close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2403755

код для вставки
Patented July 9, 1946
UNITED
2,403,755
PATENT OFFICE-Í ‘
y lvnnonminafrivlïilîiîarma jxsuigzsfr :
John A. Rankin, »Port Washington,
Y., yassïignor ’
to -Radio Corporation of America, a corporation
of Delaware»
application Augustzz, 1941, lseriali No. 407,966 `
4i1. cnims. (01;.2504-25 j`
quarter ‘wavelength long at the» operating'fre
quency. Obviously,r îfthe ¿body of the-plane-is
This invention relates to a radiant> energy fre
generative feed back system for use'between two
or more movable vehicles, such as airplanes'tanks,
trucks, ships, or combinations ‘of such craft.' 1
It is desirable in, wartime thatr two-for imorel
made ofA metal, the antenna shouldbeY suitably Y
insulated from the plane'at their pointsfiof sup
portyif the body- of the plane is madeof- plastic
materialor other ysuitable insulation, the antennas
friendly airplanes be able’to .identityrthemselves
to one another duringêï?lig'htfi'with` a system'hav
ing a limited range of'ftransmissionysuch-that
more' remotely located enemyifstationsvmay not
be apprized of the presence of theiplanes:v The
present invention provides a system/by means of
which two or more friendly airplanes; equipped
with identical apparatus, can provide'a char'
acteristic indication when flying withinthe eñec'
tive range of transmission. By’ means'of‘this'in
vention, the pilot of a combat plane-isimmedi
canrbe positioned in-known 1manner to minimize
coupling between them. 'I'heoscillator i8 in each '
,plane`v is A-preferably av constanty frequency »,type, Y
IC
suchas ,a1 crystal oscillator, supplying energy î t0
be'amplified by apparatus 'v 4 ‘ and radiated ¿from
thetransmitting antenna A1. Thesys'temj-_is >s_o
designedthat Athe- »Waves radiated by _eachtransr
`mitting antenna isf-relatively weak in intensity
and-inayibeïeiîective >within averylimited range.
ately able to determine wlfietheräan‘r approach
For-airplanes, such’a-range mightv be,f'perhaps„fV
'T500-yards; in-order to'enable thexpilotffto deter
ing craft is a friend or‘ a foe.
minegwit-hin a'short time before an approaching Y
i.
1'
I
The present invention finds furtherìuse inicon'
craft comeswithin e'iïective firing range?WhetherVV
nection with truck convoys, where it’isv essential 20 the approaching craft-is a friend or' a‘foe. - \
during war conditions that trucks be able‘atoz‘fol‘
with’thesystemï as thus-S0 fardeseribed, unie '
low one another in the dark without losingïco'n
tact or colliding with each other- By means of
the present invention there is provided a system
for' determining not only whether one truck-is
immediately behind another truck in ‘~the~convoy,
but also the approximate distance v"between“'-ad'
jacent
A' more
trucks'.
detailed description
`
'f of the ' invention
'
airplaneê‘is a» friend and is equippedidentically `
asa‘irplane l, Ytheradiated wave from the'trans
rn‘ittirigantennar A1 of‘p'lane` lv will-be received
on the'reoeivin'g antenna A2 of plane 2; ampliñed »
in: apparatus ißfin 1 plane 2», and <theV amplified
wavesl transmitted over' transmitting. antenna TA1
:0f planeV L’ and received on' receiving'antennazAz
ofV planer l, thus providingia regenerative" feed
follows in conjunction with a drawing; wherein-t
back circuit lbetween'the'" two planes. - As- the
Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatica‘lly the-applica'
tion of the invention'to a pair Ao1’ airplanes; I
planesfapproa'cli each other, the- loverall radiation
couplingïinwthis vfeed Vback circuiti will increase,
Figs. 2 and 3 showin detail 'one ernbc'ic'ìiment‘l of
the circuit which can b‘e‘u'se'd on each‘plan'e; both
thereby‘increasing the amplitude@oftheV radiated,`
for identiñcation purposes’and for determining
theFig.
relative
4 illustrates
distance
diagrammatically
between'planes; the
andvapplica
able’indi'c'ationto the‘ pilot. Obviously, 'therap
tion
Referring
of the invention
to Fig. 1intomoredet'ail,
an” automobile'
therey
truckis‘shbw‘n
a pair of airplanes (for exampl'e‘gî'combat’planes)
I and 2, each of 'which is 'provided‘fwith‘suitable
radiating apparatus comprising van oscillatorïfß,
waves to> an extent necess'ary'to- providey 'a suit:- i
paratus in both planes < are not only: identical but
should'operate at 'the' same frequency.
