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Патент USA US2403836

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July 9, >1946.
H. P. WAGNER
SELF-SEALING‘ GASOLINE TANK
»WNSRB@
' 2,403,836
Patented July 9, 1946
e
2,403,836v j
` i UNITED’ , ï'sTArEs, «PATE
" Y ¿ÍsELF-SÉALING ansoLmÉ’TANK
"Hans P. Wagner, Atlanta, Ga.
"
-ApplikationJune1o,1941,semaine.397,455“V
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sclaim'si
(Crim-ias)
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This invention relates to self-sealing gasoline
tanks; and it comprises a tank covered with kat
least one layer of plastic material comprising a
water-soluble, synthetic resin insoluble in gaso
Y layersr areY employedyëtheìintermediate tlayer Tcan"
be ma'de'somewhat Ymore plastic than the 'outer'
layers in order that it may function satisfactorily
even at the lowest temperatures, u_nderv which
1ine,. a 10W-freezing vehicle and a long-ûbered
material dispersed therein in such proportions as
. conditions theother layers might prove tobe too
viscous Yto produce the sealing ‘action within the
desired short time interval. Such anintermedif
to produce a composition remaining slightly plas
tic at temperatures as low as about 40° below zero
ate layermay prove somewhat too' fluid to vfunc--
Fahrenheit and having a softening or pour point
tion' satisfactorilyat the highestL summer teme,
at about a temperature of about 150° F.; said 10V peratures, but the outer, more viscousI layers are
coatingbeing advantageously in three. layers, the
then in , -best condition, >to ffunctionfsatisfactorily.
outer two of which have substantially the prop
If a '_singler. self-sealing ¿layer is. to ;be_j used,
erties stated while the intermediate layer has a
this must of necessity be-made ;of'. intermediate
composition comprising a water-soluble synthetic
properties and, While such a flayerris completeli7
resin, amanti-freeze and a long-ñberedmaterial
satisfactory at moderate temperaturearit would
befound not quite as'satisfactoryY at eitherv the
highest or the lowest temperatures. The-,ideal
self-sealing layer to employ would, ofcourse,`
dispersed'there in such proportions `as to pro-Y
duce a composition with a solidifying point not
above about .-60° F. and a pour point not below
about 100° F., said layers being advantageously
one which would not‘ change-in' viscosity Yfrom _l
enclosed by means of a wire screen and a leather 20 the "highest summer temperatures toy the`v lower
or other ilexible outer covering; all as more fully
hereinafter set forth and as claimed.
temperatures encountered in winter. The matea
Y
rialsrequiredto producei such an ideal layer ¿are 'ì
„ obviouslvçnot Vavailable` but. materials approachf
The recently-developed leak-proof or self-seal
ing gasoline tanks employed in fighting aero
lngthisideal as closely as possible shouldbeused.
planes and the like are usually constructed with 25 l It has been found that any of the Water-soluble
two layers of artificial rubber and an intermediate
synthetic resins which* are insoluble in gasoline
layer of sponge rubber. Upon puncture of the
are suitable for use in thexself-sealing layers‘of
tank, the sponge rubber is adapted to swelLowing
this invention._ These materials are also lknown
to contact with the leaking gasoline,` and this
as “Aqua Resins’ïA and are..highly_viscous vsub
swelling in time produces stoppage of the leak. 30 stances which are readily soluble ink water` and
miscible Vwith'low.moleculariglycols, glycol ethers,
' Under even the best of circumstances these tanks
permit a considerable leakage of gasoline 'and
etc. Thesematerials are preferably mixed with
consequently the speciñcations for leak-proof
a gasoline insoluble anti-freeze, such as ethylene
tanks have of necessity been drawn to permit `
glycol, diethylene glycol,zî‘lîlssoline”k glycol »
such leakage.
n
It has now been found that self-sealing gaso
_line tanks can be constructed with plastic outer
layers which, upon puncture, will quickly sealthe
leak and thereaftersubstantially prevent allÍ leak
age. The Vsealing function, in all but extremely
Íunusual circumstances, is perfect. The advan#
tagesy of this new construction, in comparison with
the self-sealing gasoline tanks now in use, are
tremendous.
