Патент USA US2403807код для вставки
July 9,1946; _ " _ H. L. LANSING 4 2,403,807 _ RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE : . . 10 ‘ Filed Aug.l8, 1942 ’ ' J. \ \ k , ' - 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 '.1'. . 1529 ‘ , 15 j / . / 13 - \ LToraceL ' July 9, 1946. H. |_. LANSING 2,403,807 RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE Filed Aug.‘ 8, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORv ?braceL.LaJ1Jsi239, July 9, 1946. H. L. LANSING 2,403,807 RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE Filed Aug. 8, 1942 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR liar-ace BY 0 2,403,807 Patented July 9, ‘i946 ' UNITED, ,STATE 5 PATENT‘ OFFICE 2,403,807 RAIL AND JOINT STRUCTURE , , Horace L. Lansing,'Rutherford, N. J ., assignor to Poor & Company, New York, N. Y., a corpora tion of Delaware . Application August 8, 1942, Serial No.. 454,169 I . t t 1 (01. 238—243) 2 Claims. 2 - forms with said plane e an angle of not more This invention relates to improvements in splice bars for connectingtogether the meeting end portions of railway rails, and to improved, than 17°. ' The under faces of the bases of the splice bars railjoints embodying saidimproved splice'bars. may; be formed in any suitable manner so that their contacts with the upper faces of the base ?anges of the rails are within the limits stated. The object of, the invention, generally speak ' ing,»is to provide‘ asplice bar of novel construc tion for_cooperation in a novel manner with the Moreover, the said contacts, designated at 2:, may be surface contacts of any desired widths within the limits stated, or they may be line contacts, condition approaching‘ the Optimum of advantae 10 or substantially line contacts. Preferably, how ever, they are line contacts a?orded by convexly geous stress distribution in both thesplice bar curving the under faces of the splice ‘bars trans and the rails under both. bolting and wheel load versely as illustrated in the drawings so that as forces imposed onthe joint; is attained with the rails which it is- employed to connect, whereby, in a joint embodying the improved splice bar, a ‘be hereinafter more fully described, illustrated in the bars are drawn inwardly by the usual joint bolts I1, tendency, of the bars to “cock” is min imized and proper seating of their bases upon the tops of the rail ?anges is assured. As to the heads of the bars, these may have ?at top faces or top faces of any other desired form engaging the 20 ,usual ?at under faces of the heads of the rails, or, alternatively and as is preferred, the upper the accompanying drawings and de?ned in the - inner'corners of the heads of the bars ‘may be material advantagesemanating from such stress distribution. ‘ 1 ' ' With the foregoing general objectin ‘View, the invention consists in a splice bar having the novel features of construction, and in a railjoint em~ bodying 'said bar having the novel features of combination and arrangement of parts, as will . rounded and may have loading engagement with In the accompanying drawings, wherein like V the headi?llets l8 of, the rails as, shown in the appended claims. ~ drawings. ,In any event-because of the initial loading cooperation, of the bases of the splice bars with the ?anges I5 of the rails within the limits stated, certain material and important ad vantages are attained. First, any tendency. of characters ' of reference denote corresponding parts in the different views: 7 V Figure 1 is a side‘elevationio'f a rail joint em bodying the featuresof the invention. 7. , i . Figure 2 is a cross section through the joint shown in Fig. 1;; and ' 30 the bars to “cook” due to tightening of the joint Figures 3 .to 6 arereproductions of a series of four photo-elastic studies. of rail joints. in which 1 t the splice bars have bearings‘ upon the base flanges‘ 0f the ‘rail' within and outside the limits of the present invention for saidbearings. bolts I‘! is minimized and proper initial seating of both the heads and the bases of the bars upon the head portions of the rails and the rail?anges l6,"respectively, is assured as aforesaidJsecond, I ‘ 35 the setting up of lateral bending stresses in the webs of the rails under either bolt-tightening or Referring to the drawings in detail, A, A des wheel-load forces imposed on the joint are sub ignate the meeting end portions of va pair of stantially entirely avoided; third, stresses in the railway rails, each including, as usual, a head It, heads, webs and bases of the rails are minimized a web II and a base 12,-and B, Bdesignate a pair of splice bars connecting said rails together and 40 and dangerous stress concentrations near the upper and the lower apexes of the joint bars are each including, as usual, a head IS, a web l4 and a base l5.v ' ' 1 substantially entirely avoided, particularly if the heads of the bars have loading cooperation at In. accordance with the invention the vunder their upper,.inner corners With the head ?llets of face of the base of- each of the splice bars B is suitably formed to have loading engagement in 45 the; rails as shown; fourth, tendency of