Патент USA US2403774код для вставки
july 9, 1946. v. E. wHrrTY ETAI. «2305774 CONTROL FOR INTERNAL-CQMBUSTION ENGINES Fi1ed~March25, 1945'> à AY \_ È Sv QN\ \\M@ \ à@. .NN ,\ ~î „RNè mNw» “NJ Nv. bm. v.„%Y_\`.«J . .QW N\o.m. om1km.n In( r mm» im; Patented July 9, 1946 l e y , Y , 2,403,774 ' UNITED STATES * PATENT OFFICE i _Y , f p A 2,403,774 ' Y ~ f , CONTROL Fon INTERNAL-,COMBUSTION l ~ _ » ENGINES E ' I y " ` Victor E. .Whitmosklana and rFrank M. Wlimy, . ; Los Angeles, Calif. ' " Application March 23, 1945,7Serlal No. 584,368 , 3 Claims. (Cl. 1723-257) Y _ f invention relates to internal combustion » 2 Y , . engines and more particularly to the characteri ordinary internal combustion engine. » Thel nu meral 6 indicates the usual intake manifold which zationrand control of the» fuel charge for such supplies the fuel charges to the respective‘power engines. f ¿ _ f > cylinders of the engine, Vif the same be of a mul , Itis a known and accepted fact that the intro tiple cylinder type, orto the sole cylinder of the engine if it beof Vthe single cylinder type. 4The regular hydrocarbon'fuel'mixture is supplied by duction of water or water vapor, in correct propor tion to the fuel charge, into the combustion cham-`V ber of an internal combustion engine along with ` the carburetor 'l into which leads the usual supply the fuel charge, makes possible the use of higher " pipe 8 from a source of hydrocarbon supply (not compression pressures through the elimination of 10 shown). A j detonation or “ping” and permits the use of fuel `The exhaust manifold 9 for the products of of low octane rating in the vattainment of high emciencyequal to that of high octane’. »It is also known that the eiiiciency and horse power output of a given engine are raised in direct proportion to the raise in compression pressure and the Weight of the fuel charge burned, of course, within cer tain accepted limits. Itis still further known that other beneñts result from the use of a correct combustion from the engine is connected by the n Yusual exhaust pipe lû'to a muiller l l , which latter, ' as will hereinafter- be lmore fully described inde ‘ tail,L constitutes a part of the condenser in ac-» 15 Y Ícordance with the invention. A metering valved Awater or-vwater vapor mixing . assembly I2 is provided between the meeting flanged end portions of the pipesA I3 and I4 con amount of lwater or water vapor along with the necting the carburetor to the fuel'intake mani regular »fuel charge, such as for example, the 20 fold 6. This metering valved assembly, to be elimination of the formation of hard carbon, pro more fully described in detail, is controlled elec duction of a cleaner burning fuel mixture, and a tronicallyby a microphone designated generally longer lasting engine. by the reference numeral l5. This microphone is The prime object of the present invention is to preferably of the carbon type and Yconventional in provide in a practical way a characteristic fuel characterexcept as to having special provision mixture of the kind above described and an auto for shielding it for purposes of the present in matic control ‘and utilization of the same in the vention. Itis mounted on the engine casing and operation of an internalA combustion engine. projected into the water circulating chamberzrof Other yparticular Aobjects .and ‘advantages to lbe the cylinder head'or` else some part of the water attained will hereinafter more fully appear inthe 30 jacket of the engine as may be most convenient following description. ‘ ' . - ' - for its installation. ' In’this way its diaphragm? ` -In the accomplishment of the'purposesof the is in direct contact with the .cooling water in the invention, there is provided an electronically con-' cylinder head or jacket of the engine so as to trolled metering and mixing device 'to automati transmit sounds received through the conductivity cally introduce the correct amountA of water or 35 water Vapor into the combustion chamber of the of the water. ' _ The sectional form of the microphone is illus engine mixed withthe fuel charge. Afsuitable trated in Figure 3. pump and pressure chamber is also utilized to prises a tubular nipple or bushing I6` having an v As shown, the same com provide an adequate supply‘cf Water to the externally screw threaded portion Il whereby the devicefas needed. .There is also included in the> 40. device may be secured removably in a correspond operatingand controlling systema reservoir ori ingly threaded opening in the engine casing. expansion `tank, to contain the reserve supply of Fitted in the bore of the member I6 is a core I8 Water, and a suitable condenser and exhaust' muiller combination or the like for the recovery of as much as possibleof usable water vapor from the exhaust, together with such other adjunc'ts or parts as'rywill be later described in detail in the of insulating material having a small bore ex 45 ’ tending lengthwise` therethrough for the recep tion of the stem portion I9 of an elongated metal lic conductor element I9'. The inner end por tion of the member` iii is formed with an enlarged cavity or recess 2e Vwhich communicates with the ì A practical butnon-limiting exempliflcation of \ main bore of the member IG >through a restricted. the invention is illustrated inthe accompanying 50 throat 2l.» The'insulating core i8 ñts the bore followingspeciilcation: dravvingdnwhich:~V v ‘ y Y - , ' , in the member I6 closely and tightly and it has ~ lFigurell is aside elevation,`more Vor less sche matic-in character, illustrating a complete fuel» throat 2| and projecting into the cavity or recess creating and controlling system; 'i ,_ . . 