Патент USA US2403836код для вставки
July 9, >1946. H. P. WAGNER SELF-SEALING‘ GASOLINE TANK »WNSRB@ ' 2,403,836 Patented July 9, 1946 e 2,403,836v j ` i UNITED’ , ï'sTArEs, «PATE " Y ¿ÍsELF-SÉALING ansoLmÉ’TANK "Hans P. Wagner, Atlanta, Ga. " -ApplikationJune1o,1941,semaine.397,455“V ' sclaim'si (Crim-ias) - l " Y. * . This invention relates to self-sealing gasoline tanks; and it comprises a tank covered with kat least one layer of plastic material comprising a water-soluble, synthetic resin insoluble in gaso Y layersr areY employedyëtheìintermediate tlayer Tcan" be ma'de'somewhat Ymore plastic than the 'outer' layers in order that it may function satisfactorily even at the lowest temperatures, u_nderv which 1ine,. a 10W-freezing vehicle and a long-ûbered material dispersed therein in such proportions as . conditions theother layers might prove tobe too viscous Yto produce the sealing ‘action within the desired short time interval. Such anintermedif to produce a composition remaining slightly plas tic at temperatures as low as about 40° below zero ate layermay prove somewhat too' fluid to vfunc-- Fahrenheit and having a softening or pour point tion' satisfactorilyat the highestL summer teme, at about a temperature of about 150° F.; said 10V peratures, but the outer, more viscousI layers are coatingbeing advantageously in three. layers, the then in , -best condition, >to ffunctionfsatisfactorily. outer two of which have substantially the prop If a '_singler. self-sealing ¿layer is. to ;be_j used, erties stated while the intermediate layer has a this must of necessity be-made ;of'. intermediate composition comprising a water-soluble synthetic properties and, While such a flayerris completeli7 resin, amanti-freeze and a long-ñberedmaterial satisfactory at moderate temperaturearit would befound not quite as'satisfactoryY at eitherv the highest or the lowest temperatures. The-,ideal self-sealing layer to employ would, ofcourse,` dispersed'there in such proportions `as to pro-Y duce a composition with a solidifying point not above about .-60° F. and a pour point not below about 100° F., said layers being advantageously one which would not‘ change-in' viscosity Yfrom _l enclosed by means of a wire screen and a leather 20 the "highest summer temperatures toy the`v lower or other ilexible outer covering; all as more fully hereinafter set forth and as claimed. temperatures encountered in winter. The matea Y rialsrequiredto producei such an ideal layer ¿are 'ì „ obviouslvçnot Vavailable` but. materials approachf The recently-developed leak-proof or self-seal ing gasoline tanks employed in fighting aero lngthisideal as closely as possible shouldbeused. planes and the like are usually constructed with 25 l It has been found that any of the Water-soluble two layers of artificial rubber and an intermediate synthetic resins which* are insoluble in gasoline layer of sponge rubber. Upon puncture of the are suitable for use in thexself-sealing layers‘of tank, the sponge rubber is adapted to swelLowing this invention._ These materials are also lknown to contact with the leaking gasoline,` and this as “Aqua Resins’ïA and are..highly_viscous vsub swelling in time produces stoppage of the leak. 30 stances which are readily soluble ink water` and miscible Vwith'low.moleculariglycols, glycol ethers, ' Under even the best of circumstances these tanks permit a considerable leakage of gasoline 'and etc. Thesematerials are preferably mixed with consequently the speciñcations for leak-proof a gasoline insoluble anti-freeze, such as ethylene tanks have of necessity been drawn to permit ` glycol, diethylene glycol,zî‘lîlssoline”k glycol » such leakage. n It has now been found that self-sealing gaso _line tanks can be constructed with plastic outer layers which, upon puncture, will quickly sealthe leak and thereaftersubstantially prevent allÍ leak age. The Vsealing function, in all but extremely Íunusual circumstances, is perfect. The advan# tagesy of this new construction, in comparison with the self-sealing gasoline tanks now in use, are tremendous. , v ' ` . n. ‘ ` In thenew construction a fuel tank of syn thetic rubber, metal or other material is covered with one or more of the self-sealing layers. It `methyl kî“Cellosolve” ' , i (CHLCHorLCHZQinV (CH2OH.CH2OCH3) v _ ,` butyl “_Cellosolve” (CH2OH._CH2OC4Hs),1etcL, to form alow-freezing vehicle in which to suspend a long flbered' jrnaterial, such; as asbestos -or ycotton fibersì' yïIt is alsov advantageous toy include a small amountpf light-'weight `metallic powder asY ñller,A such as magnesium- or aluminumVV powders. AThe 45 proportions of theseingredients used'are suchy as to. produce >a 'plastic materialwhich has a