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Патент USA US2403838

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July 9, 1946`
c. H.,z|MMl-:_RMAN_
Filed oct. 1e, 1941
'4 sheets-smul
July 9, 1946.
2,403,838 ,
Filed oct. 16, 1941
4 sheets-sheet 2
may 9, 194s.
‘ c. H. zlMMx-:RMAN v
Filed oct. 16, '1941'~
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
, Charleslízimmerman
Jul? 9, 1946-
c. y|‘-|. ZIMMERMAN ~
Filed oct. vles, 1941
4 sheets-sheet 4
Patented July 9, 1946
`^ 2,403,838
Zimmerman, Nichols, Conn., assigner
to United Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford, '
¿Conn.,`a corporation of Delaware
A_pplìcationootdberwlß, 1941, >Serial N0. 4155.159
(o1. ,2n-122)
10 Claims.
vThis invention relates. to. improvements .in air
planes and has lparticular reference to ,an ‘im
proizedpilot compartment and control apparatus
ing. and airplane control -elements when the v'pilot
yenters or >leaves the pilot’s- compartment.
for an airplane of a type which -permitszthe pilotk
¿showing the position ofthe pilot’s >supporting .and
airplane control elements when the pilot enters
:Fig.»5fis a plan v’View similar vto Fig. 3 but «also
to assume `a prone `position in lthe ipilot’s‘ compart- .
or leaves the pilot’s compartment.
Fig. '6 is va perspective view of thel connection
'An object of the invention 'resides in the pro
vision of an :improved Ypilot’s Y’compartment and
control `apparatus of the character indicated
between Ythey frontV end of one of the rudder con
which willfpermitthe pilot tov remain comfortably
trol .elementsandxa ñxed portion of the airplane,
’showing the rudder control element lattached in
in a prone 'position while flying the airplane.
operative position,- and
Al‘further object resides in the Provision ofsa
pilotfs compartment and control apparatus ofthe
character `indicated including yfeaturesof adjust
showing the rudder control elements partly deh
Figli is ‘a .perspective view :similar to Fig. >6
~ tached to permit it to l.move to a 4position per
15 mitting the pilot to conveniently enter or *leave
ment -Icy meansof which the pilot Asupporting ele
ments .can be adjusted tot'fcomfortably support
pilots 'of >Various >weights :and sizes.
the ¿pilotis compartment. '
` ’Referring` tothe drawings 2in detail, in Fig. l
A still: further object’resides inthe >provision of ~ there is illust-rated' an airplane'ofï the type re
~ ferred to, that is, a low aspect 'ratiomonoplane
a pilot’ls compartment and :control apparatus »of
the. character indicated in whichïa portion of 20 Vhaving inthe main wing portion thereof one or
more 'engine compartments and a compartment
the control apparatus.cank be moved to 'provide
an opening ‘for convenient> entry and exit of the , for the pilot. In order that 'the airplane 'may
pilot to and from the compartment andmay be , have av minimum >drag eiîe'ct, all extensions andv
yprotuberarnces> on the main 'wing Vcontour are
coveniently connected vin operative position after
25 eliminated insofar as possible. vAs the main ‘wing
the pilot is in the pilot’s compartment.
has" not suñicient thickness to permit the pilot
Oïtherobje‘ctsandadvantages'will be more par
to occwpy the normal- sitting‘pos’ition, the pllot’s
ticularly pointed out hereinafter or will become
apparent as the description proceeds.
compartment and theairplaneicontrols have been
~ '
In the accompanying drawings, in which like
reference numerals are usedïto designate »similar
so arranged that -the V.pilotv 'may occupy a prone
l30 position within the depth :ofthe main wing por
tionof the aircraft. >This arrangement provides
an aircraft in whieh‘the- only elements extending
beyond the contour ofthe main Ywing lll- are the
ing> the invention. ' The drawings, however, are
for- the purpose of illustration only and are not
stabilizing fins, one of which is indicated at l2,
to be taken as limiting or restricting the inven 35 the rudders', oneuïof which 'is indicated at I4, and
the combined stabilizer, elevator and aileron ele
tion- since it will be apparent to those skilled in
parts throughout, there 'is'shown a suitable me
chanical embodiment' ior'the ‘purpose . of disclos
ments, one of which is indicated at I6, and the
the art that various changes in the illustrated
propellers, one ofA which is 4indicated at I8. The
embodiment may be resorted to without in .any
pilot’s compartment occupies the forward ‘center
way exceeding the scope of the invention.