20. -The conductor` elementulS’ isl provided with a reduced innerend portion» likewise fitting _the Figure 2 is >a'sectional view 'showing detailsV o_fî 55 a disc-like Yhead orV collar 22 at its inner end the mixing assembly; and K 1 -' Y, Whichris drawn-*and held in` close contact with Figure 3 is a sectional detail viewthe phoneassembly. Y . . ' ’ Ñi i' i Y Referring now to the drawing in detail, the numeral 6 designates generally the body of an 1 the end of the core kI8 ¿by a nut 23 provided'cn the screw'th'readed outer fend portion of the stem I9 of the conductor.V The cavity or recess 20'in the member I6 is filled with a ‘body of powdered " 2,403,774 4 carbon 2li into which the head 22 of the con ductor i9’ is embedded and thereby entirely sur portion of the member lll and screwed, bolted or rounded, the carbon being retained .inthe cavity outlthe extent of the annular passageway 49 radial ports 5l are provided for establishing jet communication between the passageway 49 and opening ll8 of the member 4l. The member 4l or recess 28 by the microphone diaphragm 25. rl‘he electrical impulse of the microphone l5 iscarried from the conductor i9’ thereof throughy otherwise secured in place.` At intervals through ' :provided with a connecting boss 52 for'the attachment of a metering valve member 53. The a lead 2G (which is an insulated'wire enclosed in a flexible metal mesh covering) to a special“ frequency ampliñer 2l, which‘latterjis energizedj~ c, Valves-member llill has a nipple extension 5i from a suitable source of electrical energy„-in'di-Y ' ,i screwed or otherwise supportingly fitted into the cated conventionally as a battery 23 in Figure 1. , This covering prevents any stray electrical im pulses from being imposed upon the lead ‘26 and „ thereby carried to the special frequency ampli fier 2l. The t‘nus avoided stray impulses may besuch as ,produced by the ignition, generator and other electrical apparatus in the vicinity of theniicrophone i5 orlead> 2li. A lead 2t vfrom the battery to the ampliiìer is controlled by'a conventional switch Th'eoutput current from the amplifier 2l is >conducted through a lead El to anelectrical controlling element Si for the metering valved water distributing element l2. This element S2' will be later describedv'more fully in detail as 4to its specific structure and its working control of the element l2. _’ Water is supplied tothe metering _valve ., dis tributing and mixing element .l2 through a pipe 33 frornvavpressure tank Sil, >which latter is sup plied through a pipe 35 from a pump 33 vof any V30 desirableand approved type. This pump et may be obviously operated as an engine accessory and in vany suitable manner, but, as indicated, it is electrically operated and receives its energy through a lead 3l" from the battery 28. In operation, the Sâ drawgwater `into a pipe 38 from a supply reservoir 0r expansion tank Si). rI‘he tank or supply reservoir> 3,9 also supplies water to a bypass @t leading from the pipe S8 to a radiatoréll, whichlatter is connected by an 40 vboss F12-of the member 41. The boss 52 has an internal passageway V55 communicating with the annulanpassageway 49 of the member 4l, and the Valve member 53 has a transverse passageway et communicating through the nipple '54 with the passageway 55 in the member El, said pas sageway Faß extending to the outer side of jthe valve member ät and dbeing slightly flared, as at 5l, so asutorreadilyntake in outside air. Y An elbow coupling 58 rfrom the water supply pipe 33 leading from the tank 34, is attached to the valve member 53 and communicates with the passageway 55 of said member 53 perpendicularly thereof.v A vertical passageway 59 in the Valve member e3 is aligned axially with a valve seat âûat the‘inner end of the elbow coupling 58. Slidable inthe bore 59 is a valve element El having ?a- tapered end portion pressed normally into engagementV with the lseat 6l) by a spring G2 whichl is interposed and placedrunder compression between the valve member El and a screw thread edl plug »or cap 53 which is inserted „in the outer end portionoî the bore :i9V of the valve member. The threaded ñtting of the plug yor cap G3 is for the purpose ofradjustment of the same to vary the tension of the spring 62 for the working regu lation of the ,valve member 6I. ‘The upper portion of the Valve memberââ sur rounding the bore 59 is reduced in diameter to providea stem or shank portion about which is wound a solenoidcoil 54. This solenoid coil E4 output pipe ¿i2 to acondensing coil t3 located is in circuit with and under the control of the within the exhaust muiilercasing Il.