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Патент USA US2403728

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July 9, 1946.
A. v. LOUGHREN
2,403,728
SYSTEM FOR INDICATING THE POSITION. IN SPACE OF AN OBJECT
Filed Nov. 28, 1941 '
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FIGB î
Vl'Nvl-:NToR
ARTHUR v. Loman-TREN>
&
b.
Frequency _+»
“WW
ATT RNEY
2,403,728
Patented July 9, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE'
2,403,728
SYSTEM FOR INDICATING THE POSITION
IN SPACE OF AN OBJECT
Arthur V. Loughren, Great Neck, N. Y., assigner,
by mesne assignments, to Hazeltine Research,
Inc., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Application November 28, 1941, Serial No. 420,772 '
8 Claims.
(Cl. Z50-11)
2
1
The present invention relates to systems for
indicating the position in space of a radiated
'signal reflector and, while the invention is of
general application, it is of particular utility in
indicating the position in space from a locating
station of a radiated-signal reilector, such as an
aircraft.
,
`
It i's a further object of the invention to pro
systems for locating aircraft in flight.
5 vide a system for indicating the position in space
It has been proposed in applicant’s copending
of a radiated-signal reilector and one in which
application Serial No. 395,172, filed May 26, 1941,
the time interval required for the radiated carrier
entitled “System for space-scanning with a radi
signal to travel Vto the reflector and to return-to
ated beam of wave signals” that the position of a
the point rof reception requires >nocompensation y
radiated-signal reflector in space be determined
in eiîecting the desiredv position indication.-`
by cyclically scanning with a sharply-concen
In accordance with the invention, a systemior
trated radiated beam a predetermined space
locating a radiated-signal reñector comprises an
which includes the reflector, at a relatively high
frequency in one direction and at a relatively low
antennasystem having a radiation characteristic
eiïectively in the form of a sharply-concentrated
beam, means for applying a carrier signal to the
antenna system, and means .for varying the fre
quency of the carrier signal and fork scanning a
frequency in a direction normal to the one direc
tion. Radiated carrier-signal energy is reflected
from the reñector, is received, and is used to
modulate the intensity of the cathode-ray beam
predetermined space in at least-one direction with
of a cathode-ray tube type of indicator. The
the beam synchronously with the frequency vari
cathode-ray beam of the tube is caused to scan 20 ation. The system also includes means for re
the ñuorescent screen thereof in t'wo directions
ceiving carrier-signalenergy from the' radiated
normal to each other in synchronism with the
beam reflected from the reiiector,- means respon
cyclic scanning of the space by the radiated beam.
sive solely to the received carrier-signal energy
The position in space of the reilector is thus in
for deriving therefrom a control >signal a charac
dicated by an illuminated spot produced Yon the 25 teristic of which varies with the frequency of the
received carrier-signal energy, and means respon
screen of the cathode-ray tube. However, in such
systems, the time required for the radiated car
sive to the control signal and dependent upon the
rier signal to travel from the point of radiation
above-mentioned ,characteristic thereof for in
to the reiiector and back to the point of reception
dicating the position in space of the reflector.
is a ñnite value which, at the high scanning fre
In a particular form of the invention, a system
quencies employed, must be compensated for to
of the type described includes a cathode-ray tube
avoid error in the position indication thus pro
and means responsive to the derived >control
signal for deflecting the cathode-ray beamjof the
vided. There is, consequently, derived in the sys
tem of the aforementioned application a uni
tube in one direction. 'There is also derived from
directional potential of pulse wave form and of ‘ the received carrier1 signal a ’second control po
amplitude varying with the time interval re
tential, the amplitude of which varies with the
quired for the radiated carrier signal to travel
amplitude of the received carrier-signal energy,
and the system includes means responsive to the
to and from the reflector, and this derived poten
tial is used to modify the high-frequency scan
second control signal for modulating the-,cath
ning of the cathode-ray tube. While the com
ode-ray beam of the tube. There is also provided
pensation thus .provided is entirely adequate over
in the system `means for-deflecting the cathode
the central portion of the scanned area, it is
ray beam of the tube in a direction >normal to
somewhat limited in its accuracy around _ the
the aforesaid one direction in synchronism with<7
outer portions of the scanned area due to the fact
that a compensating potential pulse which actu- =
space area by the sharply-concentrated beam in
ally should compensate during a given line-de
a direction normal to the first-mentioned direc
flection of the cathode-ray beam may occur sub
sequent to the start of a new scanning line.V It
is desirable, however, that the accuracy of the
indications provided by a system of this type be f
entirely independent of any time delays involved
cyclic scanning of the aforesaid predetermined
tion `_of scanning, whereby there is provided an'
indication in two dimensions of the position in
space-of` the reflector.’