' '
VIf the -pilot 'cfa plane equipped with the inven'`- Y
tion findsithat the approaching craft is within
tiie'rrange in'which- his‘radio equipment should Y,
increase in intensity of output, >but does»v not‘ do
so, the` pilot' will immediately' realize that the’ api-‘?A
proaching‘craft'is‘ a foe and will'take suitable
an amplifier It, a transmitting-Íantenna‘Al; and
a receiving antenna A2. The antennas Aifîand'Az
are arranged in a manner to reduce‘thecöupling 45 necessary: Lookinfg‘atlit 'another wayfwe can say
between them substantiallytof zero. Q'I'he reason
for this is to prevent sueli' feedback betweenïthe
transmitting and' receiving antennas' of each
plane which will produce regeneration. Oneway
thatfthe‘apparatus'in theftwoy "planes l and 2;
’taken'fto'gëtirerl constitute aï singleoscillator Vcire
cuitçfwnenj ioçated (within a, distance `to ’provide
suitable regenerative fee‘d back' betweenftheftwo
by which this may be. accomplished is: to position 50 piane‘sl.. The distance’ at? which self-oscillations
take-'place- may be controlled by changing the
the antennas' A1 and Ae ini.a;vertical line with
the metallic body of thez‘plane -locatedibetween
gain .ofthe ampliñers IU; that'is,fasthe gain'- is
them. These antennas‘may be ofi any suitable
increased in both amplifiers lll', the distance be-k
form, although it is preferred; in the arrangement
tween 'th’e planes may> likewise > be Í increased ` and
shown in the drawing, that each antennafbefonee 55 still' provide the desired regeneratîve'feed back.,- '
2,403,755
3
Each of the planes I and 2 is preferably pro
vided with a suitable indicating device, such as
a lamp or an alarm to indicate when self-oscilla
tion or increased intensity of output takes place,
which will occur only when another craft, iden
tically equipped, is within the range to provide
4
ment as Fig. 2, the current through the relay I9
will increase to such an extent that its armature
will be attracted tothe core of the relay `against
the tension of the spring 2I so as to break the
circuit through the amber lamp 22 and complete
a path through the lower contacts of the arma
regenerative feed back. .
ture of relayv I9 in order to light the green lamp
Fig. 2 shows, by way of example only, one cir
cuit arrangement for the radio apparatus of
path to light the green lamp A24 not only includes
24. ' It should be noted 4at this time that the
planes I and 2. In Fig. 2 there is shown an am 10 the contacts associated with the armature of re
lay I9 but also includes the upper contacts asso
plifying circuit comprising a pair of vacuum tubes
ciated with the relay 20. The green lamp 24
I0 and I I arranged in cascade and positioned be
will thus light so long as the regenerative feed
tween a receiving antenna -Az and a transmitting
back path is such that the intensity of output does
antenna A1. The reeciving antenna Az is shown
coupled to a tuned input circuit I3 connected 15 not exceed a predetermined value to operate the
relay 20. When, however, the intensity of output
between the grid and cathode of the ñrst vac
increases to an extent which will operate the
uum tube amplifier I0. This vacuum tube is
relay 20„ which will occur when the two planes
have approached quite close 'to one another, the
used instead. The anode of the vacuum tube I0 20 armature of relay 2D will break the circut for the
~ green lamp 24 and will complete'a circuit to light
is connected to a parallel tuned output circuit
the red lampr 25' over an obvious‘path.