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` In thenew construction a fuel tank of syn
thetic rubber, metal or other material is covered
with one or more of the self-sealing layers. It
`methyl kî“Cellosolve”
' , i (CHLCHorLCHZQinV
(CH2OH.CH2OCH3)
v _ ,`
butyl
“_Cellosolve” (CH2OH._CH2OC4Hs),1etcL, to form
alow-freezing vehicle in which to suspend a long
flbered' jrnaterial, such; as asbestos -or ycotton
fibersì' yïIt is alsov advantageous toy include a small
amountpf light-'weight `metallic powder asY ñller,A
such as magnesium- or aluminumVV powders. AThe
45 proportions of theseingredients used'are suchy as
to. produce >a 'plastic materialwhich has a melting
or pour' pointfwhich'is aboveßthe highest terne
peratures met in `practice and also ,al freezing'or
is advantageous to employ more than one self
solidifying Dorint which yis belowthevr lowest Ítem-'- "
sealingl layer for the reason that in this case 50 peratures encountered infpractice. A speciñc `ei;
layers ofsomewhat dilîerent properties can be
ample of a suitable ‘ÍAqua Resin?? is “Glybòrité'ff
employed.
For example, Vone layer especially
adapted for'low temperature operation and an
other, especially adapted to Vfunction at higher
ambienttemperatures, can be employed. '.Ifthree _
i. e. the boric acid ester'of diethylene glycollf4 » ~
The following speciñc examples representv coin
positions forming Vplastic layers whichA wefhaye
'found suitable in actual practice:A
7 - ï
2,403,836
3
Example 1
_
Per cent
forced between the other two plastic layers by
means of a so-called “gun” or force pump, this
“Glyborîte” ’ ________________________ __ 35 to '75
Diethylene glycol ____________________ __ 25 to 45
Asbestos liber _______________________ __ 5 to 25
Magnesium powder __________________ __ Oto 5
composition being heated ify necessary before ap
plication. By this method the entire space be
tween the inner and the outer plastic layers may
Example 2
_
. _
i
_Per Cent»
Asbestos 'iiber'________ ____ ____ ____A___b___
5_»to'1f5
10
'
_
30 to 50, Y _
Aluminum powder ___________________ __
Example 3
0 to
_
`
Starch
Y
p
,Y
_
-
bs iillßsie A1151., alter iheîniermediatenyer is in
trod-uned,V ,the hole throughg'which was forced
may be' covered overl or >sevved together.
“Essoline”'glycol (propane-1,2-diol)____ 30 to’50
Aquaresin
4
sewed together to make a tight joint, leaving an
intermediate space for the third plastic layer.
This intermediate plastic layer may then be
5
'
n
Per-cent
_
l0.to¿30_~ ~
_The thickness of the three layers, applied as
described above, need not exceed one inch. The
0
centen-layenmay be made 1/2 inch in thickness and
theother two of a thickness of 1A inch, for ex
“ ample. "A: single layer of one-half inch affords
¿ conâiderahleprotection and, of course, for maxi
mum protection, three or more layers may be ap
suitable er allowable thickness.