` A return ampliñerïv'l through the aforesaid lead 3l. pipe ¿ld from the coil ¿i3 leadsl into _the upper » Normally, the` Valve member, .Els is in closing part of the radiator fi l. By thisprovision of con nected radiator and the coil ¿i3 locatedcwithin the 45 relation-toA the valve seat B8 inthe Yvalve mem ber 53 `but is withdrawn from VVthe seat 69 by mulïler, cooling water is circulated through the energizationn `of ¿the solenoidk coil" 611-'V through and coil,_t`;husx causing condensation of the products under the control of ther ampliñer 21. The de of combustion erhaustedfrom the engine >and gree ofcopeningimovement ofthe valve member the water lresulting from this condensation settles into a sump ¿l5 provided at the bottoinvand near 50 6l is regulated and varied at will, by thefafore said adjustment ofthe cap or plug-63 and con the outer end of the muiller. The tank 3Q being sequent variations in the resistance and reactive closed and substantially sealed, ample vacuum is effect of the spring (i2.k Thus, as the metering created in the upper` portion oi" the tank as the valve. 5l. is raised from> its seat it allows a pump Sii draws water from the lower portion thereof, and thus the water accumulating inthe 55 measured amount of water to pass Ainto the an nular-air `passageway, 49, whence it is -discharged sump ¿le of the muiiier il is drawn out of the through the radial ports 5l` and i's thus sprayed sump through arpipe ¿it yand delivered into the into the mixture of vaporized hydrocarbon fuel upperportion of said tank 3S. i and air> coming from the carbureter-'l and while The metering valved water distributing and mixing device will now be described in detail. 60 the same is passing through the Venturi opening 48. In this connection vit is noted that the water As shown more clearly in Figure 2, this device comprises a ring member Ellwhich, as shown in » from the elbow coupling 53 in passing into'l and through the passageway 55? of `the metering'valve Figure Vl, interposed and securedA between the d3k draws `in therewith a. metered amount-of air flanged end portions it( and lll' of, the fuel sup ply pipes i3 and irl, respectively, supplying the 65 tlîiroughgthei air intake. 5'! and f this air yandV -water fuel _mixture to the manifold .6. The .Opening «te of this ring member ê'l is iiared upwardly `so as to have the, eiîect oi a venturi as the fuel mix is commingled thoroughly before-lit is discharged from theport openings 5I from-the annular Vpas sageway 49 and. distributedl in the fuel v'rrlixture coming from the carbureter 1L ' i '" î f i ture fromV the carbureter 'i flows downwardly through said opening t8.k `Surrounding, the open 70 , From-.the foregoingfit îsievlident- that, utilizing the conductivity of water, Vthe detonationv or ing ¿t3 in the member t? is an annular passage,. “ping” occurringin .the engine cylinder or cyl way ci@ provided by YforminganV annuiargroove inders is transmitted to the microphone l5 and in theibottom portion .of .the member el, which thence electronically. .to the amplifier' 21, .which groove is of semicircularcrosssection and closed by an ,annular plate. 5i) ñttedìn a counter recessed 75 latter' through itsl special frequency. character 2,403,774 5 6 istics in which its greatest gain is at frequencies near, for example, 9000 cyclesV per second, which ply and mixing device, and an electrically oper ated metering rvalve 'controlling the supply of is the usual frequency »of the detonation or water to said water supply and vmixing device, “ping,” the solenoid 64 is energized so as to ac said metering valve being under the control of tuate the metering valveright upon the thresh 5 said old or immediate occurrence of detonation or amplifier. ~ ` ` ’ ' 2. Means for electronically controlling the “ping” The conductor I9' of the microphone detonation in internal combustion engines, com- ' I5, due to its encasement in the insulating core ' I8 within the plug I6 and the insertion of the v prising the coordinated combination'of a micro phone inserted in the water of the cooling sys plug Within the body of water in the circulatory 10 tem of the engine, said microphone being shield cooling system with only the diaphragm 2‘5 in ed against transmission of sound .other than direct contact with the water, an eil'ective elec that transmitted directly to it through the sur trical shielding of the conductor is had whereby rounding` water, an amplifier of fixed. frequency I the sound of detonatìon or “ping” in the engine >response and having means for varying the in cylinders is conducted through the electrically 15 put sensitivity thereof, said amplifier having a Y shielded lead 26 to theampliñer 21 rwithout in shielded electrical impulse .conductor connection terference of any other sound such as thel noise with the said microphone, a water supply-and of‘ignition and other causes in and about vthe» mixing device comprising a ring member` inter engine. ’ " posed in the