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Патент USA US2403752

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July 9, 1946-
»
M. H. PHILLIPPI
2,403,752
FLEXIBLE REFLEX REFLECTING FILM
F11ed Feb. 15, 1940
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141
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2 sheets-sheet 1
I July 9, 1946.
_
M_ H~ PH|LL|PP1
2,403,752
FLEXIBLE REFLEX REFLECTING FILM `
Filed Feb. 13, 1940
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36
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
ä". miento@
. 9
MHTTHEW
H. EFHILLIPPI
2,493,752
Patented July 9, ‘1946A
4
.UNITED ÍsTATEs PATENT ¿orales
2.403.752
FLEXIBLE
REFLECTING FILM
Matthew n. rhuuppi, st. rm, Minn., maar.'
by direct and mesnc assignments, to Brown à
Bigelow, St. Paul, Minn., a corporation of
Minnesota
Application February 13, 1940, Serial No. 318,701
8 Claims. (Cl. «i1-33)
l ,
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of a hand prepared and individually formed re
My invention relates to an improvement in ilex
ible reflex reflecting illms, wherein it is desired
to provide a ñexible illm of reflex reflecting ele
flex reflecting sign.
It is a further purpose of my invention to pro
vide a flexible film bearing reñex reñecting ele
ments which may be used either in the manner
of a decalcomania transfer, or may be used as a 5 ments which may be applied as a ñlm over apre
viously formed or constructed sign. Thus in order
coating over signs of various types.
,
to improve the appearance of a sign already in
use, it is only necessary to apply over the surface
of the sign aîtransparent film bearing the reflex
It has been previously known that small reg--
ularly shaped elements of transparent material
such as glass, and preferably in the form of
spheres, cubes, and any other regularly shaped
reflecting elements. When applied, the _sign is
'_ geometrical figures, whose height equals the di
given the same appearance as if it had been coated
ameter and the like. have been previously used
for attracting attention, and for decorating pur
poses. It has further been _found that by plac
ing these elements closely together, and provid-- 15
ing a large number of such elements, a bright re
ilex reflection may b_e obtained. The elements
may be applied in any one of a` number of ways.
with an adhesive, and covered with the reflecting
elements. This is extremely important, as it pro
vides an inexpensive way of treating signs already
in existence and which might otherwise be costly
t0 provide a -reflecting surface upon.
It will be understood that the application of
reflex reflecting elements to a surface requires
special knowledge and special supplies. In the
In every instance, however, the elements are at
tached by coating the surface with a coating of 20 treatment ofv a sign previously made and sus
pended out of doors, it has beenpreviously almost
adhesive, and placing the elements in contact with
A essential-to remove the sign and work on the
the adhesive. 'I’his process, while simple, is not
same where the sign may be moved about for ease
always convenient.
_
_
_
in applying the reflecting elements. With ~my
» It is the object of the present invention to pro
vide a ñlm bearing reflex reflecting elements; and 25 new ñexible fllm, it is only necessary to apply a
. hered to the surface of a sign or sign base. The
coating of adhesive upon the sign, and to adhere
my transparent fllm bearing the reñecting ele
film may be either in the form of a. transparent
flexible nlm bearing the reflex reflecting elements;
ments over the surface. Thus my construction is
extremely advantageous for use upon previously
to form this illm flexible so that it may be ad
constructed signs or displays. No special equip
ment or knowledge is necessary to apply the illm.
or may if desired be in the form of a decal
comania transfer. In the latter case, the design- _
is held upon a decalcomania base by a suitable
The present process is particularly applicable - _
to flexible sheets or illms of homogeneous mate
paste or the like; and the design is coated with,
the reilex reñecting elements. The transfer is
rials as regenerated cellulose, cellulose derivatives,
such as ethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose, nitro
cellulose, and cellulose acetate gelatin, casein and
_applied in the usual manner, the base'being re- Y
moved through the use of a solvent for the paste.
Thus, when applied, a transfer design is provided
in which the design is coated with the vreflecting
synthetic or natural resins.
Such materials are
usually transparent but it may be understood
’ that materials which are somewhat translucent
elements.