the .rail flanges to droop under loads imposed on the joint ‘ itially with the upper faces of the related-flanges are minimized; ?fth, both bolting and wheel loads I6 of the rail bases solely between a plane ain cluding the central, vertical, longitudinal plane imposed on the joint are advantageously? trans mitted to the base ?anges of the rails at the of the web of the bar and a plane b including the inner face of the web of the bar. Also in 50 points of minimum eccentricity of both the rails and the joint bars, and, sixth, the bars are readily accordance with the invention the said initial self-adjusting to ?t with the rails and to com loading engagement between the base of each pensate for the inherent rolling variations in the splice bar and the upper faces of the related, bars and the rails. . ?anges of‘ the rail‘base is con?nedbetween a Experiments have demonstrated that a, rail pair of downwardly‘ and outwardly diverging V55 jointin which the bases of the splice bars have wheeleload-line-de?ning planesc and at both of which intersect the central, ‘vertical, longitudinal plane e of the rails at thetops of the rails and the inner of which forms with, said plane. e an angle of not less‘than, 12° ,while the outer of which line contact or narrow-width surface contact with the base ?anges of the rails within limits as hereinbefore set forth afford an optimum of ad vantageous stress distribution in both the splice 2,403,807 a 4 u‘ bars and the rails, and that shifting of said con tacts either inwardly or outwardly beyond said limits results in progressive deterioration of said advantageous stress distribution. This is clearly wardly and indicates practical take-up bearings of the bases ofjthe splice .bars. upon the rail ?anges-y ,, . ‘ I i; “ Figure 5 shows the samecharacteristics as Fig. evident from a consideration of Figs. 3 to 6 of - 4. A slight drooping of the rail base ?anges may the drawings which are reproductions of photo graphs of models of rail joints made from elastic material and subjected in each instance to the same load corresponding to the bolting load im posed on the splice bars and the rails in actual be observed together with a spreading of the stress patterns in the bases of the splice bars, but the condition is very similar to the condition shown in Fig. 4. Figure 6 shows a marked increase in the stress in the webs of thesplice bars and an increased tendency of the base ?anges of the rail to droop, practice. According to Fig. 3 the bases of the splice bars have loading engagement with the rail ?anges to- 1 with increase of stress in the base-web ?llets ward the heels of the bars beyond the inner of the rail as well as increase in stress through limit of the present invention for said loading 15 out the base of the rail. Figure 6 further shows engagement. According to Fig. 4 the said load the strain pattern spreading throughout the-en ing engagement is approximately at the inner tire base portions of the splice bars. I F' ‘ In short, Figs. 3v to 6 of the drawings‘ vividly limit of the present invention for said loading indicate that a rail joint‘ embodying splice bars engagement. According to Fig. 5 the said load ing engagement is approximately at the .outer 20 having base ‘bearings 'upon the rail base'?anges within the limits of the present invention afford limit of the present invention for said loading en~ a far superior joint as regards stress distribu gagement. And according to Fig. 6 the said load ing engagement is outwardly beyond the outer tion than is afforded by a departure of said base limit of the present invention for said loading bearings in either direction beyond said limits. engagement. The reactance member IS‘. at the 25 These ?gures of the drawings also exemplify the improved results obtained by reason of the posi right hand side of each of Figs. 3 to 6 shows by tion of the point of contact of the bar on the the number of stress lines therein that the load corresponding to the bolting load imposed on upper ?at ?shing surface of the rail ?ange. That position is an important part of the present in the joint by the screw 23 was the same in each instance; 30 vention as certain desirable advantages are in~ cident thereto. As herein noted the intensity of the stress in the base-web ?llets of the rail in creases as the base contact of the bar thereon base of the rail retreat inwardly as the base bear moves outwardly beyond the outer limit of the in'gs ‘of the joint bars upon the rail ?anges move 35 present invention, and also the area of stress toward the heels of the bars from the inner limit in the rail head decreases as such contact moves of the ‘present invention for said base bearings. outwardly beyond the outer limit of the present Second, it will be observed that the amount of By reference to photo-elastic study of Fig. 3 stressin the base of the rail increases as the base bearingslo‘f lthev joint bars upon the rail ?anges 40 the bearing contact at the foot of, the bar on move outwardly beyond the outer limit of the the rail ?ange is well inside of the inner limit present invention for said base bearings, due to of the presentinvention