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Judy @9 Ègä? V. @BEAM ET AL 2,403,843 RES IS TANGE BULB THERMOSTAT / @horney Patented July 9, 1.946 2,403,843 UNITED STATES PATENT `OFFICE 2,403,843 RESISTANCE BULB THERMOSTAT Vilynn 0. Beam, Benjamin Cyr, and John M. Wilson, Minneapolis, Minn., assignors to Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company, Minneapolis, Minn., a corporation of Delaware Application November 3, 1943, Serial No. 508,839 2o Claims. (Cl. 201-63) This invention relates to a temperature re sponsive device comprising a resistance element having a high temperature coe?ñcient of resist» ance which is responsive to a change in a con dition. This invention relates specifically to a room 2 response for a given temperature of air even though the rate of air movement near the ther mostat is temporarily increased. Where the baffle arrangement is employed the air has to take a tortuous or circuitous path whereby the rate of air movement remains substantially constant thermostat comprising an electrical resistance even upon the occurrence of temporarily in element which has a high degree of sensitivity creased air movement in the neighborhood of the to change in a condition and which is provided thermostat. These baffle arrangements might with a baffle arrangement for guiding air in a 10 be said to provide means for damping the effects tortuous path so that the rate of air movement of variations in air velocity in the vicinity of the through the thermostat remains substantially thermostat so that the thermostat responds not constant. Y only to the general ambient temperature of the This vinvention further relates to a tempera space in which it is located but also its response ture responsive device and more particularly to a 15 is governed by the general average air movement thermostat comprising a resistance element for in the complete space as distinguished from any use in the electrical measurement of the teni temporary abnormal transient air movements. perature of air in a space. It is the primary object of our invention to pro This invention utilizes in a resistance thermo vide an effective temperature responsive device stat a relatively long resistance element ofV high 20 such as a space thermostat of the resistance ele coefficient of resistance such as a iine wire which ment type which is provided with a baiile housing is open wound on different framework construc for guiding air in a tortuous path or paths so that tions and wherein a relatively high wattage is the rate of air movement remains substantially used, as compared to such a resistance unit for constant whereby the thermostat not only re use with an ordinary direct current galvanometer 25 sponds to the general ambient temperature of the type of instrument so as to obtain high sensi space in which it is located but is responsive to tivity. Itis desired to have a considerable change the general average air movement in the com in electrical characteristics or resistance` upon a plete space. relatively small change in temperature and With It is another object of this invention to pro out any particular amount of lag, and to accom 30 vide a temperature responsive device having a plish this, the relatively long resistance wire, the resistance element which is a relatively long open winding, and the relatively high wattage spirally Wound Wire. must be utilized. The wattage employed in the It is another object oi’ this invention to provide resistance element is such that sufñcient heat is a temperature responsive device having a resist generated as to actually provide a chimney effect. 35 ance element which is a relatively long spirally The difficulty in employing such an instrument Wound wire mounted on an open framework. is that the occurrence of unusual drafts, as per It is still another object of this invention to haps the opening of a door, a person Walking provide a thermostat comprising a resistance close to the thermostat, or some other abnormal element having a high temperature coeñìcient of transient condition, will cause a response of the 40 resistance in which the temperature oi” the am thermostat which does not represent an average bient atmosphere regulates the flow of current condition of the air in a room. So as to elimi nate such abnormal air disturbances, it has been found necessary to provide means to protect the through the resistance element. It is still a further object of this invention to provide a resistance thermostat which has a con sensitive element from the effects of such transi 45 siderable change in electrical characteristic or ent and abnormal conditions without materially resistance upon a relatively small change in tem aiiecting its normal sensitivity. In the present perature without any particular amount of lag. invention, different loaiile