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Патент USA US2403729

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July 9, 1946.
A. v. LoUGHRl-:N
2,403,729
COORDINATE DETERMINING SYSTEM
Filed July 2, 1942
5 Sheets-Sheet l
INVENTOR
ARTHUR V, LOUGH REN
July 9, 1946-
A. v. LoUGHRl-:N
2,403,729
COORDINATE DETERMl-NING SYSTEM
Filed July 2, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
0
NÓI
.
INVENTOR
4_3 DHOA
BY
.
Í'ÍZNEY
d
.
'
July 9, 1946.
A. v. LOUGHREN
COORDINATE DETERMINENG SYSTEM
Filed July 2, 1942
l.
.2,403,729A4
>
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented July 9, 1946
2,403,729
UNITED STATES rPATENT OFFICE
2,403,729
COORDINATE DETERMINING SYSTEM
Arthur V. Loughren, Great Neck, N. Y., assignor,
by mesne assignments, to Hazeltine Research,
Inc., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois
Application July 2, 1942, Serial No. 449,393
13 Claims. (Cl. Z50-_11)
1
2
This invention relates in general to a system
resents any selected scanning coordinate of the
for determining the scanning coordinates of the
scanned space in the above-mentioned direction
position of an object within a predetermined
and means responsive to the first-named signal
scanned space and, in particular, to such a system
for controlling the last-mentioned means to derive
an electrical signal which represents the scanning
of the type in which electrical signals representa
coordinate in the aforesaid direction of the posi
tive of the coordinates of the object are derived.
Although the invention is adapted for a wide
tion of the object within the scanned space.
range of applications, it is particularly useful in
For a better understandingv of the present in
the ñeld of direction finding. One type of direc
vention,` together with other and further objects
tion-finding system well known in the artcom 10 thereof, reference is had to the following descrip
prises a signal-reproducing device having an in
tion taken in connection with the vaccompanying
drawings, and its scope will bev pointed out in the
dicating area and means for producing in the in
dicating area a signal pattern representing the
Fig. 1 of the drawings is a >circuit diagram,
location of an object within a predetermined
space. A system of this type forms the subject 15 partly schematic, of a system in accordance with
matter of copending application S`eríal No.
the present invention for determining a coordi
nate of the position of an object within a pre
395,172, filed May 26, 1941, in the name of Arthur
determined space; FigJZ comprises a set of graphs
V. Loughren. It has been proposed to provide a
Whichare used in explaining the operation of a
system of coordinates on the indicating area of
the signal-reproducing device of such an arrange 20 portion of the arrangement of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a
appended
ment so that an observer may obtain a visual in
claims.
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'
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`
,
.
circuit diagram, partly schematic,rof a modiñca
tioncf a portion of the arrangement of Fig. 1;
dication of the coordinates of the position of the
object in space. While such an indication is suit
while Fig. 4 isa circuit diagram, partly schematic,Y`
ofV a modiñcation of the> coordinate-determining
able in many instances, it will be appreciated that
~
'
in many other instances such a visual indication 25 system- of the vpresent invention.y
Referring now more particularly to the draw
is not sufficient. For example, in gun-controlling
ings, there is represented in Fig. 1 a’system in
systems where accuracy is of paramount impor
tance and where it is preferred to provide auto- ~
accordance with the present invention for deter
mining a scanning coordinate of the position of
matic control equipment, a visual indication of
the coordinates is not suitable for controlling 30 an object, such as an airplane, Within a prede
the system.
termined scanned` space. This system comprises
.means for effectively scanning the space in a pre
It is an object of the present invention, there
determined scanning pattern to derive a time
fore, to provide an improved system for deter
modulated signal representing vone scanningco
mining a scanning coordinate of the position of
an object within a predetermined scanned space. 35 ordinate of the -position of the object within the
space. While `any space-scanning -means kmay
It is a further object of this invention to pro
be employed, it is preferred to utilize one of the
vide a system for determining a coordinate of
type disclosed in applicant's' above-identified c0
the position of an object in space which avoids
pending application. The scanning means dis-one or more of the above-mentioned limitations of
the prior art arrangements.