»
y
~
For a better understanding of the invention, to-`
gether withv other and'fu'rther objects thereof,
between the radiation and receptionof the radi
reference is had to the following description "
ated carrier signal.
taken in connection withÍ the accompanying
drawing; andl it-s‘ scope will’be pointed out in theY
’
.
It is an object of the present invention, there
fore, to provide a new and improved system for 55
appended claims.
2,403,728
3
4
Referring now to the drawing, Fig. 1 is a cir
cuit diagram, partly schematic, of a complete
adapted to be synchronized from a timer I1, the
output circuit of the line-scanning generator I6
system for indicating the position in space of a
radiated-signal reflector; and Figs. 2 and 3 com
prise graphs which are used in explaining the
operation of the arrangement of Fig. l.
Referring now :more particularly to Fig. l of
the drawing, the system there represented corn
prises a complete position-indicating system em
bodying the present invention in its preferred
form. 'I'he system includes a transmitting sta
being coupled to the high-frequency oscillator I4
to vary the output frequency of unit I4 over a pre
determined range of frequency deviation in ac
cordance with the wave form of th'e signal devel
oped by the line-frequency -scanning generator
I5, in any conventional manner. The Atransmit
ting station I0 additionally includes means for cy
~.clically varying the relative phases of the carrier
signals as applied to the signal radiators which
cally to scan a predetermined .space area in two
are spaced in the above-mentioned second dimen
sion at a second predetermined frequency, lower
than the line-scanning frequency, to scan the
directions normal to each other.
aforementioned predetermined space area in a
tion I!) for radiating a sharply-concentrated car
rier-signal beam and for causing the beam cycli
The system ad
ditionally includes a receiving station II for re
direction normal to the first-named direction
ceiving carrier-signal energy from the radiated
with the .carrier-.signal beam.
beam reflected from a radiated-signal reflector
I2, for example, an aircraft.
The transmitting station I0 is described in de
tail in applicant’s copending application referred
to above. Briefly, for purposes «of the `preseni-,Ide
scription, the transmitting station Iil includes `an
antenna system :I3 comprising a, plurality .of sig
nal radiators shown as dipoles Di-Dis, inclusive,
.geometrically spaced in two dimensions and in
cluding means for electrically spacing them in
one of the two dimensions. Specifically, the con
ductors of the dipoles are all disposed in the same
horizontal plane and are parallel to each other.
Dipoles D1--D4, inclusive, are spaced in a .first
dimension in Aa longitudinal array, while the sets
of dipoles D5-Da, inclusive, Dia-D12, inclusive,
and D13-D16, inclusive, .are similarly spaced in
Yother longitudinal arrays and are arranged, in . ,
This means com
prises a field-frequency scanning generator I8,
also adapted to be synchronized by the timer I'I
and having an output circuit which is coupled to
the individual Íphase-shifting networks of the
phase shifter I5 in the manner more fully ex
plained in the aforementioned copending appli
cation.
In order to suppress radiation downward from
the plane including the conductors of vdipoles
Di-Dis, inclusive, a reflecting conductor, .not
shown, is disposed below each of the dipoles, thus
to increase the useful energy .in the desired di
rection of radiation and minimize minor spurious
beams.
