductive con
nection“ to the plate of the ?rst diode ‘and to the
cathode of said second diode, the cathode of the
said electron tube being normally biased to cut 40 ?rst diode being, joined by a conductive, connec
tion to said anode, the plate of said second diode
off, means for periodically applying positive volt
being joined by a conductive connection to the
age to said grid to render said electron tube con
low potential side of, said load circuit, at least
ducting, a/load circuit, a capacitor coupling said
, two of said conductive connections being devoid
anode to ‘said load, a power supply device in
cluding a diode conductively connected to said 45 of inductor, or resistor elements.
capacitor and servingto supply charging current a
7. In an arrangement of the class described.
to said capaciton said capacitor being the sole‘,
an ampli?er including an electron tube provided
physical capacitance element for coupling said
with a cathode, an anode and a control grid, said
ampli?er to said load and for ?ltering out‘ the
electron tube being normally biased to cut off,
ripple component from the power supplied by 50 means for periodically applying positive voltage
to said grid to render said electron tube con
ducting, a load circuit, two capacitors connected
in series so that their voltages add, said capaci
tors serving to couple said anode to said load
electron tube being normally biased to cut off, 55 circuit, a recti?er unit including a transformer
means for periodically applying positive voltage
and two diodes, each having a cathode and a
to said grid to render said electron tube conduct
plate, said transformer having a primary wind
ing, a load circuit, a capacitor coupling said anode
ing and a secondary winding, said primary wind
ing being connected to an alternating current,
to said load circuit, and a power supply unit in
cluding a recti?er and a transformer, said rec 60 source, one terminal of said secondary winding
ti?er being provided with a cathode and with
.being conductively connected to the common tere
a plate, said transformer comprising a primary
minals of said capacitors, the other terminal of
said secondary winding being joined by a con
winding connected to a source of alternating cur- ’
rent and a secondary winding included in the
ductive connection to the plate of the ?rst diode
connection from said plate to allow reference 65 and to the cathode ‘of, said second diode, the
cathode of the ?rst diode being joined by a con
potential, said recti?er cathode being conduc
said recti?er,
4. In an arrangement of the class described,
an ampli?er including an electron tube provided
with a cathode, an anode and a control grid, said
'
tively‘connected to said capacitor, whereby said‘
device serves to supply charging current to said
ductive connection to said anode,‘ the plate of
said second diode being. joined by a‘ conductive‘
connection to the low potential side of said load
capacitor, said capacitor being the sole physical
capacitance element for coupling“ said ampli?er 70 circuit, at least two of said conductive 00111183!
tions being devoid ‘of inductor or resistor ele
to said load and for ?ltering out the ripple com
ments, the stray capacitances of said unit being
ponent from the power supplied by said recti?er.
5. In an arrangement of the class described,
reduced to a low value.
,
HAROLD ‘ GOLDBERG.
.
an ampli?er including an electron tube provided
WALTER C. THOMPSON.
with a cathode, an anode and a‘ control grid, 75
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