40 closed'in the arrangement of'Fig'. 1 is substan
tially the same as that employed in the’locating
It is still another object of this invention to
provide an improved system for deriving an elec
system disclosed in Fig. 2 of the above-identified
cop'endingV application and corresponding ele
trial signal representative of a scanning coordi
ments thereof -bear the same reference numerals.
nate of the position of an object within a pre
45 More specifically, the scanning meansv com
determined scanned space.
prises aradiating system including means for
In accordance with the present invention, a
system for determining the scanning coordinate
radiating va sharply-concentrated beam and for '
in a given scanning direction of the position of
causing the beam to scan a predetermined space
an object within a scanned space comprises means
in a .predetermined scanning pattern. `To this '
for effectively scanning the space in a predeter 50 end there „is provided an antenna system ID in
cluding- a plurality of signal radiators ofthe di
mined scanning pattern and for deriving a signal
pole-antenna typé andra phase shifter and high-Y
representing the scanning coordinate in the afore
frequency oscillator I l for applying a wave signal
said given direction of the position of the object
to the antenna system I0 for directive radiation
within the scanned space. The system also has
means for deriving an electrical signal which rep 65 effectively inthe form of,ajsharply-concentrated
2,403,729
3
beam.
A line-scanning generator I3 is coupled
to the high-frequency oscillator included in unit
I I for varying the relative phase of the signals as
applied to the signal radiators of the antenna
system IG in a first dimension at a first predeter
mined frequency. A field-scanning generator I5
is also coupled to the high-frequency oscillator
unit for varying the relative Iphase of the signals
4
which may be sufficient to give an inaccurate
coordinate indication in the line-scanning direc
tion, although it Will ordinarily be negligible in
the relatively low-frequency field-scanning di
rection. Therefore, it is desirable to provide
means for compensating for the time required
for the signal to travel from the radiating system
to the receiving means and this is accomplished
by a compensating means comprising the modu
as applied to the signal radiators of antenna Ill
in a second dimension at a second predetermined 10 lator and detector unit 32. Unit 32 has one input
circuit coupled to unit II whereby the signal
frequency. A timer I4 is coupled to the line
output of the high-frequency oscillator is applied
scanning generator I3 and field-scanning gener
to the modulator unit. To another input circuit
ator I5 for synchronizing their operation. It will
of unit 32 the signal output of receiver 2| is
be understood that the units I0 through I5 co
operate in a manner fully described in the afore 15 applied. A frequency-responsive network and
detector included in unit 32 are coupled in cas
mentioned copending application to vary the di
cade to the output circuit of the modulator and
rection of transmission of the sharply-concen
are responsive to beat notes representing the
trated beam radiated by antenna system I0 in
difference frequency of the signal inputs to the
two directions to scan a predetermined space with
the beam.
When a reñecting body, such as an airplane 20,
is included within the space scanned by the beam
modulator. The detector unit preferably has a
linear characteristic over the range of signal
frequencies encountered in operation. The de
tector unit is so adjusted that the signal output
thereof has such amplitude and polarity as to
retard the line-scanning potential of tube 24 and
of the object within the scanned space in a par
cause it to correspond with the line-scanning po
ticular direction may be derived from energy re
tential of generator I3 at the time the signal being
ñected from the object. Means are provided for
received left the antenna I0.
receiving such reflected energy comprising a
In considering the operation of the system as
wave-signal receiver 2| having a substantially
nondirectional antenna system comprising two 30 thus far described, it will be seen that antenna
system Iii radiates a sharply-concentrated beam
dipole antennas 22, 23. Antenna 22 is preferably
which scans a predetermined space in a prede
parallel to the dipoles of antenna system I0, and
termined scanning pattern and that signals re
antenna 23 is preferably at right angles thereto
flected from the airplane 2|) are picked up by the
to provide a response to reflected waves having
receiver 2|, thereby to derive a time-modulated
the polarization with which they were originally
signal representing the scanning coordinate in
radiated or a polarization 90 degrees displaced
one direction of the airplane 20 within the
from that radiated by antenna I0.