I5 to which is coupled another parallel tuned cir
As an example of therange of distance within
cuit IS constituting the input circuit for the multi
which the relays I9 and 29 will> function, the ap
grid vacuum tube I I. The anode of vacuum tube
paratus may be’designed and suitably biased by
II is connected to another parallel tuned circuit
shown as being of the multi-grid type, although, if
desired, a triode or a four-element tube can be
I'I which is the output for amplifier I I and which
adjusting the gainiof the vacuum' tubes, such
that a regenerativeieed back path suñicient
is coupled to the transmitting antenna A1. A
to operate theY relay `I9 but not to operate
local oscillator I8 of the Hartley type is shown
the relay 20 must take place within a range
coupled to the tuned circuit I5 by means of cou
pling circuit 26 by virtue of which the oscilla 30 of between 7500 and 5000 yards. If the planes
approach closer than 5000 yards, then the relay
tions generated by this oscillator are ampliiied in
20 can be made‘to' operate to light the ‘red
II and radiated from antenna A1 in a relatively
lamp. It should be distinctlyV understood,’ï‘of
weak transmission. The parallel tuned circuits
coorse‘, that these distances are given ‘byi way of
I3, I5, _I6 and I1 are tuned to the same frequency
of operation, which is also the same frequency of 35 example only, and that they' may be considerably
shortened'or lengthened to suit various 'condi
operation as antennas A1 and Az. These antennas
tions encountered in practice. As an example, if
are shown as dipoles having an overall length of
the principles of the present’invention are ern
preferably a half wavelength at the operating fre
ployed on trucks in a convoy, naturally the dis
quency and so arranged with respect to one an
other that there is substantially no coupling be 40 tance mentioned above would be considerably
shortened, to be effective, let us Vsay `perhaps
tween them. To reduce the feed back between
antennas A1 and A2 to a minimum, one may use the
within a range of 150 to 75 feet.
_
-
l »
'
Although the apparatus of Figs.' 1 and 2 have
usual known expedients of providing a shield be
been described with particular reference to the
tween the antennas, which shield may take the
form of the metallic body of a plane as herein 45 useV of a local oscillator, this'local oscillatorimay,
under ‘some circumstances, be .eliminated pro
above described in connection with Fig. 1. The
vided that the gain of, the’ampliflersis suil‘i
advantage of coupling the oscillator I8 to the
ciently high to provide the desiredregenerative
tuned circuit I5 is that the output of the oscillator
feed back path between two similarly equipped
is amplified by vacuum tube I I only and radiated
overfAi and cannot react back upon the receiving 50 vehicles within a desired range `of distances.
Fig. 3 shows very schematically a circuit ar
antenna Az through the vacuum tube I0. By way
rangement of the invention which requires no
of example, the amplifying stage I0 might be ar
local oscillator. 'I'he amplifiersystem illustrated
ranged to give a gain oi’ 100 while the second vac
in box form may, if desiredfbe similar to, the
uum tube stage Il might be arranged to give a
ampliñer system illustrated in Fig. 2.
gain of ten, thus providing an overall gain of
The invention has the following advantages:
1000‘between antennas A2 and A1.
(1) It provides an identification system between
In order to provide a suitable indication to the
two or more moving vehicles within a desired lim
pilot of a plane, there are provided a pair of re
ited range of transmission; (2) >it provides a
lays I9 and 20 arranged electrically in series re
lation and connected between the grid and cath 60 means for determining approximate distances be
tween vehicles; (3) the apparatus is extremely
ode of the vacuu-m tube I I. Normally, when there
simple and inexpensive to construct; and (4)
is no regenerative feed back path provided by
with properly designed apparatus the- normal
another vehicle equipped identically with the ap
radiation will be weak or non-existent, thereby
paratus of Fig. 2, the armatures of the relays I9
and 20 will be in the positions indicated in the 65 lessening or completely eliminating-the possibility
of detection by the enemy. In connection with
drawing and maintained this way by means of
springs 2I, 2|. In this position, the amber lamp . this last advantage, it will be evident that where
22 will be lighted over a path traced from the pos
desired more than two vacuum tubes and as
sociated circuits can be employed to provide
itive terminal of battery 23 through the iilament
of lamp 22, through the upper two contacts on 70 higher gain. If it is'desired, from a standpoint
of secrecy, to change the operating frequency,
the armature of ?relay I9 as closed by the ar
either the entire apparatus or the operating fre
mature, and back to the negative terminal of
quency of the apparatus can be very simply
the battery 23. When, however, a regenerative
changed because of the inherent simplicity of
feed back path is provided by virtue of the ap
l ' 1
proach of another vehicle having the same equip 75 the system.