40 portion ofïthe main wing In' and is provided with
.In the drawings,
a ’transparent front-,portion which may be in the
Fig. l isa side-elevational view of an airplane
form of a small dome 20, particularly shown in
of the character referred to showing in vdotted
outlines the position of the "pilot in the pilot's
compartment of such an airplane.
Fig.` 2 is a view on an enlargedscale of a‘frag'
mentary portion of the airplane-'shown in Fig. 1
showing vin greater detail the-position of the pilot
in the pilot’s compartment lof such an airplane
and the arrangement ofthe pilotsupporting and
airplane controlv elements. ’
Figs,"3 'and 5, extending Vslightly 'ahead'y of the
...leading ‘edgeU of 'the vmain wing. This forward
‘extension does not add materially to the drag of
the airplane `sin'ce'it does ynot increase the thick
ness of thefmainrwing portion or materially affect
the contour thereof.r
The pilot’s 'support comprises a main base or
50 pedestal element `22 carried `upon the lower sur
Fig.- 3 is a top plan View of the portion ofthe
facek of the pilot’s compartmenty at approximately
airplane shown in Fig. 2 also showing'the pilot
supporting and airplane controlling elements.
Fig. ‘iis aside elevational lview similar to Fig'.
2 vbut'shovvingv the position of the .pilotis support 55
the mid-length thereof, a pivoted forward exten
sion 24, -'a >chin-rest v26, an arm rest `28 and a
pairof leg rests 30 and 32 extending rearwardly
from the pedestal 22.
The forward extension 24 is preferably pivoted
at its rearward end to the pedestal 22 and is ad
justable about this pivot by suitable means such
as the manually adjustable screw shaft 34. This»
member and the top of the pedestal 22 are pref in
erably formed to receive a chest worn parachute
pack which willserve as a cushion for the pilot’s
body when the pilot is in position onthe support.
ment of the rods 54 and 56 may be reversed by
straightening the right leg and further bending
the left leg. When the rudder is in neutral both
legs will be bent a slight amount in order to pro
vide a comfortable and relaxed position for the
lower part of the pilot’s body.
The control column 14 is hinged to the upper
portion :of the' pilot’s compartment at 16 where
'it is operatively connected with the linkage oper
ating the elevator and aileron elements. This
belt by attaching the ends of these straps to the -' -ï ïcolum‘n is curved around the pilot, as is clearly
shown in Figs. 3 and 4, and is brought to a posi
pedestal 22 by a suitable quick detachable con
The parachute strap, as indicated at'36 may also
be utilized as the pilot’s positioning and safety
nection as generally indicated at 38. The para
chute pack may be supplemented by other ~cush
tion below the chin rest 26 where it is provided
with a‘handle 18. By grasping the handle 18
ions as may be found convenient or necessary for 15 vwith his right hand fthe pilot can move the han
dle in any direction over an area beneath the
The chin rest 26 is carried
chin rest and forward extension 24 sufficient to
on the vforward end of the-,front extension 24
the pilot’s comfort.
by a pair of adjustable link members 39 and 40v , I
provide complete control of the airplane. This
control column, as is clearly shown, is curved to
which may be manually positioned to bring the
chin rest to the most convenient and comfortable 20 the right of the pilot so that it does not in any
Vway interfere with the left hand operation of the
`position for the particular pilot. The 'arm or
elbow 4rest 281s also carried upon the pedestal 22
.and is likewise adjustable so that it just receives
and supports the pilot’s elbow in the proper posi
throttle and fuel mixture control levers.
An ad
.justable armrest 18 is also provided for the pilot’s
tion for'the pilot to reach with his left hand the 25 » AImmediately to the rear of the pedestal 22 there
is provided a door 80 inthe lower surface of the
throttle and mixture. control levers 42 and 44.
pilot’s compartment. This door is Ihinged at its
'I'he leg supports 30 and 32 are pivotally con
front end at 82 and swings downwardly, as par
nected -at their forward ends to the rearward por
ticularly shownl in Fig. 4, to provide an opening
_tion of the pedestal 22, are provided at their mid
length portion with-hinges, as indicated at 46 and 30 for the pilot to enter or leave the pilot’s compart
ment. If desired', anextension 84 may be con
48, which are positioned >approximately at the
nected with the door to form avlower step for
.location of the pilot’s knees when in position in
the pilot, as is particularly shown in Fig.- 4, and
the'compartment, and are supported at their
andthis extension may be pivotally or slidably
rearward ends upon ’thepivoted -links as indi
associated with the door in such a manner that
cated at 50 and 52 respectively. The .rearward
itv can be made to overlap the door when the door
ends of the leg support members 30 and 32 are
is in closed position. The `limiting downward po
__connected'with the airplane rudders by suitable
sition of the door is determined by a tension mem
-means including the-,respective rods 54 and 56.