conduit supplying the regular fuel By adjusting the tension fof the spring 62 20 mixtureto the engine, the opening through said ` which acts upon the metering valve element' 6I, ring `member' constituting a Venturi opening, said valve element may be regulated, at will, said ring ~memberV havingan annular chamberto admit to the mixing device an accurately pro surrounding the Venturi> opening with radial portioned amount of water commensurate with ~ports establishing Ajet communication 'between the requirements in theuse of-diiîerent grades 25 the annular passageway of the ring member and of gasoline from the very low Voctane type to said Venturi opening, an electrically operated that of high grade ethyl gasoline. In this con metering valved supply of Water communicably , nection, also, it is noted that the amplifier 21 attached to said ring member of the mixing de- Y, which has special frequency characteristics as vice and having an air intake whereby tol supply hereinabove described, is provided with a volume 30 a measured quantity of water and air to thean control 21’ indicated conventionally in Figure 1, nular chamber of said ring member, said> elec for regulating and adapting the amplifier -for trically operated metering valve device beingcon ideal operation A.with the metering valved mixing trolled by said amplifier, a pressure tanky sup device I2 according to the grade of hydrocarbon plying` the water to said metering valve device, fuel used and the compression ratio for which 35 a pump for supplying Water to the pressure tank, , ` a reserve supply tank from which Water is taken In the practical adaptation> of the invention . by the pump, and means for condensing the ex an engine designed for a compression ratio call- ' ` ing for the very best grade jof ethyl gasoline , haust gases and water vapors fromthe engine operates smoothly with the poorest grade of low 40 andreturning the water of condensation to said reserve supply tank. octane gasoline, it being only necessary toad 3. In an electronically controlled system for the engine is designed. - just the metering valved mixing device I2 and set the control 21’ of the amplifier 2l. In ad ` the control of detonation in internal combustion engines, and including means for automatically dition to the possibility of keeping the engine supplying a measured quantity of water -to the operating steadily right 'cn the verge of detona regular fuel mixture supplied to the engine, a " solenoid actuated metering valve controlling the supply of water, said valve having a transverse passageway of restricted proportions and pro tion and thereby obtaining maximum efficiency under all operating conditions, there is a further advantage in the system of the present inven tion in that Waste gases and Water'vapor'of the enginev exhaust are condensed »in the exhaust’ mulller II, whence the Water of condensation is returned through the lead 46 to the supply tank 39. ` Y The illustration in the drawing is but one exempliñcation of a practical adaptation of the invention which admits of considerable modifica tion within the spirit and scope of the appended claims. 'I'he invention, therefore, is not limited to the specific construction and arrangement shown. Having thus described the invention, what is claimed is: 1. Means for electronically controlling detona tion in internal combustion engines, comprising in coordinated combination, a microphone in serted in the Water of the coolingsystem of the engine and shielded against transmission of sounds other than that conducted by the water directly tothe sound transmission element of the microphone, a variable gain amplifier having a. shielded electrical conductor operating connec tion'with said microphone, a -water supply and 50 vided with an air intake port, said passageway being intersected by the water supplyV inlet of ' thel valve, a spring pressed metering’pin normally closing the transverse passageway of the valve and preventing passage of water and air there 55 through, means for varying the effect of spring pressure on said metering pin, a ’solenoid for re tracting said metering pin against >the spring pressure thereon, a variable gain ampliñer con trolling the energization lof the solenoid of said 60 metering valve, said ampliñer having a volume control for varying the gain thereof,- and a micro phone inserted in the water of the cooling sys >tem of the engine and having a sound-conduc tive connection with the ampliñer for amplifica 65 tion-by the latter,~ said microphone being shield ed against sounds other YKthan such that are transmitted directly through the Water in the engine cooling system to the sound receiver of the microphone and the connection between the 70 microphone and >the ampliñer being also shield ed against electrical linterference to sound trans mixing device interposed in the regular fuel mix ture- supply duct to the engine, means under pressure for supplying water to the water sup 75 mitted to the microphone through the water in the cooling system of the engine. ` . ’ VICTOR E. WHITTY. FRANK M. WHI'ITY.