@254033155
1“5
56
zofioneevehicle beingzmounted'in: the rear ¿cf the
The present invention not only :finds aèfieldfof
use in connection with combat planes, tbutfalso
has application to motor vehicles'for‘use-initruck
convoys. A difficulty hither-to'experienced inthe
‘automobiletand shielde'dîfrom;v one anothenvwhile .y
use of truck convoys is that certainß'trucks llinß'a -
and shielded from one another.
convoy may lose their way vfin 1the-(darlo. By
equipping each truck with-equipment 41such as
shown in Fig. 2, both for the lfront »andthe back
of the truck, and by locatingieach ofthe-*antennas
in a suitable parabolic reflecton-itfwilllbe evidentthat the rear equip-ment of` each trucklwill-ïco’op
erate with the front equipment of the ‘following
truck to provide the desired regenerative -feed
back circuit, and by adjustment-of theagfain'in
the ampli’ñers, the lampi-indicators will lserver to
acquaint the driver of the-truck of .the »approxi
mate distance between himself'andfthepreceding
vehicle.
Fig. 4 illustrates, by-way of example,
schematically, how‘a truck can be equipped with
the apparatus of Figs. 2 and 3. The invention*
also finds use in connection with planes flying in
formation. The planes can thus maintain de
sired distances between one another.
it is to be understood that the term “vehicle”
used in the appended claims includes any mov
able object which will transport the apparatus of
the invention, such as an automobile, plane, ship,
person or animal.
What is claimed is:
l. A radiant energy system for use between a
pair of stations at least one of which is a vehicle,
theï input-„fand output ¿antennas of'- the other :ve
fhiclexare »mounted inthe front ofthe automobile
«. ,
v.'6.-A1=radiant energyas'ystem for .use between
a .pair .o‘flvehicles having ampliñers >,operating 'at
the sameffrequency, 4and‘input and output an
ltermas". for >each amplifier .arranged to= minimize
l10
coupling therebetween, whereby said ampliiiers .
together, -within ya Apredetermined distance of
"each-other, constitute-.a regenerativecircuitlby
vput-:antenna of 1 each Vamplifier and-"the input '
`- antenna of the other ampliiiengan indicatorccu- . ,_
`~ pled tofeachampli-iier >for indicating'when -said
»vehiclesare Awithin --said :predetermined distance,
and another indica-tor coupled' to v each? ampliñer
~foriindicatingwhen- said-vehicles are spacedffrom
'fioneanother by a certain distance within said
predetermined distance.
l
7. A radiant energy system for use between a
pair of vehicles having ampliñers operating at
the saine frequency, each amplifier comprising av
pair of vacuum tubes in cascade and having an
input antenna coupled to one vacuum tube and
an output antenna coupled to the other vacuum
tube, an oscillator coupled to a point between Vthe
two vacuum tubes of each amplifier to cause a
relatively weak radiation from the output an- '
tenna, the antennas of each amplifier being ar
said stations having amplifiers operating at the
ranged
same frequency, and input and output antennas
.for each ampliñer arranged to minimize coupling
whereby said ampliñers together, within a pre
determined distance of each other, constitute a
to
minimize
coupling ~ therebetween,
therebetween, whereby the amplifiers of said sta
regenerative circuit by virtue of the space radi
tions together, within a predetermined distance
of each other, constitute a regenerative circuit by
virtue of the space radiation between the output
ation between the output antenna of each am- '
plifier and the input antenna of the other am
pliñer, and means for detecting the increase inY
antenna of each ampliñer and the input antenna
amplitude of output of each amplifier caused by
of the other amplifier.
40 said regenerative circuit.
