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Патент USA US2403749

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‘July-9,’ 1946.
2,403,749‘
w. B. O’NEA‘L-v
FUEL TANK VENT
2_ YSheetS-SheefuIl-II
Filed May 17, £945
MEDQh.
-
WILLIAM
INVENTOR.
B.
O'NEAL. 1
July 9, 1946.
2,403,749
w. B. IO’NEAL
FUEL TANk-VENT
‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
‘Filed. May 17, 1945
N
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mvmmz
WILLIAM
BY
"74
_
B.
ATTO
O'NEALI
EY
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Patented July 9, 107946
A
2,403,749
UNITED 'STATES.,,
f oF'FicE;
rum.
I
2,403,?49
TANK VENT
. William 13.0mm‘, EllicottCity, :Md., assignor to
'
The GlennL. Martin Company,.Middle River, ~
'Md., a corporation of Maryland
‘
'
.
‘Application ‘May r1, 1943,}Serial No. 487,255 ‘
“.1, 244-435)
2 I Claims.
pedient to extend the'vent tube out the under side
Thisinvention relates to a vent for fuel stor
of the wing, in'the direction 'ofthe motion of. the
airplane to maintain a positive pressure in'the
age tanks On any vehicle, but is particularly
adapted for venting the fuel storage tankson .
aircraft.
,
~
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_
1
'
cell.‘v 1With this arrangemenhit is obviousthat
the; pressure in?the fueltank ,may'build up to an
_
It has always been a problem to provide proper
. undesirable maximum pressure depending on the
vents for the fuel tanks of aircraft. These vents
maximumspeed of‘the plane, It is also apparent
serve several useful purposes, fundamentally,
thatgsuchv avent, undercertain weather conditions
they let air into the tanks as the fuel is withdrawn
easily become clogged with ice.
7
l ,, ‘ > , .
by the fuel pumps of the engine. Due to the speed 10 would
The primary;_;object1,ofy the invention herein
of the aircraft, it is usual :to have the terminal
disclosed is to provide va vent for the‘fuel con
of the vent forwardly directed, to take advantage
tainer; of avvehicle which will maintain a prede
of the air speed to [maintain the air space» above
termined positive pressure inthe fuel container.
the fuel in the tanks, at a slightly positive pres
sure with respect to the atmosphere. Thiswcon
1 - vA; furthertobject of the invention is the pro
dition reduces the vaporization of the fuel, par 16 vision ofa fuel cell vent system in, which a pre
determined -_li_mited pressure ‘may be] maintained.
A furtheriobject of theinvention is the pro
visionrof a'vforwardly directed vent line that will
ticularly at high. altitudes. The great disadvan-v
tage, which is overcomeby this invention, is that
in the usual forwardly directed vent, there is no
control over the amount of pressure in the tank -»
and such vents very readily become clogged by
ice formations. -
maintain itself ice-free underladverse weather
conditions.’
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v Further and other objects will become apparent
.1
fromthe description of the, accompanying draw-v
It has long been the practice in aircraft to
ings which form a part'of this disclosure andvin
utilize the wing space for fuel storage by inserting»
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*
which like numerals refer to like parts.
1 r
?exible bags or cells in the cavities in the wings,
drawings: ~
;
g
I r
which contain the liquid fuel, the walls of the 35 Inthe
Figure l is’ asectionalyview of an airplane wing
cavity acting as retaining structure. These cells
are so formed that the external dimension of'the
cell are substantially equal to the internaldi
mensions of the cavity so that when the cells are
loosely placed in the cavity, the pressure load of 3
the liquid is transmitted to the retaining struc
ture. The cell acts only as a container for the
liquid. A more detailed description of this fuel
storage system can be obtained from the Gray
35
and Zivi Patent No. 2,102,590.
In'the ?exible cell installation, it is usual to
attach the cell at a few points around the top of
the cell to the walls of the retaining structure to
prevent complete collapse of the cell when empty.
It is necessary, in installation of this type, to pro
vide a vent or afford a means of open communi
cation with the atmosphere because, as the gaso
line is withdrawn from thecell, two undesirable
things may take place. If not vented properly,
the cell may collapse due to atmospheric pres
sure and place an undesirable strain on the ?t
tings and attaching means of the cell to the cavity
walls, or the pressure in the space above the gaso
line may be lowered to a point where undesirable
showing the invention’.
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1 Figure Z-is .a perspective iiiew of the vent at
tached to the vehicle.’ 1 ;
I _ Figures 3 and flare plan and-elevational views
of the vent.
'
In the drawings Figure 1 shows a typical wing
section and fuel storage cell installation. Fuel is
stored in the ?exible fuel container I, retained in
a cavity formed by the skin 2, spars 3 and 4, and
transverse bulkheads 5. These cells act merely
as containers for the liquid and being flexible,
transmit the ?uid pressure load to the retaining
structure.
Cells for this purpose are generally
40 formed so that their exterior dimensions are sub
stantially equal to the interior dimensions of the
cavity adapted to receive them so that no stress is
placed on the cell wall structure. It is customary
to support the tops of the cells at a few points
around the perimeter to prevent complete col
lapse when the cells are empty.