scanned space. It will also be seen that the
’The system also includes signal-reproducing
cathode-ray beam of tube 24 is caused to scan the
means responsive to the derived time-modulated
signal 'for producing a visual indication of the 40 indicating area 25 synchronously With the scan
ning of the predetermined space by the beam
coordinates of the object Within the scanned
radiated from the antenna system I0. While
space. This means comprises a conventional
tube 24 is normally biased beyond its cutoff point,
cathode-ray type signal-reproducing device 24
it is operated above its cutoff point by the time
having a ñuorescent screen 25 as an indicating
modulated signal applied thereto from receiver 2|
area. There are‘also provided means for scan- ‘
whereby a spot indication is provided on the
ning the indicating area 25 with the electron
fluorescent screen 25 representing the location of
beam of the reproducing device 24 in synchro
the airplane in the field scanned. Also, since the
nism with the scanning beam of antenna system
received signal is delayed in time with reference
III so that the position of an indicating spot on
to the signal output of the high-frequency os
thei'luorescent screen 25 represents the direction
cillator of unit || b'y the time interval required
of the object 20 from the antenna system I0.
for the signal to travel from the antenna I0 out
This scanning means comprises line-scanning
radiated by antenna system I0, a time-modulated
signal representing the coordinate of the position
which are applied scanning voltages generated by
to the airplane 2D and back to the receiver 2| ,
and since the frequency of the oscillator has been
line-scanning generator I3 and held-scanning
generator I5, respectively. The line-scanning
scanning generator I3, the difference frequency
plates 25, 2l and field-scanning plates 28, 29 to
voltage is applied by way of a compensating
means included in unit 32 for a purpose to be
altered during this time by the action of the line
of these two signals is a measure of this time.
This difference frequency causes an output volt
age to be developed in the detector of unit 32
described presently.
The signal output of receiver 2| is applied to 60 which is applied to the deñecting plates 2S, 21
and is effective momentarily to back up or retard
the brilliancy-control electrode 3i] of tube 24
the line-scanning potential of tube 24 to cause
it to correspond with the line-scanning potential
generator I3 had at the time the signal being re
area a visual indication of the coordinates of the
object within the scanned space. Cathode-ray 65 ceived left the antenna I3. Thus, a compensa
tion is effected and the spot indication on the
tube 24 is so biased by a source I9 that it is cut
area 25 affords a visual indication of the coordi
off in the absence of a received signal and suit
nates of the airplane 2|) Within the scanned space.
able operating potentials are supplied to the
The system, as thus far described, is included in
other electrodes of the tube in a manner Well
understood in the art.
70 the locating system disclosed in Fig. 2 of the
above-identiñed copending application and ref
Due to the fact that some time is required for
erence may be had thereto for a more complete
the transmitted signal to travel from the antenna
description of the operation of this portion of
system I6 to the airplane 20 and back to the
which comprises means responsive to the time
modulated signal for producing on the indicating
antenna system 22, 23, cathode-ray tube 24 tends
to become excited by receiver 2| with a time delay
the arrangement under discussion.
In order to derive an electrical, as Well as a
5
2,403,729
6
visual indication of a scanning coordinate of Ithe
when a time-modulated signal 'is received by re
ceiver 2| and applied to control elec-trode 39, it
airplane within the scanned space, means are in
biases vaculmi tube 38 above cutoff to derive an
cluded in the arrangement of Fig. 1 for deriving
electrical signal from» the reference wave Vthat
an electrical signal representative of any selected
represents the coordinate of the object 20 in the
scanning coordinate of the scanning pattern in
line-scanning direction. In Fig. 2, curve B illus
the above-mentioned direction, which means is
trates such a received time-modulated signal h_av-I
controlled to derive an electrical signal that rep
ing an amplitude characteristic Which is varied Y
resents the desired coordinate of the airplane
with time and representing the line-scanning co
within the scanning pattern. This means, Which
is indicated generally as 35, includes a vacuum 10 ordinate of the object 2|) Within the scanned
space, it being assumed that. the object 20 is
tube 38 having an input electrode 31 and a con
sufûcietly large to reñect energy from the radi
trol electrode 39 to which a suitable source of bi
asing potential -C is coupled so as to bias the
ated beam to the receiver 2| in a plurality of
line-scanning operations.
