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Патент USA US2403774

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july 9, 1946.
v. E. wHrrTY ETAI.
«2305774
CONTROL FOR INTERNAL-CQMBUSTION ENGINES
Fi1ed~March25, 1945'>
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Patented July 9, 1946
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2,403,774
' UNITED STATES * PATENT OFFICE i
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2,403,774
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CONTROL Fon INTERNAL-,COMBUSTION l
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ENGINES
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Victor E. .Whitmosklana and rFrank M. Wlimy,
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Los Angeles, Calif.
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" Application March 23, 1945,7Serlal No. 584,368
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3 Claims.
(Cl. 1723-257)
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invention relates to internal combustion
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engines and more particularly to the characteri
ordinary internal combustion engine. » Thel nu
meral 6 indicates the usual intake manifold which
zationrand control of the» fuel charge for such
supplies the fuel charges to the respective‘power
engines.
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cylinders of the engine, Vif the same be of a mul
,
Itis a known and accepted fact that the intro
tiple cylinder type, orto the sole cylinder of the
engine if it beof Vthe single cylinder type. 4The
regular hydrocarbon'fuel'mixture is supplied by
duction of water or water vapor, in correct propor
tion to the fuel charge, into the combustion cham-`V
ber of an internal combustion engine along with ` the carburetor 'l into which leads the usual supply
the fuel charge, makes possible the use of higher
" pipe 8 from a source of hydrocarbon supply (not
compression pressures through the elimination of 10 shown).
A
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detonation or “ping” and permits the use of fuel
`The exhaust manifold 9 for the products of
of low octane rating in the vattainment of high
emciencyequal to that of high octane’. »It is also
known that the eiiiciency and horse power output
of a given engine are raised in direct proportion to
the raise in compression pressure and the Weight
of the fuel charge burned, of course, within cer
tain accepted limits. Itis still further known that
other beneñts result from the use of a correct
combustion from the engine is connected by the n
Yusual exhaust pipe lû'to a muiller l l , which latter,
' as will hereinafter- be lmore fully described inde
‘ tail,L constitutes a part of the condenser in ac-»
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Ícordance with the invention.
A metering valved Awater or-vwater vapor mixing
. assembly I2 is provided between the meeting
flanged end portions of the pipesA I3 and I4 con
amount of lwater or water vapor along with the
necting the carburetor to the fuel'intake mani
regular »fuel charge, such as for example, the 20 fold 6. This metering valved assembly, to be
elimination of the formation of hard carbon, pro
more fully described in detail, is controlled elec
duction of a cleaner burning fuel mixture, and a
tronicallyby a microphone designated generally
longer lasting engine.
by the reference numeral l5. This microphone is
The prime object of the present invention is to
preferably of the carbon type and Yconventional in
provide in a practical way a characteristic fuel
characterexcept as to having special provision
mixture of the kind above described and an auto
for shielding it for purposes of the present in
matic control ‘and utilization of the same in the
vention. Itis mounted on the engine casing and
operation of an internalA combustion engine.
projected into the water circulating chamberzrof
Other yparticular Aobjects .and ‘advantages to lbe
the cylinder head'or` else some part of the water
attained will hereinafter more fully appear inthe 30 jacket of the engine as may be most convenient
following description.
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for its installation. ' In’this way its diaphragm?
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-In the accomplishment of the'purposesof the
is in direct contact with the .cooling water in the
invention, there is provided an electronically con-'
cylinder head or jacket of the engine so as to
trolled metering and mixing device 'to automati
transmit sounds received through the conductivity
cally introduce the correct amountA of water or 35
water Vapor into the combustion chamber of the
of the water.
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_ The sectional form of the microphone is illus
engine mixed withthe fuel charge. Afsuitable
trated in Figure 3.
pump and pressure chamber is also utilized to
prises a tubular nipple or bushing I6` having an v
As shown, the same com
provide an adequate supply‘cf Water to the
externally screw threaded portion Il whereby the
devicefas needed. .There is also included in the> 40. device may be secured removably in a correspond
operatingand controlling systema reservoir ori
ingly threaded opening in the engine casing.
expansion `tank, to contain the reserve supply of
Fitted in the bore of the member I6 is a core I8
Water, and a suitable condenser and exhaust'
muiller combination or the like for the recovery
of as much as possibleof usable water vapor from
the exhaust, together with such other adjunc'ts or
parts as'rywill be later described in detail in the
of insulating material having a small bore ex
45
’ tending lengthwise` therethrough for the recep
tion of the stem portion I9 of an elongated metal
lic conductor element I9'. The inner end por
tion of the member` iii is formed with an enlarged
cavity or recess 2e Vwhich communicates with the
ì A practical butnon-limiting exempliflcation of
\ main bore of the member IG >through a restricted.
the invention is illustrated inthe accompanying 50 throat 2l.» The'insulating core i8 ñts the bore
followingspeciilcation:
dravvingdnwhich:~V
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in the member I6 closely and tightly and it has
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lFigurell is aside elevation,`more Vor less sche
matic-in character, illustrating a complete fuel»
throat 2| and projecting into the cavity or recess
creating and controlling system; 'i ,_ . .
20. -The conductor` elementulS’ isl provided with
a reduced innerend portion» likewise fitting _the
Figure 2 is >a'sectional view 'showing detailsV o_fî 55 a disc-like Yhead orV collar 22 at its inner end
the mixing assembly; and
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Whichris drawn-*and held in` close contact with
Figure 3 is a sectional detail viewthe
phoneassembly.
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Y Referring now to the drawing in detail, the
numeral 6 designates generally the body of an
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the end of the core kI8 ¿by a nut 23 provided'cn
the screw'th'readed outer fend portion of the stem
I9 of the conductor.V The cavity or recess 20'in
the member I6 is filled with a ‘body of powdered
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2,403,774
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carbon 2li into which the head 22 of the con
ductor i9’ is embedded and thereby entirely sur
portion of the member lll and screwed, bolted or
rounded, the carbon being retained .inthe cavity
outlthe extent of the annular passageway 49
radial ports 5l are provided for establishing jet
communication between the passageway 49 and
opening ll8 of the member 4l. The member 4l
or recess 28 by the microphone diaphragm 25.
rl‘he electrical impulse of the microphone l5 iscarried from the conductor i9’ thereof throughy
otherwise secured in place.` At intervals through
' :provided with a connecting boss 52 for'the
attachment of a metering valve member 53. The
a lead 2G (which is an insulated'wire enclosed
in a flexible metal mesh covering) to a special“
frequency ampliñer 2l, which‘latterjis energizedj~
c, Valves-member llill has a nipple extension 5i
from a suitable source of electrical energy„-in'di-Y '
,i screwed or otherwise supportingly fitted into the
cated conventionally as a battery 23 in Figure 1. ,
This covering prevents any stray electrical im
pulses from being imposed upon the lead ‘26 and „
thereby carried to the special frequency ampli
fier 2l. The t‘nus avoided stray impulses may
besuch as ,produced by the ignition, generator
and other electrical apparatus in the vicinity of
theniicrophone i5 orlead> 2li. A lead 2t vfrom
the battery to the ampliiìer is controlled by'a
conventional switch
Th'eoutput current from
the amplifier 2l is >conducted through a lead El
to anelectrical controlling element Si for the
metering valved water distributing element l2.
This element S2' will be later describedv'more
fully in detail as 4to its specific structure and its
working control of the element l2.
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Water is supplied tothe metering _valve ., dis
tributing and mixing element .l2 through a pipe
33 frornvavpressure tank Sil, >which latter is sup
plied through a pipe 35 from a pump 33 vof any V30
desirableand approved type. This pump et may
be obviously operated as an engine accessory and
in vany suitable manner, but, as indicated, it is
electrically operated and receives its energy
through a lead 3l" from the battery 28.
In operation, the
Sâ drawgwater `into a
pipe 38 from a supply reservoir 0r expansion tank
Si). rI‘he tank or supply reservoir> 3,9 also supplies
water to a bypass @t leading from the pipe S8
to a radiatoréll, whichlatter is connected by an 40
vboss F12-of the member 41. The boss 52 has an
internal passageway V55 communicating with the
annulanpassageway 49 of the member 4l, and
the Valve member 53 has a transverse passageway
et communicating through the nipple '54 with
the passageway 55 in the member El, said pas
sageway Faß extending to the outer side of jthe
valve member ät and dbeing slightly flared, as at
5l, so asutorreadilyntake in outside air. Y
An elbow coupling 58 rfrom the water supply
pipe 33 leading from the tank 34, is attached to
the valve member 53 and communicates with the
passageway 55 of said member 53 perpendicularly
thereof.v A vertical passageway 59 in the Valve
member e3 is aligned axially with a valve seat
âûat the‘inner end of the elbow coupling 58.
Slidable inthe bore 59 is a valve element El
having ?a- tapered end portion pressed normally
into engagementV with the lseat 6l) by a spring G2
whichl is interposed and placedrunder compression
between the valve member El and a screw thread
edl plug »or cap 53 which is inserted „in the outer
end portionoî the bore :i9V of the valve member.
The threaded ñtting of the plug yor cap G3 is for
the purpose ofradjustment of the same to vary
the tension of the spring 62 for the working regu
lation of the ,valve member 6I.
‘The upper portion of the Valve memberââ sur
rounding the bore 59 is reduced in diameter to
providea stem or shank portion about which is
wound a solenoidcoil 54. This solenoid coil E4
output pipe ¿i2 to acondensing coil t3 located
is in circuit with and under the control of the
within the exhaust muiilercasing Il.` A return
ampliñerïv'l through the aforesaid lead 3l.
pipe ¿ld from the coil ¿i3 leadsl into _the upper
» Normally, the` Valve member, .Els is in closing
part of the radiator fi l. By thisprovision of con
nected radiator and the coil ¿i3 locatedcwithin the 45 relation-toA the valve seat B8 inthe Yvalve mem
ber 53 `but is withdrawn from VVthe seat 69 by
mulïler, cooling water is circulated through the
energizationn `of ¿the solenoidk coil" 611-'V through and
coil,_t`;husx causing condensation of the products
under the control of ther ampliñer 21. The de
of combustion erhaustedfrom the engine >and
gree ofcopeningimovement ofthe valve member
the water lresulting from this condensation settles
into a sump ¿l5 provided at the bottoinvand near 50 6l is regulated and varied at will, by thefafore
said adjustment ofthe cap or plug-63 and con
the outer end of the muiller. The tank 3Q being
sequent variations in the resistance and reactive
closed and substantially sealed, ample vacuum is
effect of the spring (i2.k Thus, as the metering
created in the upper` portion oi" the tank as the
valve. 5l. is raised from> its seat it allows a
pump Sii draws water from the lower portion
thereof, and thus the water accumulating inthe 55 measured amount of water to pass Ainto the an
nular-air `passageway, 49, whence it is -discharged
sump ¿le of the muiiier il is drawn out of the
through the radial ports 5l` and i's thus sprayed
sump through arpipe ¿it yand delivered into the
into the mixture of vaporized hydrocarbon fuel
upperportion of said tank 3S.
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and air> coming from the carbureter-'l and while
The metering valved water distributing and
mixing device will now be described in detail. 60 the same is passing through the Venturi opening
48. In this connection vit is noted that the water
As shown more clearly in Figure 2, this device
comprises a ring member Ellwhich, as shown in » from the elbow coupling 53 in passing into'l and
through the passageway 55? of `the metering'valve
Figure Vl, interposed and securedA between the
d3k draws `in therewith a. metered amount-of air
flanged end portions it( and lll' of, the fuel sup
ply pipes i3 and irl, respectively, supplying the 65 tlîiroughgthei air intake. 5'! and f this air yandV -water
fuel _mixture to the manifold .6. The .Opening «te
of this ring member ê'l is iiared upwardly `so as
to have the, eiîect oi a venturi as the fuel mix
is commingled thoroughly before-lit is discharged
from theport openings 5I from-the annular Vpas
sageway 49 and. distributedl in the fuel v'rrlixture
coming from the carbureter 1L ' i '" î
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ture fromV the carbureter 'i flows downwardly
through said opening t8.k `Surrounding, the open 70 , From-.the foregoingfit îsievlident- that, utilizing
the conductivity of water, Vthe detonationv or
ing ¿t3 in the member t? is an annular passage,.
“ping” occurringin .the engine cylinder or cyl
way ci@ provided by YforminganV annuiargroove
inders is transmitted to the microphone l5 and
in theibottom portion .of .the member el, which
thence electronically. .to the amplifier' 21, .which
groove is of semicircularcrosssection and closed
by an ,annular plate. 5i) ñttedìn a counter recessed 75 latter' through itsl special frequency. character
2,403,774
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istics in which its greatest gain is at frequencies
near, for example, 9000 cyclesV per second, which
ply and mixing device, and an electrically oper
ated metering rvalve 'controlling the supply of
is the usual frequency »of the detonation or
water to said water supply and vmixing device,
“ping,” the solenoid 64 is energized so as to ac
said metering valve being under the control of
tuate the metering valveright upon the thresh 5
said
old or immediate occurrence of detonation or
amplifier.
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2. Means for electronically controlling the
“ping” The conductor I9' of the microphone
detonation in internal combustion engines, com- '
I5, due to its encasement in the insulating core '
I8 within the plug I6 and the insertion of the v
prising the coordinated combination'of a micro
phone inserted in the water of the cooling sys
plug Within the body of water in the circulatory 10 tem of the engine, said microphone being shield
cooling system with only the diaphragm 2‘5 in
ed against transmission of sound .other than
direct contact with the water, an eil'ective elec
that transmitted directly to it through the sur
trical shielding of the conductor is had whereby
rounding` water, an amplifier of fixed. frequency
I the sound of detonatìon or “ping” in the engine
>response and having means for varying the in
cylinders is conducted through the electrically 15 put sensitivity thereof, said amplifier having a Y
shielded lead 26 to theampliñer 21 rwithout in
shielded electrical impulse .conductor connection
terference of any other sound such as thel noise
with the said microphone, a water supply-and
of‘ignition and other causes in and about vthe»
mixing device comprising a ring member` inter
engine.
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posed in the conduit supplying the regular fuel
By adjusting the tension fof the spring 62 20 mixtureto the engine, the opening through said `
which acts upon the metering valve element' 6I,
ring `member' constituting a Venturi opening,
said valve element may be regulated, at will,
said ring ~memberV havingan annular chamberto admit to the mixing device an accurately pro
surrounding the Venturi> opening with radial
portioned amount of water commensurate with
~ports establishing Ajet communication 'between
the requirements in theuse of-diiîerent grades 25 the annular passageway of the ring member and
of gasoline from the very low Voctane type to
said Venturi opening, an electrically operated
that of high grade ethyl gasoline. In this con
metering valved supply of Water communicably ,
nection, also, it is noted that the amplifier 21
attached to said ring member of the mixing de- Y,
which has special frequency characteristics as
vice and having an air intake whereby tol supply
hereinabove described, is provided with a volume 30 a measured quantity of water and air to thean
control 21’ indicated conventionally in Figure 1,
nular chamber of said ring member, said> elec
for regulating and adapting the amplifier -for
trically operated metering valve device beingcon
ideal operation A.with the metering valved mixing
trolled by said amplifier, a pressure tanky sup
device I2 according to the grade of hydrocarbon
plying` the water to said metering valve device,
fuel used and the compression ratio for which 35 a pump for supplying Water to the pressure tank,
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a reserve supply tank from which Water is taken
In the practical adaptation> of the invention . by the pump, and means for condensing the ex
an engine designed for a compression ratio call- ' `
ing for the very best grade jof ethyl gasoline , haust gases and water vapors fromthe engine
operates smoothly with the poorest grade of low 40 andreturning the water of condensation to said
reserve supply tank.
octane gasoline, it being only necessary toad
3. In an electronically controlled system for
the engine is designed. -
just the metering valved mixing device I2 and
set the control 21’ of the amplifier 2l. In ad
` the control of detonation in internal combustion
engines, and including means for automatically
dition to the possibility of keeping the engine
supplying a measured quantity of water -to the
operating steadily right 'cn the verge of detona
regular fuel mixture supplied to the engine, a
" solenoid actuated metering valve controlling the
supply of water, said valve having a transverse
passageway of restricted proportions and pro
tion and thereby obtaining maximum efficiency
under all operating conditions, there is a further
advantage in the system of the present inven
tion in that Waste gases and Water'vapor'of the
enginev exhaust are condensed »in the exhaust’
mulller II, whence the Water of condensation
is returned through the lead 46 to the supply
tank 39.
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The illustration in the drawing is but one
exempliñcation of a practical adaptation of the
invention which admits of considerable modifica
tion within the spirit and scope of the appended
claims. 'I'he invention, therefore, is not limited
to the specific construction and arrangement
shown.
Having thus described the invention, what is
claimed is:
1. Means for electronically controlling detona
tion in internal combustion engines, comprising
in coordinated combination, a microphone in
serted in the Water of the coolingsystem of the
engine and shielded against transmission of
sounds other than that conducted by the water
directly tothe sound transmission element of
the microphone, a variable gain amplifier having
a. shielded electrical conductor operating connec
tion'with said microphone, a -water supply and
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vided with an air intake port, said passageway
being intersected by the water supplyV inlet of '
thel valve, a spring pressed metering’pin normally
closing the transverse passageway of the valve
and preventing passage of water and air there
55 through, means for varying the effect of spring
pressure on said metering pin, a ’solenoid for re
tracting said metering pin against >the spring
pressure thereon, a variable gain ampliñer con
trolling the energization lof the solenoid of said
60 metering valve, said ampliñer having a volume
control for varying the gain thereof,- and a micro
phone inserted in the water of the cooling sys
>tem of the engine and having a sound-conduc
tive connection with the ampliñer for amplifica
65 tion-by the latter,~ said microphone being shield
ed against sounds other YKthan such that are
transmitted directly through the Water in the
engine cooling system to the sound receiver of
the microphone and the connection between the
70 microphone and >the ampliñer being also shield
ed against electrical linterference to sound trans
mixing device interposed in the regular fuel mix
ture- supply duct to the engine, means under
pressure for supplying water to the water sup 75
mitted to the microphone through the water in
the cooling system of the engine.
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VICTOR E. WHITTY.
FRANK M. WHI'ITY.
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