The carrier-signal receiver IVI includes aradio
frequency amplifier and modulator I9 having an
input circuit coupled to a substantially nondi
rectional antenna system provided by two dipole
antennas 25, 2|, antenna 20 preferably being
parallel to the dipoles of the antenna system I3
the order named, to one side of the set of dipoles
Di-Dr, inclusive, to form an arrangement of di
of the transmitting station `and the dipole an
pole sets, each set including an array of four di
tenna 20 being at right angles to the dipole 2|
pole .antennas and -the sets being spaced »in a
second dimension. The dipoles of each of the 40 to provide a response to reflected carrier .signals
having a polarization 90 degrees displaced .from
above-.mentioned sets of dipoles are energized in
that radiated by the antenna lf3.
parallel except that the above-mentioned means
The modulator of unit I9 has an input circuit'I
for electrically spacing them in one of the two
coupled to an oscillation generator 22, for con
dimensions comprises delay networks F inter
posed between adjacent dipoles. The geometri- ‘ verting 4received carrier signals to intermediate
frequency carrier signals, and has an `output circal spacing of the .dipoles of .each set in the above
mentioned one dimension is preferably made ap
cuit to which is coupled, in the order named, an
intermediate-frequency amplifier 23 of one or
proximately one-half wave length of the mean or
nominal frequency of the carrier signal to be ap
more stages, a limiting system 24„ a frequency de
plied to the system, while the electrical spacing ml tector 25, a direct-current amplifier 26 of one or
due to .delay networks F is made to be in integral
more stages, and a .ñrst set `of deiiectin-g elec
number .of wave lengths at the fnominal or mean
trodes 21 provided in a cathode-ray tube 28.
frequency of the carrier signal. The sets of di
Also coupled to the output of the limiting system
poles are also preferably spaced .in the dimension
24 is an amplitude detector and amplifier 29, the
output circuit of which is coupled through a
normal to the ñrst dimension, or `in the above
mentioned second dimension, by a distance ap
source of biasing potential 30 to a control elec
proximately equal to one-half the wave length of
trode SI and cathode 32 provided in the cathode
the mean or nominal frequency of the carrier
ray tube 28. The biasing source 3i) biases the
signal to be applied to the system.
cathode-ray tube 28 to cutoiî in the absence of
The transmitting station I0 also includes a
a received carrier signal. The cathode-ray tube
source of high-frequency carrier signals compris
28 also includes a second set of deñecting elec
ing a high-frequency oscillator I4 and means for
trodes `33 arranged at right angles to the deflect
individually applying carrier signals from the
oscillator I 4 to the signal radiators Di-Die, in
clusive, for directive radiation effectively in the
form of a, sharply-concentrated beam, this means
comprising a phase shifter I5 for coupling the
oscillator Ill through individual phase-shifting
networks` to the dipole sets .D1-D4, inclusive,
D5--Ds, inclusive, etc. There is also included
means for cyclically varying the frequency of the
carrier signal of the oscillator It to scan a pre
determinati space in one direction with the
ing electrodes 27 and coupled to an output circuit
of the field-scanning generator I8 of the trans
mitting station l0.
Considering now `the operation of ‘the system
just described, and referring to `the curves of Figs.
2 and 3, the detailed operation of the transmit
ting station IB is described `in the aforementioned
copending application.
Its operation, briefly
stated in sufficient detail for purposes of the
sharply-concentrated carrier-signal beam com
present description of the operation of the sys
tem, is as follows: The line-frequency ¿scanning
>generator I6 and field-frequency scanning gen
prising a line-scanning generator I6 which is
erator I8 generate control signals >preferably of
2,403,728
5
saw-tooth wave forms.
The control signal of
formed and directed toward the ñuorescentscreen >
unit I6 frequency-modulates the carrier-signal
generated by the high-frequency oscillator I4,
whereby the frequency of the latter deviates
of tube 28.
.
The control signal developed in the output cir
cuit of the field-frequency scanning generator I8
of the- transmitting station I0 is applied to the
linearly with time between a lower frequency fr
and a higher frequency f2, as represented by curve
A of Fig. 3a. The control signal of unit I8 varies
linearly with time the relative phases of the car
deñecting electrodes 33 of vacuum tube 28, Where- .
by there is applied to these electrodes a poten
tial which varies in synchronism with the angleI
of radiation of the sharply-concentrated Vcarrier
signal beam in the aforementioned second dimen
rier signals applied to the sets of dipoles D1-D4,
inclusive, D5-Ds, inclusive, etc., the frequency
of this control signal being preferably much lower
than that generated by unit I6. There is thus
radiated by the antenna system I3 a sharply-con
centrated carrier-signal beam, represented by
sion, that is, in a direction transverse to the di
rection of alignment of the dipoles D1-‘D4,- inclu
sive, of the' antenna system I 3.