tube normally beyond cutoff. The output circuit
of vacuum tube 38 includes a tuned circuit com
By
projecting
the ,
15 curve B upon curveA, there are determined the '
prising a condenser 4| and primary winding 42 of
a transfromer 43, the circuit being resonant at
the frequency of a reference Wave, to be described
presently, applied to the input electrode »31. A
pulses E which comprise electrical signals repre
senting the line-scanning coordinate of the air
plane> 20 within space` and which are derived
across vthe4 indicating meter '45 and load resistor
peak rectiñer device 44 is coupled through the 20 46 of unit 35. Since the time-modulated signal
B is _delivered to units 32 and 35 simultaneously,
transformer 43 to the output circuit of tube 38 to
whereby the line-scanning voltage applied to in
derive a signal therefrom which is applied to a
put electrode 31 is momentarily backed up or
long time-constant circuit comprising a condenser
compensated to take'into account the time for
and load resistor 4B. An indicating meter 45 is
coupled to resistor 46. While load 45 is repre 25 the signal to travel from the antenna system IIJ
to the receiver 2|, the signal derived in unit
sented as a resistance, it will be understood that
35 represents the true phase relationship be
any circuit means adapted to utilize the derived
tween the time-modulated signal and the scan
signal may be used as a load for the rectiñer.
ning voltage. Thus, it Willbe seen that" unit 35
The reference Wave applied to input electrode
comprises means responsive tothe relative phase
31 is related to those scanning coordinates of the
scanning pattern provided by indicating device 24
that correspond to the coordinate of the airplane
for which an electrical indication is desired.
Thus, in the arrangement under consideration
unit 35 derives an electrical signal representative
of the coordinate of the airplane 20 in the line
scanning direction and, hence, the wave applied
to input electrode 31 is related to the scanning
coordinates in the line-scanning direction. While
a reference-Wave generator or oscillator may be
of the reference wave and the time-modulated
signal for deriving an electrical signal represent-r
ative of the line-scanning coordinate of the'air
plane 28 Within the scanned space. Further, it
will lbe seen that this means is responsive, to an
instantaneous'amplitude characteristic of the ref
erence Wave.
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It has already been pointed out that the beam
radiated by the antenna system l0 is deliected in
two directions and scans the predetermined space
utilized for supplying the reference Wave to elec
trode 31, it is found expedient to provide means
for deriving the reference Wave directly from the
line-scanning generator I3. To this end, the
in ya two-dimensional scanning pattern.- There
electrode 31 is coupled by way of conductor 38 ~
space in both a line-scanning',direction and a
and compensating unit 32 with the line-scanning
generator. This coupling is through unit 32 in
iieldescanning direction. Unit 35 has been shown"
to be 'effective to derive an electrical signal rep
resentative of the coordinateof'the airplane with
order that the reference signal may be compen
sated for the time required for the time-modu
lated signa1 to reach the receiver 2|. The time- f
modulated signal output of receiver 2| is applied
through coupling condenser 40 to control elec
trode 39, the latter comprising means responsive
to the time-modulated signal for controlling `
unit 35.
Considering now the operation of unit 35, it will
be seen that, since vacuum tube 38 is coupled to
the line-scanning generator I3, a reference Wave
of saw-tooth Wave form, which corresponds to the
line-scanning voltages applied to the high~frequency osillator || and to the line-scanning
fore, the time-modulated signal’ derived inthe
scanning operation represents the scanning coor
dinatesìof the position of the airplane 20 Within
in space in a line-scanning direction. 'In order to
obtain a similar electrical signal representative
‘of _the coordinate of the airplane Within space in
theñeld-scanning direction, a field-scanning ysam'
pling _circuit 41 comprising 'Van arrangement sub'
stantiallyidentical to that of unit 35, is provided.
The refernce Wave in this instance, howevenvis
supplied rdirectly from the held-scanning 'gen
erator l5 to unit 41 for the reason that the de
lay of the signal in traveling from the antenna
system I0 to the signal receiver 2| by way of re
ilection from the body’2ll is assumed to have a
negligible effect in the field-scanning direction.
means of the reproducing device 2-4, is applied to
the input electrode 31. This wave is represented
The time-modulated signal received by receiver
by curve A of Fig. 2 and comprises a trace por- _,
ready described in 'connection with unit 35, ran
electrical signal is derived in unit `>lllwhicl?is rep
tion T1, corresponding to the time required for
the scanning means to perform one line-scan
ning operation, and a retrace portion T2, cor
responding to the retrace interval of the scan
ning means. Thus, it will be seen that the in
stantaneous values 0f the reference Wave A dur
ing the period T1 represent line-scanning coordi
nates in the scanning pattern.