Asbestos ñber ________________ _____'____`> -10 to' 30
“Aquaresin” ________________________ __ 10130125 . - 'pii’eiiïiïeving any
The mode of
“Ethylene” glycol ____ _____'_ _________ __ 5 to 20 20
operation of the self-sealing
layersis
believed
to,be_self~_
evident from the» above
(.Íuïnzaflfîlìi‘ï
--_,
;0_~,t9115i
description. l V/îhenfsuch; layers; are 'puncturedg
Water
'
_, ,29m 50;
the plasticity ofi the-above.. compositions. is such
»'Iwfhe- composition representedbyf Example 1'» has»
thatça _slight flow.4 ensues. 'llheislightl heat gen,
a c_or'igealin'gv point of- about _40°
andl~ a pour
eratedi during-_ the forniationgcf: the hole assists
25
point oil! about 15091?. ; that represented byJEx
inl this` iio-w. _ rlïhe. composition. is. heavier. than
the. gasoline iiir thee tank and ~ hence: the- tendency
ample2=has-a solidifying point of about _609-195
and-'a softeninglpoint oil-'about `l20° Fe, while` the
is. for thematerialetoilow intothe tank', rather
composition of` Example 3 has a solidif-ying; point
than for. thegasoline, toilow out. Only.- aslight
of;V about 0"»~ F.- anda softening» point of» about
fioW ofthe.. plastic' material;~ is- usually Vrequired
200% F.' »Within the temperature ranges ¿f indi-V 30 to fill; thei hole and therrytghe. fibrous material in
cated- these layers are l eiîective in` producing self*
the _composition_.prevents;any tendency.` for-“blowe
sealingl layers >usefulrin the present invcntioni- al
outs.” ’I_‘he selig-sealing' layers described vhave
though they are particularly effective at temper
been found capableofY sealing.4 over holesas large
atures intermediate the indicated »solidifyingand
as dinchesisquarathe» leakage produced being
softening-temperatures.
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negligible. This-isbelievedtobe a new-resultan
Inlori'e'¿ernbodimen-tA oi this inven fon the-v three
layei'srrépresented by- the above speciñc exam
the
art.
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In the accompanying drawing; thereI isshown,
morder less. diagrammatically a. perspective; View
Example 1. lbeing employed- adjacent` the> fuel
tank,"V the. composition. of ExampleZ beingused. as 40 of; a. gasoline .tank ,providedî with; the-_ selfrseal.
ing` layersof-fthis invention. Thiasho.wing:ispro-v
an" intermediatelayer-and. the composition of..v Ex
vided with descriptive legendswhicnare believed
ampleß being’y usedxasan/ outer plasticlayer. If
Selîeexnìanatory; „ The.. carnes of; theî _tankY is„_broa -singlellayeráis tozbe. employed. that represented
ken-avremo .sh witheplastic- lasers.- îlïhree layers
by `‘Iîlxan'iple lì »will vbe foundy satisfactory, while
are» Shawmut chgmay. be 0f; they Compositions
ifftwolay'ers are to beused',l the compositionsof
pl'eslarelus‘ed in combination; the compositionof-
repre _ntedi b_vf» the@haveSneciñcexampìca The
Examples 1 and 2 in combinationaresuitable; ‘
Compas ._ ions G_fzExamples 1', 2: and; 3- may; farm,
. Thefa'bove` described plastic layers shouldf be
„ _
provided ÍWith some type of: outer. support and
this-may befaccomplished by the use of: an» outer
covering offresilient material, Such. as leather
Onartiñcialçrubberi, forexarnple. It! is also. ad
vis'able. to, employ. somev type. ofV stiffenina mate,
rial, such as_«a wire screeningijust beneath. the
_
,
-
may be.
f
__
_
Y
Y
follcwsr
05. We t@ 2%.. 0 s_laßìaliaçeiiç. acid;
181%.’ßeeß‘cgoisiechproducts
,
" The.v methody of applying the` plastic layers ¿o__f
_
01".-v more.. plastic layers of- diîïerentpnmposition
may b. ` sed,- The, ccmpositícn.
theselayerë
a _Wire Screen @camail-r» thefollieriresîlierltsev
'
_theinnele theintcrmediate;andthe
_In another spe ciiîc example of the _invention one
resilient` outer covering..v The.y entire> tank con;
struction would then consist of, the inner tank
wall, the three plastic layers, inthe order named,
erîes-
__ _ i'
outer;nlastealaysra;
,_
_
0-_2.5»%1i0.~«0.-50_%1_ Gr? lessfofmasassliinpowder; _ *_
60
suit` _ particular conditions` of, manufacture.’ ~ One
Thiscomposition» will. produce aßleak-_proof lay-er
Whichaiwill .withstand temperatures; .between- 200i’
method ` whichhas Vbeen found s’ati‘siaçtQl‘i’y is' to
ab ove _. zero't to .609' below. zero Fahrenheit.