'
’ `
I
Consequently, the'cathode-ray beam developed
in the cathode-r-ay tube 28 due to the applica
tion of the second-named control signal between
the electrodes 3|, 32 thereof travels between the
curve B, Fig. 2, which cyclically sweeps across the
scanned space area at a substantially constant
angular velocity from a low angle of radiation
electrodes 33 and is deflected in one direction in
accordance> with the instantaneous-potential 'ap
to a high angle of radiation 01, corresponding to
the mean or nominal frequency of the carrier 20 plied to these electrodes, which potential, as pre
viously pointed out, varies with the angle of radi'
signal of unit I 4, and continuing on to a low angle
ation of the carrier-signal beam B in the Asecond
of radiation 02, corresponding to the higher fre
dimension. The cathode-ray beam continues
quency f2 of the carrier signal of unit I4. Each
through the deflecting electrodes 2'I Aand is again
value of frequency of the carrier signal of unit
deflected in a direction, normal to the direction
I4 thus corresponds to an individual angle of
of its ñrst deflection, dueto the instantaneous
radiation of the sharply-concentrated carrier
potential e3 applied toV the latter deflecting elec'
signal beam. The beam is simultaneously caused
0, corresponding to the frequency ,f1 of unit I4,
trodes,'the value of this -potential corresponding
to scan the scanned space area at a constant
to the angle of radiationv «t which the carrier
signal beam B had 'when it started its travel
toward the reflector I2. The cathode-ray beam
thus strikes the fluorescent screen of tube ¿28;at
a point which indicates ‘in'two dimensions the
position of the' reflector' I2 with respect to the
angular velocity but at a lower cyclic frequency
and in a direction normal to that described in
connection with Fig. 2; that is, in the aforemen
tioned second dimension. This is effected by the
action of the field-frequency scanning generator
I8 in controlling through the phase shifter I 5 the
location of the receiving station ’I I.
relative phases of the carrier signals applied to
the sets of dipoles Di-D4, inclusive, Ds-Da, in
clusive, etc. The angle of radiation in the sec
ond dimension thus varies with the values of
the control signal of unit i8.
have'changed to a new value ¢2, as represented
Assume now that the carrier-signal beam is 40
radiated at a given instant at an angle 0f radi
tion I I.
This is due to the relatively rapidlt7
changing angles of radiation of the beam in the `
first dimension by virtue of the relatively high
line-scanning frequency employed and the time
required for the radiated beam B to travel to the
The reflected carrier wave is received
and amplified by the radio-frequency amplifier
of unit I9 and is converted to an intermediate
frequency carrier wave by the oscillation Vgen
erator 22 and modulator of unit I9. The inter
by broken-line curve E, in the ñrst dimension at
the time the reñec'ted carrier signal is received at
the antenna system 20, 2| of the receiving sta- "
ation ¢, as represented by curve B, Fig. 2, which
angle corresponds to a frequency f3 of the carrier
signal generated by uni-t I4, and that after being
radiated it travels to the radiated-signal reflec
tor I2 and is reflected back to the receiving sta
tion II.
l
It may be’noted at this point that the angle
of radiation of the sharply-concentrated carrier
signal beam from the antenna system I3 may
50
mediate-frequency carrier signal developed in the
ïñector I2 and back to the antenna system 20,
In the aforementioned copending application,
the deflecting electrodes 21 of the cathode-ray
tube- 28 are energized by the control signal de
veloped in the output circuit of unit I6, rather
,than from the output of the direct-current am«
23, is limited to a predetermined substantially 55 plifler Y26 of the present invention, and it is thus
necessary in that arrangement to introduce in
constant amplitude by the limiting system 24 and
circuit with the deilecting electrodes 21 a com
applied to the frequency detector 25. The fre
pensati?g potential the magnitude of which
quency-response characteristic of uni-t 25 is rep
varies with the time required for the radiated
resented by curve C, Fig, 3b, and hence there is
developed in the output of unit 25 a unidirec 60 carrier signal to travel tothe reflector I2 and
output circuit of the modulator of unit I9 is am
pliñed by the intermediate-frequency amplifier
tional potential or control signal having an am
plitude e3. rThis potential is amplified by the
direct-current amplifier 23 and applied -to the
deñecting electrodes 21 of the cathode-ray tube
65
23.