arrangements are uti It is another'object of this invention to pro lized so that the response of the apparatus is not vide a resistance bulb thermostat which utilizes materially affected by a temporary change in the' 50 a relatively high wattage input. rate of air movement at or near the thermostat. Other and further objects Will become apparent The balile arrangements are designed to slow upon a study of the speciñcation and claims in down the rate of iiow of air through the thermo conjunction with the accompanying drawings stat. That is, the resistance element is so pro wherein are illustrated the preferred forms of our tected that it will give substantially the same 55 invention. y ' 2,403,843 3 Figure 1 is a front elevational view of a tem perature responsive device with parts being broken away disclosing the resistance element wound on a frame member. Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 2-2 of Figure 1. Figure 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken 4 `Another form of the resistance thermostat is illustrated in Figures 4, 5, and 6. The thermo stat comprises a spirally wound resistance wire 65 having a high temperature coefficient of re sistance. There is a frame member of insula tion material for mounting the resistance wire 65 comprising opposed sides 61 and three arm members 66, 68 and 18 which are secured between on line 3_3 of Figure 1. the opposed sides 61. One of the arms 66 is Figure 4 is a front elevational View of a modi fied form of the resistance thermostat parts be 10 spaced between the lower central portion of the opposed sides 61, while the other two arms 68 ing broken away. and 10 are spaced between and adjacent the top Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view taken on of the opposed sides 61 with arm 68 adjacent line 5-5 of Figure 4. the front portion of the opposed sides and the Figure 6 is a horizontal sectional view taken on other arm 10 adjacent the back portion of the 15 line 6-6 of Figure 4. opposed sides 61. The bottom side of the lower Figure ’1 is another modification of the re arm 66 and the upper side of the two uppermost sistanee thermostat disclosing a vertical eleva arms 68 and 18 have notches 69 so that the tional View of the front thereof, with parts beingspirally wound wire can be mounted vertically broken away, and Figure 8 is a sectional view taken on line 8-»-8 20 on the three arms thus forming a triangular shaped resistance element with the apex at the of Figure '1. bottom of the opposed sides 61. Baiiie member Referring to the drawings in detail, 20 desig~ nates a resistance bulb thermostat as illustrated in Figures 1, 2, and 3. Thermostat 20 specifically 12 is spaced above the top of the frame carrying the resistance wire 65 and comprises a right an comprises a iine spirally wound resistance wire 25 gular depending flange portion 14 which is se cured by screw means 16 to a base or terminal element 22 of a high temperature coefiicient of plate 1|. A rectangular frame member 18 hav resistance which is relatively long mounted hori ing an opening 19 extends substantially at right zontally on a pair of spaced-apart substantially angles from the depending flange portion 14 and triangular plastic leg members 24 having open is spaced outwardly from and above the resistance ings 2| and 23. A housing 28 comprising sides element 65. The rear side 88 of the rectangular 34 and 36, a front portion 38, a back portion 4D, frame member 18 spaces the frame carrying the a bottom 2S, and an open top is spaced about the resistance element 65 from the base plate 1|. Rec resistance element 22. The rear portion 40 of the tangular frame member 18 has opposed depend housing 28 is secured to an insulation base plate 39 by screws 31. The triangular leg members 24 35 in_g ear members 82 which are attached to the opposed sides 61 of the insulation frame member. are secured by screw means 26 to the bottom 29 The frame member 18 also comprises depend» of the housing 28 and the leg members 24 are ing flanges 8| and 83 at the front and rear por also secured by pin means 3| to a rectangular tions, respectively. A metal shield member 84 frame member 30 spaced above the top of the housing 28. The rectangular frame member 3|) 40 open at the top and bottom is secured to the de pending flanges 8| and 83 of the rectangular is provided with an opening 25. The two trian frame member 18. The metal shield member 84 gular shaped leg members 24 are spaced at op~ is spaced from and surrounds the resistance ele~ posed sides of the rectangular frame member 30 ment 65. and pins 35 aid in securing the triangular leg A housing 86 comprising a bottom 98, front members together in spaced-apart relationship. side 88, and opposed sides 92, is spaced from the Each of the leg members 24 has notches 32 on its bottom, front and opposed sides of the shield 84. front and rear surfaces in which the spirally The bottom 8i! of the housing 88 fits into a groove wound resistance wire 22 is mounted. 