bed,l such as the cable or link 86, to constitute the
The connection- between the rearward ends of the
Vmembers 30 and >32 and the rudders is a diñer 40 door and the lextension a firm ¿and safe means
for ingress oregress ofthe pilot.'
ential connection so arranged ~that >when the
Since the »leg rests 30 and 32 are immediately
‘rearward .end of one member is moved .forwardly
above the opening; in the lower portion of the
the rearward end. of the other member is moved
rearwardly a similar amount azndvice versa. > The
Vrearward `ends of the leg _rest members 30 and '
,32 are movable _by changing the angular relation
,of the two portionsof each member. on opposite
pilot’s compartment provided by the door 80 it is
necessaryy to make these members movable in or
derthat the pilot vmay enterv or leave the pilot’s
compartment. Withfthis purpose in View, the
rod member 60 isprovided at'its forward end'with
a _hook 88v (li‘igs.,_6- and 7) wh'ichengages with a
leg.V rests has a sufficient width to comfortably 50 slidable pin 90 secured in lugs 02 carried by the
pedestal22 so that the forward end of this mem
.support the legs of the pilot and may conven
ber can be disengaged'from the pedestal thereby
iently comprise rod members oneither side and
permitting -the inner edge of the leg rest to swing
~a padded member between theside rod members
downwardly about the swivel connection 94 be
on each leg rest. r Thus the leg rest 32 may have
'thel rod members 58 and 60 along the forward 55 .tween the rod 58 and the lug 96 on the pedestal
22 until theV leg rest assumes a substantially ver
portion thereof4 and the rod members 62 and 64
tical edgewise position. A swivel connection 98
valong the rearward portion thereof, a padded
is also provided between the rod 62 and the link
member 66 being includedbetween the forward '
_sides of- the respective hinges 46 vor 48.
y As particularly ,shown in Fig. 3, -each of these
52 to permit this movement of the leg rest. The
Irodl members'58 and 60 and a padded member
_68 being included between :the rearward rod mem 60 other or left hand leg rest is provided with similar
connections and may also be freed to swing down
_bers 62 and 64. The leg rest 30 is similar to the
wardly to a vertical edgewise position. After the
rest 3,2, described above, in all respects.> At its
two leg rests have _been brought to their vertical
rearward end each leg rest is pro-vided -with a
position they will assume the position particular
vtransverse bar -as indicated at 10 Vfory the rest 30
'ly shown in Fig. 54 in which the hinge points46
and at 12 for the rest 32 which bars are adapted
and 48 are far enough apart to permit the pilot
to engage with the foot of the pilot.V
toi-,enter or leave the compartment between the
,l With this arrangement, if the pilot desires to
two leg rests. VIf desired, additionalh'inges may
move the rod 54 rearwardly he will straighten his
yleft leg thereby raising the hinge 46 when vhe
be provided in thev leg rests, as indicated at |00
raises> the knee of that leg and simultaneously
and |02 respectively, .to render'these elements
lengthening the memberç30. .At the same time e
even more' iieXibla'and lost motion connections,
the right leg will have to be bent to permit the
as indicated at |04 and |06, may be provided be
.hinge 48 to drop allowing the leg rest 32 to shorten
tween the> rearward ends of these> members and
so that the rod 56xmay move forwardly as’the
therespective supporting
50 and 52 to per
rod 54 moves rearwardly. Thedirection of'move- t
mit: the vmembers'to'be moved a greater distance
» 2,403,838
away from the center line of the pilot’s compart
ment to enlarge the space through which the pilot
may enter or leave the compartment.
After the pilot has entered the compartment '
the leg rests may be swung to their operative posi
tions and the hooks secured on the respective
pins, then, as the pilot’s legs take their position
to the structure of said compartment, chest sup
port means carried by said pedestal, airplane con
trol members disposed in said compartment to
the rear of said pedestal and supported on said
structure for forward and rearward movement by
the pilot to control the airplane and adjustable
proper amount to insure the comfort and con
leg rest means hinged at their forward ends to
said pedestal and having their rear ends con
nected to said control members for forward and
rearward movements with the latter while said
leg rest means continue to support the pilot’s legs.