In the absence of received signals, the bias -C
biases the vacuum tube 38 beyond cutolî and no
signal appears in its output circuit.> However, “
2| is also applied to unit‘41 and, in a manner-al
resentative `of the coordinate of the airplane 28
Within space Yin the field-scanning 'Y direction.
Hence, it may be seen that, inthe arrangement
of Fig. 1, the reproducing- device'r24 aiiîords- a >vis,
ual indication _of the coordinate of an object in
space >with respect to boththe line and iield-scan
ning >directions and units'35 and 41, respectively,
produce electrical >signals representative of the '
_coordinates of the object _within space _in line
scanning and ñeld-scanning directions.
a
2,403,729
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space in accordance with the present invention
and is generally similar to the arrangement of
Fig. 1, differing therefrom in that a camera tube
It will be appreciated that, when a plurality of
airplanes is included within the space scanned
by the beam from antenna system l0, the de
rived time-modulated signal represents the scan
ning coordinates of the position of each air
plane within the scanned space. Under such op
Ca
and signal generator 6E) are employed for deriv
ing the time-modulated signal in place of the
units Iii, il, 32 and 2| of the arrangement of
Fig. l. Corresponding elements of the two sys
tems bear identical reference numerals and it will
ed by the spots on the ñuorescent screen 25 of Fig
be understood that the units individually operate
3, are produced, each of which represents visually
the coordinates of one of the airplanes within the 10 in substantially the manner already described.
The camera tube and cathode-ray signal-gener
scanned space. The line-scanning sampling cir
ating device 60 is of a conventional design and
cuit and ñeld-scanning sampling circuit may also
may, for example, be similar to the signal-gener
derive a plurality of electrical signals individually
ating device represented in Fig. l of United States
representing the coordinates of each of the air
planes within the scanned space. To facilitate 15 Letters Patent 2,254,435, granted September 2,
1941 to Arthur V. Loughren, and assigned to the
the operation of the system of this invention un
saine assignee as the present application. This
der such operating conditions, and to derive elec
unit includes a signal-generating tube having the
trical signals representative of the coordinates of
usual electron gun, photosensitive target, and
a predetermined one of the airplanes Within the
space, the system may be modified as indicated 20 scanning elements. Beam-deñecting voltages are
applied to the deflecting elements from line-scan
in Fig. 3 to include means for selectively apply
ning generator I3 and field-scanning generator
ing only a portion of the time-modulated signal
l5 to deñect the beam of the cathode-ray tube in
to the sampling circuits. Referring now more
two directions normal to each other to scan the
particularly to Fig. 3, there is disclosed an ar
rangement of the signal-reproducing device 24, 25 photosensitive target in conventional manner.
In considering the operation of the arrange
line-scanning sampling circuit 35, field-scanning
ment of Fig. 4, it will be assumed that an image
sampling circuit 41, and a means 48 for applying
of the space including the object whose coordi
a selected portion of the time-modulated signal
nates it is desired to determine is focused upon
to the sampling circuits. 'I'he arrangement of
Fig. 3 may be substituted in the arrangement of 30 the target of the cathode-ray signal-generating
tube and that the electron beam of the tube is
Fig. l by connecting the terminals A, B, C, D, and
caused to scan the target in a series of fields of
E of Fig. 3 to the correspondingly identified ter
parallel lines, thereby effectively to scan the space
minals of Fig. l. Unit 48 comprises a photocell
including the object and to derive the time-modu
49 around which there is a shield 50 having a
relatively narrow aperture 5I. The output cir 35 lated signal representing the scanning coordi
nates of the position of the object within space.
cuit of photocell 49 is connected through an am
This time-modulated signal in turn is applied to
pliñer 52 and a diiîerentiating circuit 53 to the
the brilliancy-control electrode 3D of the repro
line-scanning sampling circuit 35 and the ñeld
scanning sampling circuit 41.