melting or pour' pointfwhich'is aboveßthe highest terne peratures met in `practice and also ,al freezing'or is advantageous to employ more than one self solidifying Dorint which yis belowthevr lowest Ítem-'- " sealingl layer for the reason that in this case 50 peratures encountered infpractice. A speciñc `ei; layers ofsomewhat dilîerent properties can be ample of a suitable ‘ÍAqua Resin?? is “Glybòrité'ff employed. For example, Vone layer especially adapted for'low temperature operation and an other, especially adapted to Vfunction at higher ambienttemperatures, can be employed. '.Ifthree _ i. e. the boric acid ester'of diethylene glycollf4 » ~ The following speciñc examples representv coin positions forming Vplastic layers whichA wefhaye 'found suitable in actual practice:A 7 - ï 2,403,836 3 Example 1 _ Per cent forced between the other two plastic layers by means of a so-called “gun” or force pump, this “Glyborîte” ’ ________________________ __ 35 to '75 Diethylene glycol ____________________ __ 25 to 45 Asbestos liber _______________________ __ 5 to 25 Magnesium powder __________________ __ Oto 5 composition being heated ify necessary before ap plication. By this method the entire space be tween the inner and the outer plastic layers may Example 2 _ . _ i _Per Cent» Asbestos 'iiber'________ ____ ____ ____A___b___ 5_»to'1f5 10 ' _ 30 to 50, Y _ Aluminum powder ___________________ __ Example 3 0 to _ ` Starch Y p ,Y _ - bs iillßsie A1151., alter iheîniermediatenyer is in trod-uned,V ,the hole throughg'which was forced may be' covered overl or >sevved together. “Essoline”'glycol (propane-1,2-diol)____ 30 to’50 Aquaresin 4 sewed together to make a tight joint, leaving an intermediate space for the third plastic layer. This intermediate plastic layer may then be 5 ' n Per-cent _ l0.to¿30_~ ~ _The thickness of the three layers, applied as described above, need not exceed one inch. The 0 centen-layenmay be made 1/2 inch in thickness and theother two of a thickness of 1A inch, for ex “ ample. "A: single layer of one-half inch affords ¿ conâiderahleprotection and, of course, for maxi mum protection, three or more layers may be ap suitable er allowable thickness. Asbestos ñber ________________ _____'____`> -10 to' 30 “Aquaresin” ________________________ __ 10130125 . - 'pii’eiiïiïeving any The mode of “Ethylene” glycol ____ _____'_ _________ __ 5 to 20 20 operation of the self-sealing layersis believed to,be_self~_ evident from the» above (.Íuïnzaflfîlìi‘ï --_, ;0_~,t9115i description. l V/îhenfsuch; layers; are 'puncturedg Water ' _, ,29m 50; the plasticity ofi the-above.. compositions. is such »'Iwfhe- composition representedbyf Example 1'» has» thatça _slight flow.4 ensues. 'llheislightl heat gen, a c_or'igealin'gv point of- about _40° andl~ a pour eratedi during-_ the forniationgcf: the hole assists 25 point oil! about 15091?. ; that represented byJEx inl this` iio-w. _ rlïhe. composition. is. heavier. than the. gasoline iiir thee tank and ~ hence: the- tendency ample2=has-a solidifying point of about _609-195 and-'a softeninglpoint oil-'about `l20° Fe, while` the is. for thematerialetoilow intothe tank', rather composition of` Example 3 has a solidif-ying; point than for. thegasoline, toilow out. Only.- aslight of;V about 0"»~ F.- anda softening» point of» about fioW ofthe.. plastic' material;~ is- usually Vrequired 200% F.' »Within the temperature ranges ¿f indi-V 30 to fill; thei hole and therrytghe. fibrous material in cated- these layers are l eiîective in` producing self* the _composition_.prevents;any tendency.` for-“blowe sealingl layers >usefulrin the present invcntioni- al outs.” ’I_‘he selig-sealing' layers described vhave though they are particularly effective at temper been found capableofY sealing.4 over holesas large atures intermediate the indicated »solidifyingand as dinchesisquarathe» leakage produced being softening-temperatures. " ‘i l negligible. This-isbelievedtobe a new-resultan Inlori'e'¿ernbodimen-tA oi this inven fon the-v three layei'srrépresented by- the above speciñc exam the art. _ ` ` _ _ In the accompanying drawing; thereI isshown, morder less. diagrammatically a. perspective; View Example 1. lbeing employed- adjacent` the> fuel tank,"V the. composition. of ExampleZ beingused. as 40 of; a. gasoline .tank ,providedî with; the-_ selfrseal. ing` layersof-fthis invention. Thiasho.wing:ispro-v an" intermediatelayer-and. the composition of..v Ex vided with descriptive legendswhicnare believed ampleß being’y usedxasan/ outer plasticlayer. If Selîeexnìanatory; „ The.. carnes of; theî _tankY is„_broa -singlellayeráis tozbe. employed. that represented ken-avremo .sh witheplastic- lasers.