A vent line 6 extends from a ?tting 1 ad
jacent the top of the cell installation to the
vent structure shown in Figures 2, 3, and 4.
'50 This vent structure comprises a curved tube 8 7'
vaporizing of the gasoline may take place.
having the open end thereof extending in the
The above problems are solved by extending a
direction of ?ight. The streamlined surface of
‘pipe line from somewhere outside the airplane to
revolution 9 is positioned in front of and co
a point adjacent the top of the cell to act as a vent.
axially withthe open end of tube 8. The rear
From pressure considerations of the airfoil in 55 portion ll) of the streamlined body is truncated
which the cell is usually mounted, it is more ex-'
3
2,403,749
4
to a diameter substantially equal to the interior
diameter of tube 8. Both tube 8 and stream
might cause the icing-up of the entrance to the
tube. Ice particles will be de?ected by direct
impact and liquid particles, entrained in the air,
will .be removed from the air stream before reach_
ing the open end of the tube by centrifugal
lined body i9 are supported from a mounting
plate I I. This structure is more easily fabricated
by means of two similar stampings shown as
I 2 and I3 in which both the streamlined shell,
the tube, and a supporting structure are formed
force as the air stream flows around the curved
surface of the streamlined body.
as a single stamping and later welded together
This vent structure may ‘be located on the
along the parting line [4. The assembly ‘is sub
side of ‘the wing for wing tanks or any
sequently welded to the mounting plate ‘I I." The 10 ‘under
whereon the fuselage or body of any vehicle
space between tube 8 and body 9 is milled out , _ for other tanks.
to a predetermined width depending upon the
‘ It is to be understood that certain changes,
pressure desired in the vent line and cell,
modi?cations and substitutions can
It is obvious that without body a, the forward; '“' alterations,
be made without departing from the spirit and
1y directed attitude of tube ‘8, would receive ‘airscope of'the appended claims.
of a pressure head equal to the ‘velocityof-‘the
‘I ‘claim as ‘my invention:
vehicle and this abnormal air pressure would
'1. In combination in an aircraft, a ?exible
be transmitted to the interior of the .fuelistorg' ~
age cell. A slight positive pressure above the.
gasoline in the cell is necessary and‘ desirable.‘ '20
It is necessary, to permit the flow of gasoline
from the storage .cell, was 'it is required (‘by the
engine. It is ‘desirable, to ‘prevent the collapse
,non-self-supporting fuel containing cell mounted
in saidaircraft, a vent mounted on the external
surfaceof said aircraft, a vent line extending
from said vent to said cell, said vent comprising
ay'forwa'r'dly directed open-ended tube, a stream
linedbody having a surface of revolution posi
of . the :cell :when empty: or-lnear ‘empty. Too
great a pressure is- as objectionable as too little 25 tioned in ‘front of and coaxial with said tube,
the trailing end of said streamlined body trun
pressure in‘the .cell. . Therefore, due itorthe prac
cated to a diameter substantially equal to the
diameter of said tube, said truncated end of
said 'body’being spaced from the open end of
said :tube, ‘said spacing being such vas to regulate
the amount of air ?owing over the body that will
tical certainty thatthe open end of tube 8 will
become clogged ‘with ice, and the fact ‘that the
pressure of the-air >is 'directlyldepending upon
the velocity of the vehicle, ~'-the 'open-endedifor
wardly direct tube is obviously:unsatisfactory.
By placing the streamlined vbody _9 in the posi
tion shown with respect -"to -'the ‘tube »8, I'cert-ain
desired resultsarelobtained. -It~will'~be seen'that
enter the open end of said tube.
2. ‘In combination in an aircraft, a ?exible
non-self-supporting fuel containing cell mounted
due to its- streamlined shape, the’ air- will ?ow 35 in said aircraft, an anti-icing vent mounted on
the external surface of said aircraft, a vent line
extending from said vent to said cell, said vent
The tapered trailing edge of body 9 can be
comprising a‘ forwardly directed open-ended
truncated so that ‘portion l-IJ with-respect-t'o-the
tube, a streamlined body having ‘a ‘surface of
open end of tube-dis of such diameterthat
revolution positioned in front of and coaxial
any desired ?ow, ofair intotube 8 may be-maine 40
with said tube, the forward end of ‘said ‘body
tained. In other words, the open endof the -' curving
to a maximum diameter greater than the
tube maybe arranged'with respect to the trun
diameter
of said forwardly directed tube, .the
cated end of the-‘streamlined body ‘so that‘it
trailing
end
of said ‘streamlined body truncated
skims off a layer of airvunder oa-certa-in'vvelocity
a diameter substantially equal‘ to the diameter
head to any desired thickness, thereby 1con 45 to
of said tube, ‘said truncated end of ‘said body
trolling the volume of air. The maximum speed
being
spaced from the open end of ‘said tube,
of the plane being known, the spacing and ‘rel
over the body toward vthe opening in 'tube~8. I
said‘spacing being'such as‘to'regulate the amount
ative diameter can be such that the maximum
desired pressure in the cell‘wvill be maintained.
It will be noted that the streamlined body-acts
to
as a deflector for ice particles or'moisture'that "
of air’ flowing ‘over the'body that will‘enter the
open“ end of said tube.
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WILLIAM B.
O’NEAL.
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