The amplitude-limited intermediate-frequency
carrier signal developed in the output circuit of
the limiting system 24 is also applied to the am
to return to the receiving station II. Such com
pensating potential is apt to introduce spurious
indications near the outer edges of the scanned
space area due to the initiation of a new scanning
line on the cathode-ray tube 28 `prior to the time
when the reflected carrier signal is received by
the receiving station I I.
l
y The present invention" avoids the necessity 'for
plitude detector of unit 29 to derive a second con
such compensating potentials andthe spurious
trol signal which is ampliñed by the ampliñer of
indications consequent upon their use. . This ré
unit 29 and applied between the control electrode
3| and cathode 32 of tube 28, the control signal
sults from the fact that the deflections of the
'cathode-ray beam of tube 28 vary only in accord
ance with the ñrst control 4signal'applied to the
deflecting electrodes 2ï and the second control
applied to the deflecting electrodes 33.' The lat
being applied with polarity opposite to that of the
biasing source 30 thus to bias tube 28 abovev cut
off and permitting a cathode-ray beam to be
2,403,728
7
ter control signal varies in synchronism with the
changing angles of radiation of the carrier-sig
nal beam from antenna I3 in the second dimen
sion and, since the change in the angle of radia
tion in this dimension is relatively slow, the time 0r..
delay of transmission of the carrier signal to the
reflector I2 and back to the receiving station II
is of no importance. The ñrst control potential,
applied to the deflecting electrodes 2l, varies in
amplitude only with the frequency of the received 10
flector comprising, an antenna system having a
radiation characteristic effectively in the form
of a sharply-concentrated beam, means for ap
plying a carrier signal to said antenna system,
means for varying the frequency of said carrier
signal and for scanning a predetermined space
in at least one direction with said beam syn
chronously with said frequency variation, means
for receiving carrier-signal energy from said
radiated beam reflected from said reflector, means
responsive solely to said received carrier-signal
carrier signal and, since each frequency of the
received carrier signal corresponds to a particu
energy for deriving therefrom a control signal
lar angle of radiation of the carrier-signal beam
a characteristic of which varies with the fre
from the antenna system I3 in the ñrst dimen
quency of said received carrier-signal energy,
sion, the »deflection of the cathode-ray beam by 15 and means responsive to said control signal and
the deñecting electrodes 21 varies directly with
dependent upon the said characteristic thereof
the angle at which the carrier-signal beam was
radiated from the antenna I3 to the reñector I2.
Thus, if the refiection of the carrier signal occurs
for indicating the position in space of said re
iiector.
2. A system for locating a radiated-signal re
near an outer edge of the scanned space area, as 20 flector comprising, an antenna system having a
at an angle of radiation 0 corresponding to the
radiation characteristic eiîectively in the form
frequency ,f1 of the carrier signal of unit I4, the
of a sharply-concentrated beam, means for ap
control signal applied to the deñecting electrodes
plying a carrier signal to said antenna system,
21 of tube 2S has a value, for example, the value
means for varying the frequency of said carrier
e1, corresponding only to this angle of radiation. 25 signal and for scanning a predetermined space in
Similarly, if reflection of the carrier signal oc
at least one direction with said beam syn
curs at the opposite edge of the scanned space
chronously with said frequency variation, means
area, as at an angle of radiation 02 corresponding
for receiving carrier-signal energy from said radi
to the frequency f2 of the carrier signal of unit
ated beam reñected ‘from said reflector, means
I4, the control signal applied to the deilecting ,- responsive solely to said received carrier-signal
electrodes 21, of tube 28 again has a value, for
energy for deriving therefrom a control signal the
example, the value e2, individual to the latter
amplitude of which varies with the frequency of
angle of radiation. Consequently, the indications
provided by the cathode-ray tube 2B of the posi
tion in space of the rei-lector I2 are free from
any ambiguity over al1 portions of the scanned
said received carrier-signal energy, and means
responsive to said control signal and dependent
upon the amplitude thereof for indicating the
position in space of said reflector.