- îlïhree layers by `‘Iîlxan'iple lì »will vbe foundy satisfactory, while are» Shawmut chgmay. be 0f; they Compositions ifftwolay'ers are to beused',l the compositionsof pl'eslarelus‘ed in combination; the compositionof- repre _ntedi b_vf» the@haveSneciñcexampìca The Examples 1 and 2 in combinationaresuitable; ‘ Compas ._ ions G_fzExamples 1', 2: and; 3- may; farm, . Thefa'bove` described plastic layers shouldf be „ _ provided ÍWith some type of: outer. support and this-may befaccomplished by the use of: an» outer covering offresilient material, Such. as leather Onartiñcialçrubberi, forexarnple. It! is also. ad vis'able. to, employ. somev type. ofV stiffenina mate, rial, such as_«a wire screeningijust beneath. the _ , - may be. f __ _ Y Y follcwsr 05. We t@ 2%.. 0 s_laßìaliaçeiiç. acid; 181%.’ßeeß‘cgoisiechproducts , " The.v methody of applying the` plastic layers ¿o__f _ 01".-v more.. plastic layers of- diîïerentpnmposition may b. ` sed,- The, ccmpositícn. theselayerë a _Wire Screen @camail-r» thefollieriresîlierltsev ' _theinnele theintcrmediate;andthe _In another spe ciiîc example of the _invention one resilient` outer covering..v The.y entire> tank con; struction would then consist of, the inner tank wall, the three plastic layers, inthe order named, erîes- __ _ i' outer;nlastealaysra; ,_ _ 0-_2.5»%1i0.~«0.-50_%1_ Gr? lessfofmasassliinpowder; _ *_ 60 suit` _ particular conditions` of, manufacture.’ ~ One Thiscomposition» will. produce aßleak-_proof lay-er Whichaiwill .withstand temperatures; .between- 200i’ method ` whichhas Vbeen found s’ati‘siaçtQl‘i’y is' to ab ove _. zero't to .609' below. zero Fahrenheit. this_,'irívention to the fuel tankV canbevariedto ñrst apply the inner plastic layerdirecftlyto,Ítl‘ieJ I-»if only a single' layer/isto beernployedghavingi theeabove composition, this layer should hai/ela thickness tio'riof, this layer i. can be assisted byA heating ¿ the 65 cf. about oneehalflinch, whereas', if a- layerioithis ' compositiondstoibe usedinicombinationl With'any composition or' the tank wallçor. both. The'wire screenzand the' leather covering may berprepared in halves, the leather being sewed on thcoutside of the., layerslof:-` Examples l» to~ï351its thickness space' for the plastic layers.v 'ïïheouter plastic layer‘is thenY applied to the inside .ofthe screen inside iherleaiher Cover, j both halves., beine.' thus Coated- ThetWO halvesmaythen beñttedgarmmd above composition, yhaving a tlfiicknessVoi?1/2»À inch shouldibe approximately that oi the‘otherèlayers; Qfglthescreen which is ñrsi formedprsps?lvto fît the-total fthickness of _the plastic layers `amounting around the outside of the tank leaving. a suitable 70 to‘fr-om about-¿eh to~1« inch. A« single layer oi-the will Close larselhslss erQdúçeeliinagasQlieé .time I’ßzïwili' be. risicslillatiri theelecveccmmsinon the coated tank'and'the leather halves may be 75 the zinc chloride serves as an anti-freeze liquid: 2,403,836 , 5 , - 6 y The freezing point of this solution is about 60° F. below zero, and the solution remains unchanged extent in strength without affecting the perform up to a temperature of 200° F. or above. The magnesium powder in the above composi- . zinc chloride may be reduced toabout 50 perA ' ance oi' my tank. Thus the concentration of cent, if desired, in which case it is desirable to increase the percentage of starch in order to ob tion is used as 'a'L swelling or gas expanding agent. It reacts with the acetic acid to produce hydrogen and the latter swells the mixture about 30 per tain a very viscous mixture. In place of starch, other carbohydrates which swell in water, pro ducing viscous plastic compositions, can be em cent or more. The foam is stable, since the com position as a whole is highly viscous. And the foam decreases the weight of the composition which is, of course, an important advantage fwhen my tanks are used in aeroplanes. ployed, such as gum arabic, gum tragacanth and the like, 'or even wheat ñour and the nlike can Y be employed. Itis also possible to employ gas expanding agents aside from magnesium pow der, such as the agents employed in making light weight concretes, for example. 