ducing device 24 and to the control electrodes of
Considering now the operation of the arrange 40 the vacuum tubes included in the line-scanning
sampling circuit 35 and field-scanning sampling
ment of Fig. 3, it will be understood that units
circuit 41 whereby there is produced, in a man
24, 35 and 41 operate in precisely the same man
erating conditions, several indications, represent
ner in response to an applied time-modulated
ner fully described above, a visual indication `onl
signal as described in connection with the ar
area 25 of the coordinates of the object as well
rangement of Fig. 1. It will be seen that by mov 45 as electrical signals which represent the scanning
ing aperture 5| across fluorescent screen 25,
radiated energy from any of the direction-indi
cating spots on fluorescent screen 25 may be
caused to energize photocell 49. The signal out
put of the cell 49 is ampliñed in amplifier 52, dif
ferentiated in differentiating circuit 53, and uti
lized to overcome the normal cutoff bias on the
sampling circuits 35 and 41 so that the sampling
circuits individually7 develop electrical signals rep
resentative of the coordinates in the line-scan
ning and field-scanning directions for the par
ticular signal which is at the moment supplying
energy to the photocell 49. Thus, it may be seen
that the unit 48 is effective to supply to the sam
pling circuits 35 and 41 only that portion of the
time-modulated signal which corresponds to the
_particular airplane whose coordinates of direc
tion it is desired to indicate by Way of electrical
signals. The diñ'erentiating circuit 53 is pro
vided so that the sampling circuits are responsive
only to relatively rapid changes in the signal in
put to the photocell 49. Such a rapid change in
the signal input to photocell 49 will be developed
each time the scanning beam of tube 24 becomes
coordinates of the object. It will be understood
that in this modification of the invention there is
a negligible time delay between the scanning op
eration at the signal generator 6U and the corre
50 sponding scanning operation in the reproducing
device 24. Consequently, the compensating
means provided in the arrangement of Fig. 1 is
not necessary in the arrangement under consid
eration.
55
In generating video-frequency signals by means
of a cathode-ray type signal-generating tube, un
desirable transients are produced at the end of
the line-trace period and during the line-retrace
period. It is conventional to provide a blanking
60 pulse generator which introduces into the gener
ated video-frequency signal blanking pulses ex
tending in the black direction to compensate the
undesired transients so developed. While it is
preferred that unit 50 include such a blanking
65 pulse generator, means should also be included
for reversing the polarity of the generated video
frequency signal before the application thereto of
the blanking pulse. It will be understood that a
video-frequency signal corresponding to an air
incident upon the particular spot on the iluores 70 plane in a light sky comprises a substantially '
white signal having a single pulse extending to
cent screen 25 which is being utilized to supply
energy to the photocell 49.
the black level which represents the airplane. If
The arrangement of Fig. 4 is directed to a sys
the blanking pulses are added to such a signal, the
tem for determining the scanning coordinates of
sampling circuits 35 and 41 would respond to the
the position of an object within a predetermined 75 blanking signals and provide an erroneous indi
2,403,729
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10
cation of a coordinate. To eliminate this source
causing said beam »to scan said space in .a prede
termined scanning pattern, means for deriving a
signal from energy of said beam reñected from
of error, it is proposed that the generated video
frequency signal be reversed in polarity so that
it effectively comprises a substantially black sig
said object and representing the scanning ¿co
nal having a single White pulse representing the
ordinate in said scanning direction of the posi
position of the airplane in space. When the
tion of said object within said space, means
blanking pulses are superimposed on such a sig
for deriving an electrical signal which represents
nal, only the white pulse representing the co
any selected scanning coordinate of said space
ordinate positions of the object is eiïective to con
in said scanning direction, and means responsive Y,
10 to said ñrst-named signal for controlling said
trol the sampling circuits.
From the foregoing description of the arrange
last-mentioned means to derive an electrical'` sig- .
nal-which represents the scanning coordinate in
ment of Figs. 1 and 4, it will be seen that the
term “object” as employedA in the speciñcation
said scanning direction of the position of said
object Within said space.
Y
.
and claims of this application refers to a physi
4. A system for determining the scanning co
cal device or an image of the device. It Will be
ordinate in a given scanning directionof the po
understood, particularly in view of the discussion
sition of an object Within a scanned space com
of Fig. 3, that this invention may also be used
prising, a radiating system including means> for Y
to determine the coordinates of a light spot on
the screen of a cathode-ray tube and, accord
radiating a sharply concentrated beam and for
ingly, the term “object” also embraces a light 20 causing said beam to scan said spacein'a prede
spot.
termined scanning pattern, means for deriving
It will be further understood that While the
invention has been described in connection with
from said object and representing the scanning
systems employing rectilinear scanning, the in
vention is not limited thereto but is equally ap
plicable to other types of scanning systems.