3. A system for locating a radiated-signal re
From the above described operation of the in
iiector comprising, an antenna system having a
vention, it will be evident that the antenna sys
radiation characteristic effectively in the form of
tem Zû, 2! and the units I9 and 22 to 26, inclu 40 a sharply-concentrated beam, means `for applying
sivey of the receiving station II comprise means
a carrier signal to said antenna system, means
for receiving carrier-signal energy from the radi
for varying the frequency of said carrier signal
space area.
ated beam of antenna I3 reflected from the re
flector I2 and means responsive solely to the re
and for scanning a predetermined space in at
least one direction with said beam synchro
ceived carrier-signal energy for deriving there- . LA nously with said frequency variation, means for
from a control signal a characteristic of which
receiving carrier-signal energy from said radi
varies with the frequency of the received carrier
signal energy. Further it will be evident that
units 25 and 29 comprise means responsive solely
to the received carrier-signal energy for deriv
ing two control signals a characteristic of one
of which, for example, that derived by unit 25,
varies with the frequency of the received carrier
signal energy, and a characteristic of the other
of which, for example, that-derived by unit 29,
varies with the amplitude of the received carrier
signal energy. The cathode-ray tube 28 com
prises means responsive to the two control signals
derived by units 25 and 29 for indicating the
position in space of the reflector i2.
The electrodes 3! and 32 of tube 28 comprise
means responsive to the control signal derived by
unit 29 for modulating the cathode-ray beam
of the tube 28.
While there has been described what is at pres
"
ent considered to be the preferred embodiment
of this invention, it will be obvious to those skilled
in the art that various changes and modifications
may be made therein without departing from
the invention, and it is, therefore, aimed in the
appended claims to cover all such changes and
modifications as fall Within the true spirit and
scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
l. A system for locating a radiated-signal re 75
ated beam refiected from said reflector, means
for frequency-detecting said received carrier sig
nal to derive a control signal a charactistic of
which varies with the frequency of said received
carrier signal, and means responsive to said con
trol signal and dependent upon the said charac
teristic thereof for indicating the position in space
of said reñector.
4. A system for locating a radiated-signal re
flector comprising, an antenna system having a
radiation characteristic effectively in the form of
a sharply-concentrated beam, means for apply
ing a carrier signal to said antenna system,
means for varying the frequency of said carrier
signal and for scanning a predetermined space
in at least one direction with said beam syn
chronously With said frequency variation, means
for receiving carrier-signal energy from said
radiated beam reflected from said reflector, means
responsive solely to said received carrier-signal
energy for deriving two control signals a charac
teristic of one of which varies with the frequency
of said received carrier-signal energy and a char
acteristic of the other of which varies with the
amplitude of said received carrier-signal energy,
and means responsive to said control signals and
dependent upon the said characteristics thereof
for indicating the position in space of said re
iiector.
2,403,728
9
5. A system for locating a radiated-signal re
iiector comprising, an antenna system having a
radiation characteristic effectively in the form of
a sharply-concentrated beam, means for applying
«
l10
radiators, means for cyclically varying the fre
quency of the carrier signal of said source, means
for cyclically Varying the relative phases of the
carrier signals as applied to said radiatorswhich
a carrier signal to said antenna system, means 5 are spaced in the other of said dimensions, means
for cyclically varying the frequency of said car
rier signal and for scanning a predetermined
for receiving carrier-signal venergy from said ra
diated beam reflected from said reñector, means
space in at least one direction with said beam
responsive solely to said received carrier-signal
energy for deriving therefrom a control signal a
synchronously with said frequency variation, a
cathode-ray tube, means for receiving carrier 10 characteristic of which varies with the frequency
of said received carrier-signal energy, a cathode
signal energy from said radiated beam reflected
ray tube, means responsive to said control signal.