40 or otherwise expressed as having one homogene
It is a purpose of my invention to provide a
ous continuous phase,A such as Glassine may be
transfer decaleomania, sign, or gummed label
processed as herein described. 'I'he sheets or fllms
having a brilliantly visible surface thereupon ca
may be colorless, slightly tinted, dyed, otherwise f
pable of attracting attention or of conveying in
colored, or entirely opaque, as may be desired for
fomation. Such transfers, signs and labels have r the purpose fox` which they are to be employed.
all of the advantages commonly known to exist
_It is a feature of my invention that my flexible
for such articles; and have the added'advantage
of theA brilliant reflecting surface thereon. Labels
and decalcomanias, for example, may be readily>
transported and handled; and may b_e applied
by anyone familiar with the usual process of ap
plying such articles, or capable of reading and
following simple directions._ At the same time,
the labels,`signs and decalcomanias which I pro
duce have the added brilliance and attractiveness
ñlm may be in any one of a number' of forms.
My reilex reflectingelements may be mounted
upon a decalcomania transfer, or upon a trans- '
50
parent flexible base, as has been described. In
addition, my ñlm may be in the form of a gummed
label. Such a gummed label may be provided with
numerals, designs,- letters, symbols, or combina
tions `of such _indicia which have been printed,
lithographed, silk screened or hand painted on
2,403,752
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a. sheet of material. The sheet may be provided
with a paste or gum solution, or with a suitable
glue which, when moistened, will adhere to a de
sired surface. Such gummed labels may be ren
dered extremely effective by a coating of reflex
reflecting elements partially embedded in an ad
hesive coating on the label.
ç
‘
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the like if desired, or may be in'proper outline
form to enclose a series of letters, numerals, or
designs.
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Imprinted or in other ways afñxed overlying
the ñlm I2 I provide the design I3. This design
may, of course, be printed, >lithographed, silk
screened, or hand painted upon the ñlm surface
to provide a desired display. The design may be
'I'hese and other objects and novel features of
in one or numerous colors, or may be black or
my invention' will be more clearly and fully set
10 white. The design I3 is preferably covered with
forth in the following specification and claims.
a protective coating I4, such as varnish, lacquer,
In the drawings forming a part of my speci
or other suitable material. The protective coat
fication:
ing fills the interstices formed by the design and
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional
provides a relatively smooth working surface.
Yview, in greatly enlarged form, of a decalco~Upon the surface of the protective coating Il,
15
mania transfer showing my new construction.
I provide a coating of adhesive I5. This ad
Figure 25 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional
hesive may be any suitable transparent or trans
view of a modified form of decalcomania transfer.
lucent material which will form a reflective back
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view
ing for the reiiex reflecting elements, and which
of a clear transfer or transparent reilex reflecting
20 will hold these elements securely to the body of
film.
the decalcomania A. While the adhesive I5 is
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional view
in a plastic state, the reflex reflecting elements
of a clear transfer similar to that shown in Fig
I6 are applied in any suitable manner, these ele
ure 3,»without the top coating thereupon.
ments being partially embedded in the adhesive
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional
view of a transfer design to be applied to a sur 25 coating I5, and secured thereby. The reñex re
flecting elements may be formed of clear, trans
face to be covered.
parent, or colored glass or other transparent ma
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic cross-sectional
terial, and may be spherical, cubical, or of other
view through a decalcomania transfer having a
' regularly shaped geometrical form in which the
non-continuous removable ñlm thereon.
Figure '7 is a diagrammatic perspective view of 30 height substantially equals the diameter and the
like.
.
the transfer shown in Figure 1 after application,
Upon the surface of the reflex reflecting eie
showing the relationship of the elements thereof.
ments, I preferably provide a coat of varnish or
Figure 8 is a diagrammatic perspective view
any transparent material for protection against
of the transfer illustrated in Figure 2 of the draw
35 deterioration. This top coat I1 seals the re
ings, after application thereof.
cesses between the reflecting elements I6 and pre
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic perspective view of
vents moisture from entering about the reflecting
the clear transfer shown in Figure 3 of the draw
ì elements and damaging the effectiveness of the
ings, after application thereof.
completed transfer.
Figure 10 is a front elevational view of a high
'I'he manner in which the decalcomania A is i
40
way sign.
used is believed obvious. As shown in Figure 1,
^ Figure 11 is a sectional view through a portion
the transfer including the film I2, design I3, pro
of _the sign of Figure 10, showing the manner
_ in which the transfer may be applied thereto.
tective coating Il, adhesive I5, reflector elements
I6, and top coat I1 is removed from the backing
In Figure 1 of the drawings, I disclose a typical
form of decalcomania constructed in accordance 45 sheet I0 by using a. suitable solvent for softening
the paste layer II. This transfer is adhered
with the teachings of my invention. This form
upon the base I9 by any suitable means. In
of decalcomania A is provided with a. backing
some instances the paste layer I I is such that
sheet I0, which may be, and ordinarily is, a sheet
this same adhesive may be used for adhering the
of paper. The backing sheet I0 may, however,
comprise a sheet of metal, wood, Celluloid, or 50 transfer. In the usual practice, however, a coat
ing of varnish or other adhesive 20 is placed
any one of a great number of othersubstances.
upon the sign base I9, and the film I2 is adhered
The only requirement of such a backing sheet
to the base I9 in this manner.