this_,'irívention to the fuel tankV canbevariedto
ñrst apply the inner plastic layerdirecftlyto,Ítl‘ieJ
I-»if only
a single' layer/isto beernployedghavingi theeabove
composition, this layer should hai/ela thickness
tio'riof, this layer i. can be assisted byA heating ¿ the 65 cf. about oneehalflinch, whereas', if a- layerioithis '
compositiondstoibe usedinicombinationl With'any
composition or' the tank wallçor. both. The'wire
screenzand the' leather covering may berprepared
in halves, the leather being sewed on thcoutside
of the., layerslof:-` Examples l» to~ï351its thickness
space' for the plastic layers.v 'ïïheouter plastic
layer‘is thenY applied to the inside .ofthe screen
inside iherleaiher Cover, j both halves., beine.' thus
Coated- ThetWO halvesmaythen beñttedgarmmd
above composition, yhaving a tlfiicknessVoi?1/2»À inch
shouldibe approximately that oi the‘otherèlayers;
Qfglthescreen which is ñrsi formedprsps?lvto fît
the-total
fthickness of _the plastic layers `amounting
around the outside of the tank leaving. a suitable 70 to‘fr-om about-¿eh to~1« inch. A« single layer oi-the
will Close larselhslss erQdúçeeliinagasQlieé .time
I’ßzïwili' be. risicslillatiri theelecveccmmsinon
the coated tank'and'the leather halves may be 75 the zinc chloride serves as an anti-freeze liquid:
2,403,836
,
5
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y
The freezing point of this solution is about 60° F.
below zero, and the solution remains unchanged
extent in strength without affecting the perform
up to a temperature of 200° F. or above.
The magnesium powder in the above composi- .
zinc chloride may be reduced toabout 50 perA '
ance oi' my tank.
Thus the concentration of
cent, if desired, in which case it is desirable to
increase the percentage of starch in order to ob
tion is used as 'a'L swelling or gas expanding agent.
It reacts with the acetic acid to produce hydrogen
and the latter swells the mixture about 30 per
tain a very viscous mixture. In place of starch,
other carbohydrates which swell in water, pro
ducing viscous plastic compositions, can be em
cent or more. The foam is stable, since the com
position as a whole is highly viscous. And the
foam decreases the weight of the composition
which is, of course, an important advantage fwhen
my tanks are used in aeroplanes.
ployed, such as gum arabic, gum tragacanth and
the like, 'or even wheat ñour and the nlike can Y
be employed. Itis also possible to employ gas
expanding agents aside from magnesium pow
der, such as the agents employed in making light
weight concretes, for example. 'I‘hese agents are
not essential ingredients ofr my composition but
Example 5
In making the composition of this example,V
from about 5 to 10 per cent of long-fibered as- -
are highly advantageous.
bestosis added to the composition of Example 4.
The wire screen and outer layer of leather,`>
The asbestos fibers should be saturated with zinc
which have been described above, may be re
chloride before mixing with the other ingredients.
placed by a specially constructed layer consist
This layer will also »withstand temperatures from 20 ing of a» rather Vfine-mesh wire screen on both
200° F. above zero to 60°F. below zero.
sides of which are placed layers of rubber, the
The above two layers or one of them can be
used either alone or in combination with any Lor
all of the layers, the compositions for which are
given in Examples -1 to 3 in order t0 produce leak
proof tanks. The layer containing the asbestos
is advantageously placed next to the metal or
rubber tank.
rubber layers being vulcanized in situ, whereby '
they become bonded through the meshes of the
screen.
following claims will be immediately evident to
In one embodiment the above as
bestos-containing layer was.. placed adjacent the
metal or rubber tank while the layer of Example 30
4 was used as the outer plastic layer, while a layer
having a composition correspondingto Example 2
was used in between these two layers.