'I‘hese agents are not essential ingredients ofr my composition but Example 5 In making the composition of this example,V from about 5 to 10 per cent of long-fibered as- - are highly advantageous. bestosis added to the composition of Example 4. The wire screen and outer layer of leather,`> The asbestos fibers should be saturated with zinc which have been described above, may be re chloride before mixing with the other ingredients. placed by a specially constructed layer consist This layer will also »withstand temperatures from 20 ing of a» rather Vfine-mesh wire screen on both 200° F. above zero to 60°F. below zero. sides of which are placed layers of rubber, the The above two layers or one of them can be used either alone or in combination with any Lor all of the layers, the compositions for which are given in Examples -1 to 3 in order t0 produce leak proof tanks. The layer containing the asbestos is advantageously placed next to the metal or rubber tank. rubber layers being vulcanized in situ, whereby ' they become bonded through the meshes of the screen. following claims will be immediately evident to In one embodiment the above as bestos-containing layer was.. placed adjacent the metal or rubber tank while the layer of Example 30 4 was used as the outer plastic layer, while a layer having a composition correspondingto Example 2 was used in between these two layers. ' ` One of both sides of this assembly may . covered with a cloth layer, if desired. Other 275 Ybe modiñcations which fall within the scope vof the those skilled in this art. What is 'claimed is: 1. A self-sealing'gasoline tank comprising a shell covered with at least one layer of plastic material having a composition comprising from about 50 to 80% of a zinc chloride solution hav While several embodiments of this invention » ing a concentration ranging from about 50 to have already been disclosed, it is evident, of " 35 70% by weight, 0.5 to 2% of glacial acetic acid course, that modifications can be made in the and 18 to 48% of anamylaceous material. speciñc compositions and structures described 2. A self-sealing gasoline tank comprising a. without departing from the purview of this in shell covered with at least one layer of plastic vention. » It is evident, for example, that tanks material having a composition comprising from within the present invention can be constructed about 50 to 80% of a concentrated zinc chloride in any desired shape or size. It is usually pre solution, 0.5 to 2% of glacial acetic acid,V 18 to ferred to construct these tanks in relatively flat 48% of starch and 5 to 10% of asbestos fiber. shape, that Yis withV a short vertical dimension, Y 3. A self-sealing gasoline tank comprising a in order to reduce the head of gasoline and shell covered with a layer of plastic material thereby to reduce the tendency of the gasoline having a composition comprising from about 50 to escape. It has already been mentioned that to 80%V of a concentrated zinc chloride solution, any of the “Aquaresins” which are insoluble in 0.5 tov2% of acetic acid and 18 to 48% of a starch gasolinecan be used in conjunction with a mis product, and a second layer of similar composi cible, anti-freeze liquid which is also insoluble tion to which has been added from about 5 to 10%V in gasoline to produce the desired vehicle of this 50 of asbestos über.l invention. ’Any anti-freeze liquid is suitable which has the required solubility characteris tics and which also has a solidifying'point not substantially above 0° F., when mixed with from Vabout 10 toV 75 percent of “Aquaresin.” "I'he fibrous material to be used maybe of any suit able type, such as asbestos, hemp, cotton and other vegetable and mineral ñbers. These fibers must be inert to the materials with which they 4. The self-sealing gasoline tank of claim 3 in combination with a third plastic layer compris ing from about 10 to 75% of a Water soluble syn thetic resin insoluble in gasoline, about 10- to 50% 'of a non-flammable, anti-freeze liquid which is insoluble in gasoline and in which said resin is soluble and about 5 to 25% of a long-ñbered inert Y material dispersed therein, the proportions of Í said ingredients being such that the composition are contacted and should have a length ranging has a solidifying. point not substantially Vabove from about 1 to 2 inches for best results. In ex -0° F. and a pour point not substantially below ample 3 the gum arabic can -be replaced by any _ 100° F. y other water-soluble gum, natural or artificial, 5. A self-sealing gasoline tank comprising a shell with a layer of plastic material hav amylaceous colloidal material having similar 65 ing a,covered composition comprising from about 50'to properties of increasing the viscosity of water. 80 per cent of a 70 per cent zinc chloride solu A preservative, suchas Moldex (an ester of para tion, from about 0.5 to 2 per cent of glacial acetic ‘ hydroxy benzoic acid) can be added to the com acid, from about 18 to 48 per cent of a colloidal positionv of Example 3 or to the other composi starch and from about 0.25 to 0.50 per cent of and the starch can be replaced by any other tions, if desired. The zinc chloride solution used in the composi tions of Examples 4 and 5 can be varied to some 470 magnesium powder. " :~ HANS P. WAGNER.