resulting, as shown, in resulting droop of the outer portions of the rail a heavy concentration of stress or strain in both base ?anges. Third, it will be observed that the the rail and the joint bar in the zone of contact; and in the photo-elastic study shown in Fig. 4 amount of stress produced in the webs of the joint bars also increases as the said base bear the point of contact between the base of the bar ings moveoutwardly beyond the outer limit of and the rail ?ange is farther out from the base web-?llet than shown in Fig. 3, showing a decided the’ present invention for said base bearings. decrease in stress or strain within the base-web Fourth, it will be observed that the intensity of stress in the base-web connecting ?llets of the ?llet, and also'in the bar. and inthe rail ?ange within the zone of contact. Thisrelative posi rail also increases as the said base bearings move outwardly beyond the outer limit of the present tion of, parts, as shown in Fig. 4, is within the scope of the presentinvention, and likewise the invention for said base bearings. Fifth, it. will position of parts shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings, be observed that the area of stress in the rail head decreases as the base bearings of the splice which represents what might be said an outer bars upon the rail ?anges move outwardly be limit, as far as the joint bar is concerned, also yond the outer limit of the present invention for shows reduction in stress or strain in the base said base bearings. web ?llet over that shown in the example of. Fig. According to Fig. 3 the stress in the webs of the 3 and also in the stress ,or strain concentration Several trends will be observed from Figs. 3 to 6. First, it will be observed that the regions of stress in the bases of the joint bars and the invention. - ‘ joint bars is a minimum, there is little stress due to within the zone of contact between the bar and to droop of the base ?anges of the rail and no the rail ?ange. The illustration of'Fig. 6 which stress in the toe portions of the splice bars. How de?nitely is outside of the limits of the present ever, there are high stress concentrations at all invention shows an extreme, but typical, ad bearing ‘points due to the tendency of the splice vanced position, toward the outer edge of the rail ?ange, of the point of contact between the splice bar and the rail ?ange wherein the stress bars to rotate outwardly at their heads and the bearings located as indicated are impractical as the heels of the splice bars are very close to'riding the base ?llets of the rail. Fig. 4, as compared with Figs. 5 and 6, shows lesser amounts of stress in the Webs of the splice bars, lesser amounts of droop of the base- ?anges of the rail and no stress in the toe portions of. the splice bars. Moreover, Fig. 4 demonstrates reduction in tendency, as compared with Fig. 3, of the heads of the splice bars to rotate out concentrations in the base-web ?llet are ma terially increased, aswell as a manifest increased drooping of the edges of the rail ?anges. , , Consequently, it will be seen that in order to obtain the maximum advantages of the use of the present invention with reference to minimiz ing of stress or strain in both the rail‘ and the splice'bar, it will have been noted from what is said herein and whatisshown tliedrawings; 2,403,807 5 that the point ~of‘ contact for the joint bar on the ?at upper ?shing face of the rail flange,- is preferably at a point on said surface of the rail ?ange between the outer edge of the base web ?llet and the longitudinal center of the said up per ?at ?shing surface of the rail ?ange. Also, it is shown, as essential to the present invention, that the loading engagement of the initial-con tact bearing element with the rail ?ange is in tersected by a plane at substantially right angles 10 to the upper face of the rail flange and lies be tween a pair of downwardly and outwardly di 6 beyond, the outer limit of the wear-developed contact area between the bar and the rail ?ange when the bar has been adjusted to its innermost limit relative to the rail to compensate for wear, Without further description it is thought that the features and advantagesof the invention will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and it will of course be understood that changes in the form, proportion and minor details of construc tion may be resorted to, without departing from the spirit of the invention and scope of the ap pended claims. ' I claim: verging planes, both intersecting the central ver 1. A rail joint structure comprising vignoles tical longitudinal plane of the rail atits top, at rails and a splice bar, including a head, a web 15 angles to said plane of the rail of not less than and a base, having loading engagement at its 12° for the inner plane and not more than 17° head with head portions of the rails and at the for the outer plane, thereby to con?ne the initial ' under side of its base with. the upper faces of bearing element, and the major portion of the the base ?anges of the rails, the under face of the area-contact developed therefrom by abrasion, base of said bar being initially convexly curved on the rail ?ange, between said diverging planes. 