7. Means for supporting an airplane pilot in a
venience of the pilot.
pilot’s compartment in which the pilot assumes
on the leg rest and his feet contact the rudder
pedals ‘l0 and l2 these pedals will be brought to
the rearward ends of th'e lost motion connections
H34 and m6 and the leg rests will’be bent the
a prone position comprising, a pedestal secured
to the structure of said compartment, chest sup
of the pilot’s compartment an emergency exit
port means carried by said pedestal, airplane con
opening |08 may be provided in the upper sur
trol fmembers disposed in said compartment to the
face through which the pilot may leave the com-Y
rear of said pedestal and supported on said struc
partment in the event it becomes necessary «for
ture for forward and rearward movement by the
him to abandon the airplane while in flight.
Vpilot to control the airplane and a pair of ad
While a suitable mechanical embodiment for
justable leg rests hinged at their forward ends
the purpose of disclosing the invention has been
' to said pedestal forming a continuation of said
hereinabove described and illustrated in the ac
chest support and having their rear ends sepa
companying drawings, it is to be understood that
rately connected to said control members for dif
the invention is not limited to the particular ar.
rangement so illustrated and described, but that 25 ferential forward and rearward movements with
the latter while said leg rests continue to support
various changes in the size, shape and arrange
the pilot’s legs.
ment of the various parts may be resorted to as
8. In an airplane having a pilot’s compartment
come within the scope of the sub-joined claims.
in which the pilot occupies a prone position, pilot
Having now described the invention so that
In addition to the door 80 in the undersurface Y
others skilled in the art may clearly understand
supporting and airplane control means compris
the same, what it is desired to lsecure by Letters
ing, a, pedestal secured to the structure of said
Patent is as follows:
, compartment, chest4 support means carried by
1. In an airplane having a pilot’s compartment
in which' the pilot occupies a prone position, pilot
said pedestal,VV airplane control members adja
supporting and airplane control meansrcompris
pair' of leg rest members connected at their rear
ing, control members adjacent to thel rear end of
said compartment, and a‘pair of leg rest mem
ends respectively to said airplane control mem
bers and at their front ends to said pedestal, said
.leg rest members forming a continuation of said
cent the Vrear end of said compartment, and a
bers connected at their rear ends respectively to
said controls and at their front ends to a ñxed
portion of said pilot’s compartment and having 40
chest support.
9. In an airplane havin-g a pilot’s compartment
v2. The arrangement as set forth in claim 1 in
in which the pilot occupies `a. prone position, pilot
supporting and airplane control means compris
ing, a pedestal secured to the structure of said
compartment, lchest support means carried by
cluding transversev bars at the ends of Asaid leg
rests joining ksaid rudder control members, and
pivoted links supporting said bars from said air
a pair of airplane control members adjacent the
rear end of said compartment, a pair of leg rest
hinges intermediate their length located at ap
proximately the position of the pilot’s knees when
the pilot is in position vin said compartment.
said pedestal and extending forwardly thereof,
members extending rearwardly from said pedes
tal, connected at their ends respectively to said
3. The arrangement as set forth in claim 1 in
cluding an entrance and exit door in said arplane 50 airplane control members and hinged at their
front ends to said pedestal, and elbow support
- below said leg rests, and respective detachable con
means carried by said pedestal and extending`
nections between said leg rests and said fixed por
sideways therefrom and located below said chest
tion of the pilot’s compartment whereby said leg
rests may be turned to a vertical position and bent
_ 10. In an airplane having -a pilot’s compart
outwardly at said hinges to clear the area of said
ment in which the pilot occupies a prone position,
pilot supporting and airplane control means com
Y 4. The arrangement as set forth in claim 1
prising, a. pedestal secured to the structure of
including an entrance and exitdoor in said air
Avsaid compartment, chest support means carried
plane below said leg rests', respective pivotal con
nections and respective detachable connections 60 by said pedestal and extending forwardly thereof,
between said leg rests andV said fixed portion of Y control members adjacent to the rear end of said
compartment, and a pair of leg rest members
the pilot’s compartment whereby said leg rests
forming a continuation of said chest support and
may be turned to a vertical edgewise position and
extending rearwardly from said pedestal, said leg
bent outwardlyat said hinges to clear the area of
said door.
65 rest members being connected at their rear ends ,
respectively to said controls and at their'front
ends to ysaid pedestal and having hinges interme
diate their length located at approximately the
position of the pilot’s knees when the pilot is in
downwardly toward-the hinge.
6. Means for supporting an airplane pilot in a 70 position on said chest support.
pilot’s compartment in which the pilot assumes
a prone position comprising, a pedestal secured
5. The arrangement as set forth in claim 1 in
`which the portions of each leg rest at opposite '
sides of the respective hinge are normally inclined
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