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One of both sides of this assembly may .
covered with a cloth layer, if desired. Other
275 Ybe
modiñcations which fall within the scope vof the
those skilled in this art.
What is 'claimed is:
1. A self-sealing'gasoline tank comprising a
shell covered with at least one layer of plastic
material having a composition comprising from
about 50 to 80% of a zinc chloride solution hav
While several embodiments of this invention » ing a concentration ranging from about 50 to
have already been disclosed, it is evident, of " 35 70% by weight, 0.5 to 2% of glacial acetic acid
course, that modifications can be made in the
and 18 to 48% of anamylaceous material.
speciñc compositions and structures described
2. A self-sealing gasoline tank comprising a.
without departing from the purview of this in
shell covered with at least one layer of plastic
vention. » It is evident, for example, that tanks
material having a composition comprising from
within the present invention can be constructed
about 50 to 80% of a concentrated zinc chloride
in any desired shape or size. It is usually pre
solution, 0.5 to 2% of glacial acetic acid,V 18 to
ferred to construct these tanks in relatively flat
48% of starch and 5 to 10% of asbestos fiber.
shape, that Yis withV a short vertical dimension, Y
3. A self-sealing gasoline tank comprising a
in order to reduce the head of gasoline and
shell covered with a layer of plastic material
thereby to reduce the tendency of the gasoline
having a composition comprising from about 50
to escape. It has already been mentioned that
to 80%V of a concentrated zinc chloride solution,
any of the “Aquaresins” which are insoluble in
0.5 tov2% of acetic acid and 18 to 48% of a starch
gasolinecan be used in conjunction with a mis
product, and a second layer of similar composi
cible, anti-freeze liquid which is also insoluble
tion to which has been added from about 5 to 10%V
in gasoline to produce the desired vehicle of this 50 of asbestos über.l
invention. ’Any anti-freeze liquid is suitable
which has the required solubility characteris
tics and which also has a solidifying'point not
substantially above 0° F., when mixed with from
Vabout 10 toV 75 percent of “Aquaresin.” "I'he
fibrous material to be used maybe of any suit
able type, such as asbestos, hemp, cotton and
other vegetable and mineral ñbers. These fibers
must be inert to the materials with which they
4. The self-sealing gasoline tank of claim 3 in
combination with a third plastic layer compris
ing from about 10 to 75% of a Water soluble syn
thetic resin insoluble in gasoline, about 10- to 50%
'of a non-flammable, anti-freeze liquid which is
insoluble in gasoline and in which said resin is
soluble and about 5 to 25% of a long-ñbered inert
Y material dispersed therein, the proportions of Í
said ingredients being such that the composition
are contacted and should have a length ranging
has a solidifying. point not substantially Vabove
from about 1 to 2 inches for best results. In ex
-0° F. and a pour point not substantially below
ample 3 the gum arabic can -be replaced by any _ 100° F.
y
other water-soluble gum, natural or artificial,
5. A self-sealing gasoline tank comprising a
shell
with a layer of plastic material hav
amylaceous colloidal material having similar 65 ing a,covered
composition comprising from about 50'to
properties of increasing the viscosity of water.
80 per cent of a 70 per cent zinc chloride solu
A preservative, suchas Moldex (an ester of para
tion, from about 0.5 to 2 per cent of glacial acetic
‘ hydroxy benzoic acid) can be added to the com
acid, from about 18 to 48 per cent of a colloidal
positionv of Example 3 or to the other composi
starch and from about 0.25 to 0.50 per cent of
and the starch can be replaced by any other
tions, if desired.
The zinc chloride solution used in the composi
tions of Examples 4 and 5 can be varied to some
470 magnesium powder.
"
:~
HANS P. WAGNER.
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