While there have been described what are at
a signal from. energy from said beam` reflected
coordinate in said scanning direction of the po
sition of said object within said space, means for
deriving an electrical signal which represents
any-selected scanning coordinate of said space in
said-scanning direction, means responsive to said
present considered to be the preferred embodi
first-named signal for controlling said last-men
ments of this invention, it will be obvious to those
skilled in the art that various changes and modi 30 tioned means to derive an electrical signal which
represents Vlthe scanning coordinate in said scan
lications may be made therein without departing
ning direction of the position of said object With
from the invention, and it is, therefore, aimed in
the appended claims to cover al1 such changes
and modifications as fall Within the true spirit
and scope of the invention.
in said space, and means for compensating said
first-named signal for the time required for said
energy of said beam to travel from said radiat
ing system to said object and` to said means for
What is claimed is:
deriving said first-named signal.
f
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1. A system for determining the scanning co
Y5.-A system for determining the scanning co
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi
position of an object Within a scanned space com
prising, means for effectively scanning said space 40 tion of an object Withinv a scanned space com
prising, a cathode-ray type signal generator in
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for de
cluding a target upon which an image of said
riving a signal representing the scanning coor
space'is focused, means for producing an elec
dinate in said scanning direction of the position
tron beam and for causing'said beam to scan
of said object Within said space, means for de
riving an electrical signal which represents any 45 said >image in a predetermined scanning pattern
to derive a signal representing the scanning co
selected scanning coordinate of said space in said
scanning direction, and means responsive to said
first-named signal for controlling said last-men
ordinate in said scanning direction of the posi
tion of the image of said object within said y, y
scanned image, means for deriving an electrical
tioned means to derive an electrical signal which
represents the scanning coordinate in said scan 50 signal which represents any selected scanning co
ordinate of said scanned image in said scanning
ning direction of the position of said object With
direction, and means responsive to said iirst
in said space.
2. A system for determining the scanning co
named signal for controlling said last-mentioned
means to derive an electrical signal which repre
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the
position of an object Within a scanned space com 55 sents the >scanning coordinate in said scanning di- V
prising, a radiating system including means for
rection of the position of the image of said ob- '
ject Within said scanned image.
radiating a sharply concentrated beam and for
6. A system for determining the scanning co
causing said beam to scan said space in a pre
determined scanning pattern, means for deriv
ordinate‘in a given scanning direction of the po
ing from said beam a signal representing the 60 sition of an object Within a scanned space com
scanning coordinate in said scanning direction
prising, means for effectively scanning said space
of the position of said object Within said space,
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for
means for deriving an electrical signal which
deriving a signal representing the scanning
represents any selected scanning coordinate of
coordinate in said scanning direction of the posi
said space in said scanning direction, and means 65 tion of said object Within said space, means for
responsive to said first-named signal for control
deriving a reference Wave having instantaneous
ling said last-mentioned means to derive an elec
amplitude values related to the scanning coor- ~
trical signal which represents the scanning co
dinates in said scanning direction of said space,
means responsive to said reference wave for de
ordinate in said scanning direction of the posi
tion of said object Within said space.
3. A system for determining the scanning co
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi
70 riving an electrical signal which represents 'any
selected scanning coordinate of said space in said
scanning direction, and means responsive to said
tion of an object Within a scanned space com
ñrst-named signal for controlling said last-men
prising, a radiating system including means for
tioned means to derive an electrical signal which
radiating a sharply concentrated beam and for
represents the scanning coordinate in said scan
2,403,729
1I
ning direction of the position of said object with
in said space.