2. A radiant energy system for use between a
8. A radiant energy indicating system for use
pair of vehicles having amplifiers operating at the
between a pair of spaced vehicles having'siniilar
same frequency, and input and output antennas
vacuum tube equipment, the equipment of each
for each amplifier arranged to minimize coupling
vehicle comprising a multistage amplifier sys
therebetween, whereby the amplifiers of said ve
tem having an input antenna coupled to the in
hicles together. within a predetermined distance
put of one stage and an output antenna coupled
of each other, constitute a regenerative circuit
to the output of another stage, said amplifier
by virtue of the space radiation between the out
systems of said pair of vehicles constituting aV
put antenna of each amplifier and the input an
regenerative feed back circuit within a prede
tenna cf the other amplifier, and an indicator 50 termined range by virtue of the space radiation
coupled to each ampliñer for indicating when
between the output antenna of'each multistage
said vehicles are within said predetermined dis
ampliñer andthe input antenna of the other
tance.
3. A radiant energy system for use between a
,
vvirtuezio‘fithe space radiation .betweenvthe-'out- '
multistage system, relays operatively coupled‘toV
each multistage amplifier system and operative
pair of vehicles having amplifiers operating at the 55 in response to diiferent degrees of intensity of
same frequency, input and output antennas for
regeneration, and a visual indicator associated
each ampliñer arranged to minimize coupling
with each relay, whereby said indicators serve
therebetween, and a local oscillator associated
to indicate ranges of distance between said ve
with each amplifier to cause a relatively weak
hicles.
radiation from the associated output antenna, 60
9. A radiant energy indicating system for use
whereby said ampliñers together, within a pre
between a pair of spaced vehicles having similar
determined distance of each other, constitute a
vacuum tube equipment, the equipment of each
regenerative circuit by virtue of the space radia
vehicle comprising a multistage ampliiier system
tion between the output antenna of each ampli
having an input antenna coupled to the input
fier and the input antenna of the other am
of oneV stage and an output antenna coupled to
pliiier.
the output of another stage, an oscillator for each
4. A radiant energy system in accordance with
multistage amplifier system coupled to said sys- '
claim l, characterized in this that said vehicles
tem at a point between said stages, said amplifier ~ Y
are airplanes, the input and output antennas
systems of said pair of vehicles constituting a
for each amplifier being mounted vertically on 70 regenerative feed back circuit‘within a predeter
the upper and lower portions of the airplane
mined range by virtue ofY the space radiation be
body.
tween the output antenna of each multistage
5. A radiant energy system in accordance with
amplifier and theY input antenna Yor" the other
multistage system, relays operatively coupled to
claim 1, characterized in this that said vehicles
are automobiles, the input and output antennas 75 each multistage amplifier system and operative
2,403,755
"7
system and operative in response to different
in response to diii‘erent degrees of intensity of
regeneration, and a visual indicator associated
with each relay, whereby said indicators serve
degrees of intensity of regeneration, and a visual
indicator associated with each relay, whereby
said indicators serve to indicate ranges of dis
tance between said vehicles.
11. A radiant energy system for use between
to indicate ranges of distance between said ve
hicles.
10. A radiant energy indicating system for use
between a pair of spaced vehicles having similar
a pair of vehicles having amplifiers operating at
‘the same frequency, andan input electromag
vacuum tube equipment, the equipment of each
netic energy collecting device and an output elec
vehicle comprising a multistage ampliñer sys
tem having an input antenna coupled to the in 10 tromagnetic radiating device for each amplifier
arranged to minimize coupling therebetween,
put of one stage and an output antenna coupled
whereby the ampliñers of said Vehicles together,
to the output of another stage, said iirst stage
within a predetermined distance of each other,
providing an appreciably smaller gain than said
constitute a regenerative circuit by virtue of the
last stage, said amplifier systems of said pair of
space radiation between the output electromag
vehicles constituting a regenerative feed back
netic energy radiating device of each ampliñer
circuit within a predetermined range by virtue
and the input electromagnetic energy collecting
oi' the space radiation between the output Van
device of the other amplifier.
tenna of each multistage ampliiier and the input
i
JOI-DT A. RANKIN.
antenna of the other multistage system, relays
operatively coupled to each multistage amplifier
20
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
653 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа