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Патент USA US2403807

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July 9,1946; _ " _
H. L. LANSING 4
2,403,807
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RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE
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Filed Aug.l8, 1942
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July 9, 1946.
H. |_. LANSING
2,403,807
RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE
Filed Aug.‘ 8, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTORv
?braceL.LaJ1Jsi239,
July 9, 1946.
H. L. LANSING
2,403,807
RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE
Filed Aug. 8, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
INVENTOR
liar-ace
BY
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2,403,807
Patented July 9, ‘i946 '
UNITED, ,STATE 5
PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,403,807
RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE , ,
Horace L. Lansing,'Rutherford, N. J ., assignor to
Poor & Company, New York, N. Y., a corpora
tion of Delaware
. Application August 8, 1942, Serial No.. 454,169
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(01. 238—243)
2 Claims.
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forms with said plane e an angle of not more
This invention relates to improvements in
splice bars for connectingtogether the meeting
end portions of railway rails, and to improved,
than 17°.
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The under faces of the bases of the splice bars
railjoints embodying saidimproved splice'bars.
may; be formed in any suitable manner so that
their contacts with the upper faces of the base
?anges of the rails are within the limits stated.
The object of, the invention, generally speak
' ing,»is to provide‘ asplice bar of novel construc
tion for_cooperation in a novel manner with the
Moreover, the said contacts, designated at 2:, may
be surface contacts of any desired widths within
the limits stated, or they may be line contacts,
condition approaching‘ the Optimum of advantae 10 or substantially line contacts. Preferably, how
ever, they are line contacts a?orded by convexly
geous stress distribution in both thesplice bar
curving the under faces of the splice ‘bars trans
and the rails under both. bolting and wheel load
versely as illustrated in the drawings so that as
forces imposed onthe joint; is attained with the
rails which it is- employed to connect, whereby, in
a joint embodying the improved splice bar, a
‘be hereinafter more fully described, illustrated in
the bars are drawn inwardly by the usual joint
bolts I1, tendency, of the bars to “cock” is min
imized and proper seating of their bases upon the
tops of the rail ?anges is assured. As to the heads
of the bars, these may have ?at top faces or top
faces of any other desired form engaging the
20 ,usual ?at under faces of the heads of the rails,
or, alternatively and as is preferred, the upper
the accompanying drawings and de?ned in the
- inner'corners of the heads of the bars ‘may be
material advantagesemanating from such stress
distribution.
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With the foregoing general objectin ‘View, the
invention consists in a splice bar having the novel
features of construction, and in a railjoint em~
bodying 'said bar having the novel features of
combination and arrangement of parts, as will
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rounded and may have loading engagement with
In the accompanying drawings, wherein like
V the headi?llets l8 of, the rails as, shown in the
appended claims.
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drawings. ,In any event-because of the initial
loading cooperation, of the bases of the splice
bars with the ?anges I5 of the rails within the
limits stated, certain material and important ad
vantages are attained. First, any tendency. of
characters ' of reference denote corresponding
parts in the different views:
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Figure 1 is a side‘elevationio'f a rail joint em
bodying the featuresof the invention. 7.
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Figure 2 is a cross section through the joint
shown in Fig. 1;; and
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30 the bars to “cook” due to tightening of the joint
Figures 3 .to 6 arereproductions of a series of
four photo-elastic studies. of rail joints. in which 1 t
the splice bars have bearings‘ upon the base
flanges‘ 0f the ‘rail' within and outside the limits
of the present invention for saidbearings.
bolts I‘! is minimized and proper initial seating
of both the heads and the bases of the bars upon
the head portions of the rails and the rail?anges
l6,"respectively, is assured as aforesaidJsecond, I
‘ 35 the setting up of lateral bending stresses in the
webs of the rails under either bolt-tightening or
Referring to the drawings in detail, A, A des
wheel-load forces imposed on the joint are sub
ignate the meeting end portions of va pair of
stantially entirely avoided; third, stresses in the
railway rails, each including, as usual, a head It,
heads, webs and bases of the rails are minimized
a web II and a base 12,-and B, Bdesignate a pair
of splice bars connecting said rails together and 40 and dangerous stress concentrations near the
upper and the lower apexes of the joint bars are
each including, as usual, a head IS, a web l4 and
a base l5.v
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substantially entirely avoided, particularly if the
heads of the bars have loading cooperation at
In. accordance with the invention the vunder
their upper,.inner corners With the head ?llets of
face of the base of- each of the splice bars B is
suitably formed to have loading engagement in 45 the; rails as shown; fourth, tendency of the .rail
flanges to droop under loads imposed on the joint
‘ itially with the upper faces of the related-flanges
are minimized; ?fth, both bolting and wheel loads
I6 of the rail bases solely between a plane ain
cluding the central, vertical, longitudinal plane imposed on the joint are advantageously? trans
mitted to the base ?anges of the rails at the
of the web of the bar and a plane b including
the inner face of the web of the bar. Also in 50 points of minimum eccentricity of both the rails
and the joint bars, and, sixth, the bars are readily
accordance with the invention the said initial
self-adjusting to ?t with the rails and to com
loading engagement between the base of each
pensate for the inherent rolling variations in the
splice bar and the upper faces of the related,
bars
and the rails. .
?anges of‘ the rail‘base is con?nedbetween a
Experiments have demonstrated that a, rail
pair of downwardly‘ and outwardly diverging V55
jointin which the bases of the splice bars have
wheeleload-line-de?ning planesc and at both of
which intersect the central, ‘vertical, longitudinal
plane e of the rails at thetops of the rails and
the inner of which forms with, said plane. e an
angle of not less‘than, 12° ,while the outer of which
line contact or narrow-width surface contact with
the base ?anges of the rails within limits as
hereinbefore set forth afford an optimum of ad
vantageous stress distribution in both the splice
2,403,807
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bars and the rails, and that shifting of said con
tacts either inwardly or outwardly beyond said
limits results in progressive deterioration of said
advantageous stress distribution. This is clearly
wardly and indicates practical take-up bearings
of the bases ofjthe splice .bars. upon the rail
?anges-y
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Figure 5 shows the samecharacteristics as Fig.
evident from a consideration of Figs. 3 to 6 of
- 4. A slight drooping of the rail base ?anges may
the drawings which are reproductions of photo
graphs of models of rail joints made from elastic
material and subjected in each instance to the
same load corresponding to the bolting load im
posed on the splice bars and the rails in actual
be observed together with a spreading of the
stress patterns in the bases of the splice bars, but
the condition is very similar to the condition
shown in Fig. 4.
Figure 6 shows a marked increase in the stress
in the webs of thesplice bars and an increased
tendency of the base ?anges of the rail to droop,
practice.
According to Fig. 3 the bases of the splice bars
have loading engagement with the rail ?anges to- 1
with increase of stress in the base-web ?llets
ward the heels of the bars beyond the inner
of the rail as well as increase in stress through
limit of the present invention for said loading 15 out the base of the rail. Figure 6 further shows
engagement. According to Fig. 4 the said load
the strain pattern spreading throughout the-en
ing engagement is approximately at the inner
tire base portions of the splice bars.
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In short, Figs. 3v to 6 of the drawings‘ vividly
limit of the present invention for said loading
indicate that a rail joint‘ embodying splice bars
engagement. According to Fig. 5 the said load
ing engagement is approximately at the .outer 20 having base ‘bearings 'upon the rail base'?anges
within the limits of the present invention afford
limit of the present invention for said loading en~
a far superior joint as regards stress distribu
gagement. And according to Fig. 6 the said load
ing engagement is outwardly beyond the outer
tion than is afforded by a departure of said base
limit of the present invention for said loading
bearings in either direction beyond said limits.
engagement. The reactance member IS‘. at the 25 These ?gures of the drawings also exemplify the
improved results obtained by reason of the posi
right hand side of each of Figs. 3 to 6 shows by
tion of the point of contact of the bar on the
the number of stress lines therein that the load
corresponding to the bolting load imposed on
upper ?at ?shing surface of the rail ?ange. That
position is an important part of the present in
the joint by the screw 23 was the same in each
instance;
30 vention as certain desirable advantages are in~
cident thereto. As herein noted the intensity of
the stress in the base-web ?llets of the rail in
creases as the base contact of the bar thereon
base of the rail retreat inwardly as the base bear
moves outwardly beyond the outer limit of the
in'gs ‘of the joint bars upon the rail ?anges move 35 present invention, and also the area of stress
toward the heels of the bars from the inner limit
in the rail head decreases as such contact moves
of the ‘present invention for said base bearings.
outwardly beyond the outer limit of the present
Second, it will be observed that the amount of
By reference to photo-elastic study of Fig. 3
stressin the base of the rail increases as the base
bearingslo‘f lthev joint bars upon the rail ?anges 40 the bearing contact at the foot of, the bar on
move outwardly beyond the outer limit of the
the rail ?ange is well inside of the inner limit
present invention for said base bearings, due to
of the presentinvention resulting, as shown, in
resulting droop of the outer portions of the rail
a heavy concentration of stress or strain in both
base ?anges. Third, it will be observed that the
the rail and the joint bar in the zone of contact;
and in the photo-elastic study shown in Fig. 4
amount of stress produced in the webs of the
joint bars also increases as the said base bear
the point of contact between the base of the bar
ings moveoutwardly beyond the outer limit of
and the rail ?ange is farther out from the base
web-?llet than shown in Fig. 3, showing a decided
the’ present invention for said base bearings.
decrease in stress or strain within the base-web
Fourth, it will be observed that the intensity of
stress in the base-web connecting ?llets of the
?llet, and also'in the bar. and inthe rail ?ange
within the zone of contact. Thisrelative posi
rail also increases as the said base bearings move
outwardly beyond the outer limit of the present
tion of, parts, as shown in Fig. 4, is within the
scope of the presentinvention, and likewise the
invention for said base bearings. Fifth, it. will
position of parts shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings,
be observed that the area of stress in the rail
head decreases as the base bearings of the splice
which represents what might be said an outer
bars upon the rail ?anges move outwardly be
limit, as far as the joint bar is concerned, also
yond the outer limit of the present invention for
shows reduction in stress or strain in the base
said base bearings.
web ?llet over that shown in the example of. Fig.
According to Fig. 3 the stress in the webs of the
3 and also in the stress ,or strain concentration
Several trends will be observed from Figs. 3
to 6. First, it will be observed that the regions
of stress in the bases of the joint bars and the
invention.
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joint bars is a minimum, there is little stress due to within the zone of contact between the bar and
to droop of the base ?anges of the rail and no
the rail ?ange. The illustration of'Fig. 6 which
stress in the toe portions of the splice bars. How
de?nitely is outside of the limits of the present
ever, there are high stress concentrations at all
invention shows an extreme, but typical, ad
bearing ‘points due to the tendency of the splice
vanced position, toward the outer edge of the
rail ?ange, of the point of contact between the
splice bar and the rail ?ange wherein the stress
bars to rotate outwardly at their heads and the
bearings located as indicated are impractical as
the heels of the splice bars are very close to'riding
the base ?llets of the rail.
Fig. 4, as compared with Figs. 5 and 6, shows
lesser amounts of stress in the Webs of the splice
bars, lesser amounts of droop of the base- ?anges
of the rail and no stress in the toe portions of.
the splice bars. Moreover, Fig. 4 demonstrates
reduction in tendency, as compared with Fig. 3,
of the heads of the splice bars to rotate out
concentrations in the base-web ?llet are ma
terially increased, aswell as a manifest increased
drooping of the edges of the rail ?anges.
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Consequently, it will be seen that in order to
obtain the maximum advantages of the use of
the present invention with reference to minimiz
ing of stress or strain in both the rail‘ and the
splice'bar, it will have been noted from what is
said herein and whatisshown
tliedrawings;
2,403,807
5
that the point ~of‘ contact for the joint bar on
the ?at upper ?shing face of the rail flange,- is
preferably at a point on said surface of the rail
?ange between the outer edge of the base web
?llet and the longitudinal center of the said up
per ?at ?shing surface of the rail ?ange. Also,
it is shown, as essential to the present invention,
that the loading engagement of the initial-con
tact bearing element with the rail ?ange is in
tersected by a plane at substantially right angles 10
to the upper face of the rail flange and lies be
tween a pair of downwardly and outwardly di
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beyond, the outer limit of the wear-developed
contact area between the bar and the rail ?ange
when the bar has been adjusted to its innermost
limit relative to the rail to compensate for wear,
Without further description it is thought that
the features and advantagesof the invention will
be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and
it will of course be understood that changes in the
form, proportion and minor details of construc
tion may be resorted to, without departing from
the spirit of the invention and scope of the ap
pended claims.