20 to a contour to have initial line Prior to the development and utilization of the ‘transversely .contact with the rail flanges between vertical f positioned curved base contact in accordance with planes including the inner face and the center ' the present invention, there was’ considerable dif of the web of the bar, respectively, and between ?culty in obtaining joint bars that had a reason downwardly and outwardly diverging planes ably good ?t. ‘With the advent of the higher 25 ‘which intersect the central vertical plane of the rails the 112 and 131 R. E. due to increase in rails at the tops of the latter and which are dis posed at angles to said central vertical plane of ; the rails of not less than 12° and not more than ?shing height, the variations in ?shing and angu larity of the ?shing surfaces became exaggerated It was found that head contact bars developed the tendency to cook inward at the head. The .30 result was the occurrence of a line bearing be tween the small upperouter ?llet of the head of the bar and the head of the rail with a concen tration of stress along this line and ultimately fatigue failures. With headfree bars either the V35 initial contact occurred on the heel ?llet, if the bar section was greater than the rail ‘?shing, or at the outer edge of the toe, if the bar ?shing was smaller than the rail ?shing- In either case 17°, respectively, thereby to insure that initial and subsequent wear-developed contactbetween the base of the bar and the rail?anges shall occur within limits transversely of the base of the bar and'the rail ?anges where stress concen tration is least disadvantageous, the said under face of the base of said bar from its portion in contact with the rail ?anges constantly receding upwardly and outwardly with reference to the up per faces of said rail ?anges to insure against development by wear of any shoulders in the up the stress concentration was at a most disadvan 40 per faces of the rail ?anges which might inter tageous location. According to the present in fere with inward adjustment of the bottom por vention it was found that all of theseconditions tion of the bar relative to the rails. were considerably improved by curving the base 2. A splice bar for connecting together the ends portion of the joint bar, and, in this connection, of vignolesv rails, said splice bar comprising a the location of the point of contact of this curve 45 head to have loading engagement with head por proved to be of vital importance. It was found tions of the rails, a web, and a base having its that the position of contact advocated by the under face initially convexly curved transversely present invention gave the least disadvantageous ' to a contour to have initial line contact with the distribution of stress in both the joint bar and rail. Also, it was found that as wear occurred 50 and the initial line contact developed into an area contact of greater or lesser width according to the amount of wear, the contact remained in upper faces of the rail ?anges between vertical planes including the inner face and the center of the web of the'bar, respectively, and between downwardly and outwardly diverging planes 7 which intersect the central vertical plane of the the zone where stress concentration isleast dis advantageous. It was additionally determined 55 rails at the tops of the latter and which are dis posed at angles to the central vertical plane of that, in order to insure against the development the rails of not less than 12° and not more than by wear of a shoulder on the rail ?ange, which 17°, respectively, thereby to insure that initial might interfere with inward adjustment of the and subsequent wear-developed'contact between base portion of the bar to compensate for wear, ' the base of the bar and the rail ?anges shall it was necessary that the curvature of the un occur Within limits transversely of the base of derface of the bar be such that from its initial , the bar and the rail ?anges where stress con line contact with the upper face of the rail flange centration is least disadvantageous, the said un and from its subsequent area contact with the der face of the base of said bar being curved to said upper face of the rail ?ange developed by wear, it should constantly recede upwardly and 65 recede constantly upwardly and outwardly with reference to the upper faces of the rail ?anges outwardly with reference to the upper face of the from the portion of said under face which con rail ?ange. In this connection the curved under ' face of the splice bar must extend inwardly at ' tacts the rail ?anges to insure against develop_ ment by wear of any shoulders in the upper faces least to, but neednot extend inwardly appre ciably beyond, the point where it contacts the 70 of the rail ?anges which might interfere with inward adjustment of the bottom portion of the upper face of the rail ?ange when the bar ini bar relative to the rails. ’ . tially is applied, and, moreover, it ‘must extend outwardly at least as far as, but not necessarily ' HORACE L. LANSING. .