7. A system for determining the scanning co
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi
tion of an object within a scanned space com
12
values corresponding to the scanning component
of said scanning pattern in said scanning direc
tion, and means responsive to the relative phase
of said reference Wave and said first-named signal
for deriving an electrical signal which represents
the scanning coordinate in said scanning direc
tion of the position of said object within said
prising, means for effectively scanning said space
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for de
space.
riving a signal representing the scanning coordi
11. A system for determining the scanning co
ate in said scanning direction of the position of
said object Within said space, means for deriving 10 ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi
a reference Wave having instantaneous amplitude
values related to the scanning coordinates in said
scanning direction of said space, means respon
sive to an amplitude characteristic of said refer
ence Wave for deriving an electrical signal which
tion of an object Within a scanned space com
prising, means for effectively scanning said space
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for de
riving a signal representing the scanning coordi
nate in said scanning direction of the position of
said object Within said space, signal-reproducing
represents any selected scanning coordinate of
means responsive to said signal for producing a
said space in said scanning direction, and means
visual indication of the scanning coordinate in
responsive to said first-named signal for control
said scanning direction of the position of said
ling said last-mentioned means to derive an elecm
trical signal which represents the scanning co 20 object Within said space, means for deriving an
electrical signal which represents any selected
ordinate in said scanning direction of the posi
scanning coordinate of said space in said scan
tion of said object Within said space.
ning direction, and means responsive to said first
8. A system for determining the scanning co
named signal for con-trolling said last-mentioned
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the position of an object within a scanned space com
25 means to derive an electrical signal which repre
sents the scanning coordinate in said scanning
direction of the position of said object within
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for de
said space.
riving a signal representing the scanning coordi
l2. A system for determining the scanning co
ate in said scanning direction of the position of
said object Within said scanned space, means for 30 ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi
prising, means for effectively scanning said space
tion of an object within a scanned space com
deriving a reference Wave having instantaneous
prising, means for effectively scanning said space
amplitude values related to the scanning coordi
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for de
nates in said scanning direction of said space,
riving a signal representing the scanning coordi
means responsive to said reference wave for de
riving an electrical signal which represents any 35 nate in said scanning direction of the position
of said object within said space, a cathode-ray
selected scanning coordinate of said space in said
type signal-reproducing device including an indi
scanning direction and including a vacuum tube
cating area, means for scanning said indicating
having a control electrode, and means for apply
area in synchronism with the scanning of said
ing said ñrst-named signal to said control elec
space, means responsive to said signal for produc
trode for controlling said last-mentioned means
ing on said indicating area a visual indication of
to derive an electrical signal which represents the
the scanning coordinate in said scanning direc
scanning .coordinate in said scanning direction of
tion of the position of said object Within said
the position of said oloject Within said space.
space, means for deriving an electrical signal
9. A system for determining the scanning co
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi 45 which represents any selected scanning coordi
nate of said space in said scanning direction, and
tion of an object Within a scanned space com
means responsive to said ñrst-named signal for
prising, means for effectively scanning said space
controlling said last-mentioned means to derive
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for de
an electrical signal which represents the scanning
riving a signal representing the scanning coordi
coordinate in said scanning direction of the posi
ate in said scanning direction of the position of
tion of said object within said space.
said object Within said space, a generator for con
13. A system for determining the scanning co
trolling the scanning component of said scanning
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi
means in said scanning direction, means coupled
tion of a particular one of a plurality of objects
to said generator for deriving an electrical signal
which represents any selected scanning coordi 55 within a scanned space comprising, means for
effectively scanning said space in a predeter
nate of said space in said scanning direction, and
mined scanning pattern and for deriving a signal
means responsive to said ñrst-named signal for
representing the scanning coordinate in said
controlling said last-mentioned means to derive
scanning direction of the position of each of said
an electrical signal which represents the scanning
objects Within said space, means for deriving an
coordinate in said scanning direction of the posi
electrical signal which represents any selected
tion of said object Within said space.
scanning coordinate of said space in said scan
10. A system for determining the scanning c0
ning direction, and means responsive to a selected
ordinate in a given scanning direction of the posi
tion of an object within a scanned space com
prising, means for eñectively scanning said space
in a predetermined scanning pattern and for de
riving a signal representing the scanning coordi
nate in said scanning direction of the position of
said object within said space, means for deriving
a reference Wave having instantaneous amplitude
portion of said first-named signal for controlling
said last-mentioned means to derive an electrical
signal which represents the scanning coordinate
in said scanning direction of the position of said
particular object Within said space.
ARTHUR V. LOUGI-IREN.
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