.
is that it form a base for supporting the remov
A slightly different type of decalcomania con
able portion of the transfer.
,
The backing sheet I0 is treated with a paste 55 struction is shown ‘in Figures 2 and 8 of the draw
ings. The decalcomania B illustrated in these iig
solution. This -layer of paste solution is dia
grammatically illustrated at Il. The paste II
ures is provided with a backing sheet 2l which v
may be made of any suitable material, but winch
is usually a flexible paper sheet. A coating of
able solvent ,it will soften and permit the remov
al of the transfer from the backing sheet, Il). In 60 paste 22 is applied to one surface of the backing
sheet 2l, which paste may be softened by a suit
use, the backing sheet I0 is removed from the
able solvent such as water. The reflecting me
decalcomania, and- the remainder of the sign is
dium 23 is imprinted upon the paste coating 22.
This reflecting medium may be of transparent
A film of Varnish, lacquer, or other material, in
dicated at I2, is jcoated, sprayed, printed, litho 65 material, or may be of opaque material. In the
construction shown, the reflecting medium 23 is
graphed, silk screened, or hand painted upon
printed, lithographed, silk screened, or hand
the paste layer II. This film I2 may cover the
painted upon the coating 22, in the form of let
entire surface of the paste layer, or may beters. The reñecting 'medium is colored, and forms
placed thereon in a predetermined pattern. The
^ film I2 forms the removable base of the transfer, 70 an adhesive 'base to which the reflex reñecting ele
must be such that when moistened with a suit
used.
'
'
and obviously may be of regular or irregular out
line, as is desired. In Figures 1 and 7 of the
drawings, the film I2 is shown continuous over
the surface illustrated; but this film may be in
the outline form of letters, numerals, designs or 75
ments 24_ are adhered. A top coat 25 of varnish,
lacquer, or the like is preferably v'applied over the
reliecting elements 2| to -flll the Yinterstices be
tween the same, and to seal any cracks. enclosing
the elements 24 in a‘weather-proof seal.
2,408,752
6
Figure 8 shows the decalcomania B after the
backing sheet 2| has been removed by softening
the paste nlm 22 with a suitable solvent. The re
flecting medium\23 is adhered to the base 25 of
the sign by means of a suitable adhesive coating
thus be removable in one or more separate pieces
21 which may be locally applied just beneath the
from the backing sheet 45.
In Figure 10 I disclose ahighway sign 52 having
reflecting medium, or which may be applied over
the entire general area of the reñecting medium
whenremoved from the backing sheet.
.
Reflex reflecting elements 50 are embedded in
the reflecting medium 49 to about half their depth,
and a top coating Il seals the reflecting ele
ments against the weather. The design 41 may
-letters or\ figures 53 thereupon. ' A series of
rounded protuberances 54 are formed in the let
l
ters 53. As shown'in Figure 1l, the sign base
Figure 3 illustrates a clear transferC whic
may be coated over designs and indicia to en
hance the appearance of fthe same. The trans
52 is provided with a covering 55 of paint on both
sides thereof. A transparent ñlm 56 is adhered
to the surface of the protuberances 54, having re
flex reflecting elements 51 embedded therein. A
fer C is provided with a transparent basesheet
29, which may be of `any suitable transparent ma
terial such as Glassine, Cellophane, Kodapak or
top coating 59 ofvarnish or lacquer seals the re
regenerated cellulose films. Upon the surface of
the base sheet 29 I provide a coating 30 of clear
flecting elements lfrom the weather.
‘
In accordance with the patent statutes, `I have
described the principles of construction and oper
garnish, lacquer, or transparent adhesive mate
~ ation of my reflex- refiecting film; and while I have
Embedded in the adhesive coating 30, I provide 20 endeavored to set ‘forth the best embodiments
’ a layer of reflex reflecting elements 3|. The ele
thereof, I desire to have it understood that these
are only illustrative of methods of carrying out my
ments 3| may if desired be sealed in place by a
invention, and that obvious changes may be made
top coat 32 which fills the lnterstices between the
within the scope of the Afollowing claims without
elements and acts to weatherproof the transfer.