' I claim:
verging planes, both intersecting the central ver
1. A rail joint structure comprising vignoles
tical longitudinal plane of the rail atits top, at
rails and a splice bar, including a head, a web
15
angles to said plane of the rail of not less than
and a base, having loading engagement at its
12° for the inner plane and not more than 17°
head with head portions of the rails and at the
for the outer plane, thereby to con?ne the initial '
under side of its base with. the upper faces of
bearing element, and the major portion of the
the base ?anges of the rails, the under face of the
area-contact developed therefrom by abrasion,
base of said bar being initially convexly curved
on the rail ?ange, between said diverging planes. 20
to a contour to have initial line
Prior to the development and utilization of the ‘transversely
.contact with the rail flanges between vertical f
positioned curved base contact in accordance with
planes including the inner face and the center '
the present invention, there was’ considerable dif
of the web of the bar, respectively, and between
?culty in obtaining joint bars that had a reason
downwardly and outwardly diverging planes
ably good ?t. ‘With the advent of the higher 25 ‘which intersect the central vertical plane of the
rails the 112 and 131 R. E. due to increase in
rails at the tops of the latter and which are dis
posed at angles to said central vertical plane of ;
the rails of not less than 12° and not more than
?shing height, the variations in ?shing and angu
larity of the ?shing surfaces became exaggerated
It was found that head contact bars developed
the tendency to cook inward at the head. The .30
result was the occurrence of a line bearing be
tween the small upperouter ?llet of the head of
the bar and the head of the rail with a concen
tration of stress along this line and ultimately
fatigue failures. With headfree bars either the V35
initial contact occurred on the heel ?llet, if the
bar section was greater than the rail ‘?shing, or
at the outer edge of the toe, if the bar ?shing
was smaller than the rail ?shing- In either case
17°, respectively, thereby to insure that initial
and subsequent wear-developed contactbetween
the base of the bar and the rail?anges shall
occur within limits transversely of the base of
the bar and'the rail ?anges where stress concen
tration is least disadvantageous, the said under
face of the base of said bar from its portion in
contact with the rail ?anges constantly receding
upwardly and outwardly with reference to the up
per faces of said rail ?anges to insure against
development by wear of any shoulders in the up
the stress concentration was at a most disadvan
40 per faces of the rail ?anges which might inter
tageous location. According to the present in
fere with inward adjustment of the bottom por
vention it was found that all of theseconditions
tion of the bar relative to the rails.
were considerably improved by curving the base
2. A splice bar for connecting together the ends
portion of the joint bar, and, in this connection,
of vignolesv rails, said splice bar comprising a
the location of the point of contact of this curve 45 head to have loading engagement with head por
proved to be of vital importance. It was found
tions of the rails, a web, and a base having its
that the position of contact advocated by the
under face initially convexly curved transversely
present invention gave the least disadvantageous '
to a contour to have initial line contact with the
distribution of stress in both the joint bar and
rail.
Also, it was found that as wear occurred 50
and the initial line contact developed into an
area contact of greater or lesser width according
to the amount of wear, the contact remained in
upper faces of the rail ?anges between vertical
planes including the inner face and the center
of the web of the'bar, respectively, and between
downwardly and outwardly diverging planes
7 which intersect the central vertical plane of the
the zone where stress concentration isleast dis
advantageous. It was additionally determined 55 rails at the tops of the latter and which are dis
posed at angles to the central vertical plane of
that, in order to insure against the development
the rails of not less than 12° and not more than
by wear of a shoulder on the rail ?ange, which
17°, respectively, thereby to insure that initial
might interfere with inward adjustment of the
and
subsequent wear-developed'contact between
base portion of the bar to compensate for wear, '
the base of the bar and the rail ?anges shall
it was necessary that the curvature of the un
occur Within limits transversely of the base of
derface of the bar be such that from its initial ,
the bar and the rail ?anges where stress con
line contact with the upper face of the rail flange
centration is least disadvantageous, the said un
and from its subsequent area contact with the
der face of the base of said bar being curved to
said upper face of the rail ?ange developed by
wear, it should constantly recede upwardly and 65 recede constantly upwardly and outwardly with
reference to the upper faces of the rail ?anges
outwardly with reference to the upper face of the
from the portion of said under face which con
rail ?ange. In this connection the curved under '
face of the splice bar must extend inwardly at ' tacts the rail ?anges to insure against develop_
ment by wear of any shoulders in the upper faces
least to, but neednot extend inwardly appre
ciably beyond, the point where it contacts the 70 of the rail ?anges which might interfere with
inward adjustment of the bottom portion of the
upper face of the rail ?ange when the bar ini
bar relative to the rails.
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tially is applied, and, moreover, it ‘must extend
outwardly at least as far as, but not necessarily
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HORACE L. LANSING. .
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