from said reflector, means responsive solely to
and dependent upon the said characteristic there- '
said received carrier-signal energy for deriving
of for deflecting the cathode-ray beam of said
a control signal a characteristic of which varies
with the frequency of said received carrier 15 tube in one direction, and means for deñecting
the cathode-ray beam of said tube in a direction
signal energy, and means responsive to said con
normal to said one direction in synchronism with
trol signal and dependent upon the said charac
said cyclic variations of relative phase, thereby
teristic thereof for deflecting the cathode-ray
to indicate in two dimensions the position in
beam of said tube in one direction to indicate the
.
20 space of saidV reñector.
position in space of said reilector.
8. A` system for locating a radiated-signal re
6. A system for locating a radiated-signal re
fiector comprising, an antenna system including
flector comprising, an antenna system having a
a plurality of signal radiators geometrically
radiation characteristic eiïectively in the form of
spaced in two dimensions and means for electri
a sharply-concentrated beam, means for apply
ing a carrier signal to said antenna system, means 25 cally spacing said radiators in one of said two
dimensions so that said antenna systemV is- re
for cyclically varying the frequency of said carrier
sponsive to variations inapplied carrier-signal
signal and for scanning a predetermined space
frequency to cause a sharply-concentrated radi
in at least one direction with said beam syn
ated beam to scan a predetermined space in one
chronously with said frequency variation, means
for receiving carrier-signal energy from said ra 30 direction and responsive to variation of the rela
tive phases of carrier signals applied to said radi
diated beam reñected from said reflector, means
ators which are spaced in the other of said di
responsive solely to said received carrier-signal
mensions _to scan said predetermined space with
energy for deriving two control signals a char
said beam in a direction normal to said first
acteristic of one o-f which varies with the fre
quency of said received carrier-signal energy and 35 scanning direction, a source of high-frequencyV
carrier signals, means for individually applying
a characteristic of the other of which varies with
the amplitude of said received carrier-signal en
ergy, a cathode-ray tube, means responsive to
said one control signal and dependent upon the
said characteristic thereof for deflecting the cath
ode-ray beam of said tube in one direction, and
means responsive to said other control signal and
dependent upon the said characteristic thereof
for modulating the cathode-ray beam of said tube,
thereby to indicate the position in space of said
reñector.
'7. A system for locating a radiated-signal re
flector comprising, an antenna system including
a plurality of signal radiators geometrically
carrier signals from said source to'said signal
radiators, means for cyclically varying thefre
quency of the carrier signal of said source, means
for cyclically varying the relative phase of the
carrier signals as applied to said radiators which
are spaced in the other of said dimensions, means
for receiving carrier-signal energy from said ra
diated beam reñected from said reñector, means
responsive solely to said received carrier-signal
energy for deriving two control signals a char
acteristic of Vone of vwhich varies with the fre
quency of said received carrier-signal energy and
a characteristic oi' the other of which varies with f
the amplitude of said received carrier-signal en
ergy, acathode-ray tube, means responsive to said
one control signal and dependent upon the said
characteristic thereof for deflecting the cathode
sponsive to variations in applied carrier-signal
ray beam of said tube in one direction, means for
frequency to cause a sharply-concentrated radi
55 deflecting the cathode-ray beam of said tube in a
ated beam to scan a predetermined space in one
direction normal to said one direction in syn
direction and responsive to variation of the rela
chronism with said cyclic relative phase varia
tive phases of carrier signals appliedy to said ra
tions, and means responsive to said other control
diators which are spaced in the other of said
signal and dependent upon the said characteristic
dimensions to scan said predetermined space
60 thereof for modulating the cathode-ray beam of
with said beam in a direction normal to said ñrst
said tube, thereby to indicate in two dimensions
scanning direction, a source of high-frequency
the position in space of said reflector.
carrier signals, means for individually applying
ARTHUR V. LOUGHREN.
carrier signals from said source to said signal
spaced in two dimensions and means for electri
cally spacing said radiators in one of said two
dimensions so that said antenna system is re
Y `
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