- The clear transfer D is identical with the trans 25 departing from the spirit of my invention.
I claim:
, .
fer C with the exception that the top coat is elim
1. A marker decalcomania comprising a back
ing, a soluble adhesive, a reflecting binder, said
inated. In this form'of my invention -the trans
parent film 33 is .coated with a varnish, lacquer, or
reflecting binder ‘being loaded over a portion .of
clear adhesive 34, and the reflex reflecting ele
ments 35 are embedded therein. This .film may 30 its area with small glass spheres.
‘2. A decalcomania transfer comprising a base
. be adhered over a design, emblem, or indicia to
sheet, a paste coatingl thereupon, a flexible base
improve the appearance of the same, and to make
sheet adhered to said paste coating, a multiplicity
the sign more visible and more legible when light
of closely grouped reflex reflecting elements ad
strikes the same.
`
Figure 9 illustrates the film C applied to a de
hered to said base sheet, and a top coat of trans
parent material upon said reflecting elements.
sign or base. 'I'he sign base 36 is provided with a
3. A decalcomania comprising a backing sheet,
design 31 thereon which is coated. with/a suitable
a paste coating thereupon, a flexible coating ad
transparent adhesive. varnish, or lacquer coat
hered to said paste coating, and a multiplicity of
ing 39. The fllxnV base 2_3 is adhered to this base
30, insuring a close contact between the sign base 40 transparent reflecting elements closely grouped
36 and the film base '29.
and adhered to said flexible coating.
«
' sary transparency.
When the fllm'base 29 to
gèther with the'adhesive '30 and reflecting 'ele
~ments 3i are’placed upon the base 38, the film C
does no‘t appear perfectly transparent. However,
when actually adhered thereto. the .design 31
' of transparent reflecting elements closely grouped
and adhered to said flexible film.
,
I
.
In Figure 5 of the drawings I disclose a design
on a base sheet covered with reflex reflecting ele
ments. In this transfer E, the base may be any
flexible sheet >40 _bearing a design 4I applied in
_ rial overlying said reflecting elements. '
6. A decalcomania comprising a backing sheet.
any manner thereto. 'I'he sheet 4l may be trans- y ~
parent, as shown, or may be opaque, as in a label
or the like. .A coat of varnish or lacquer 42 is
applied over the design in the form of an adhesive,
and the reflex reflecting elements 43 are embedded
_
5. A decalcomania comprising a backing sheet,
_an adhesive coating thereupon, a transparent
flexible ñlm releasably adhered to said adhesive
coating, a multiplicity of transparent reflecting
elements closely grouped »and adhered to said
flezdble film, and a top coat of transparent mate
may be seen with magnified clearness through
the transfer C.
'
4. A decalcomania comprising a backing sheet,
a paste coating thereupon, a transparent flexible
ñlm adhered to said‘coating, and a multiplicity
It has been found that actual connecting con
tact is necessary in brder to provide the neces
an adhesive coating thereupon, ajfilm releasably
adhered to said adhesive' coating. and a multi
p_licity of refiex'refiecting elements adhered
said film andremovable therewith.
_-.
'1. A decalcomania comprising a backingsheet,
in the adhesive to substantially half their depth. 60 an adhesive coating thereupon. a film releasably
A top coating of varnish 44 or the like is prefer
ably applied over the renecting elements 43, as a
protection against the elements.
In Figure 6 of the drawings I provide a decal?
comania transfer having a non-continuous film
thereupon. The transfer F is provided with a
backing sheet 43 coated with a paste solution 43.
A4 design printed in varnish, lacquer, or other
film forming material. indicated by the numeral
41, forms a base for the removable portion of the-
transfer. The varnish o_r lacquer film 41 is coated
with a reflecting medium 40 which may be trans
parent, or may be opaque ink or the like.
adhered> to said ladhesive coating. a design upon
said nlm,> and a multiplicity of transparent re
'ñecting elements closely groupedand adhered to
' said film, and removable therewith.
8. A decalcomania comprising -a backing sheet.
an adhesive coating thereupon, a film releasably
adhered to said adhesive coating. >a design upon
said film, a protective transparent'coating over
said design, and a multiplicity of transparent re-,
i'iecting elements closely grouped and adhered to
said protectiveftransparent coating.
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