93 of the base 1|. The opposed sides 92 of the A bafile member 44 is attached by screw means 45 to the insulation base plate 38 adjacent the 50 housing 86 are secured by screws 84 to the opposed sides of the base member 1|. The housing 85 is top of the triangular leg members 24. This baffle open at the top and is spaced below the rec member 44 comprises a top plate 46 and two de tangular frame member 18. This construction pending intersecting ñanges 48 which divide the allows air to communicate with a passageway 85 baille member into four substantially equal spaces. A metal shield 58 which is open at its top and 55 between the housing 86 and the shield 84 and the air thus communicates with the bottom of the bottom is located in the housing 28 and the shield shield 84 and contacts the resistance wire 65. 58 is secured at its top portion to the depending The air then travels up the inside of the shield flanges 48 of the bañie 44. The shield 50 is spaced 84 and over the resistance element 65, and then from the triangular legs 24 which carries the re sistance element 22, and the shield is also spaced 80 emerges out through the open top of the shield 84 to enter the room space. from the bottom 28, sides 34 and 36, front portion Conductors 96 and 98 connect to the opposite 38 and rear portion 40 of the housing 28. Thus, ends of the spirally wound resistance wire 65 and there is a passageway 54 formed between the respectively extend through apertures 9'! in the housing 28 and the metal shield 58 which com~ base plate 1| and connect respectively with ter 65 municates air of the room space with the bot minals |08 and |82. These terminals |88 and |02 tom of the shield 50. The air thence rises over are adapted to be connected with an electrical the resistance element 22 and emerges out through circuit (not shown). the open top of the shield 58. Figures 7 and 8 designate a third form of the Conductors 56 and 58 are connected respec tively to the opposite ends of the spirally wound 70 resistance bulb thermostat which is designated as |04. The Y-shaped member |96 of insulation resistance wire 22 and lead from the resistance material is mounted within a shield member |88 wire 22 through apertures 60 in the base plate comprising opposed sides | l0, rear side | I2, and a 38 and the apertures communicate with chan front portion |14. The shield |88 is open at its nels 62 for receiving the conductors 56 and 58 re 75 top and bottom. The arms of the Y~shaped frame spectively, which extend to terminal posts 64. 5 2,403,843 6 member are spaced near the upper portion ofthe shield |88 with the leg portion extending to ward the bottom thereof. The Y-shaped frame member |46 is spaced in the shield IGS so that the arms of the frame member are disposed adjacent the sides ||Ei and the leg portion being inter mediate the sides IIB. The tip of the arms and the bottom of the leg member of the Y-shaped frame member iüû are notched as shown at IIS for mounting a fine spirally wound resistance wire ||3 having a high temperature coefficient of re sistance thereon. The spirally wound resistance wire | I3 is mounted vertically on the frame mem through> the other side of the baffle housing |24 and shield |08 which communicates with the openings |38 and |46 at the bottom and top of the housing |24, respectively. (s , In all of the thermostat devices disclosed in this application, the air is guided through tortuous paths in heat transfer relationship with the re sistance element of the thermostat. Where the air is conducted indirectly to the resistance ele ment, the temperature of the air is measured Very accurately, and there is no introduction of an anemometer elîect. Various changes and modiiications of this in ber IIIG and extends around the frame of the vention may occur to those who are skilled in the Y-shaped member ISB and only contacts the frame art, and we wish it to be understood that We in at the bottom end of the leg and the top of the tend to be limited only by the scope of the ap arms. The V-shaped frame member Iûl'î and the pended claims and not by the specific embodi shield |08 are both secured to an insulation _base ments disclosed herein~ member IIS by screw member |251. We claim as our invention: A baille housing |24 comprising a front portion l. In a thermostatic device comprising a re IZB, an upper portion |28, a bottom |3ß, and op sistance element of high temperature coeiiicient posed sides |32 and |34 surrounds the shield mem of resistance, a frame__ member, the resistance ber |63 and is spaced from the opposite sides Iiil element mounted on the frame member, means and the open bottom and top of the shield. The for guiding air in a tortuous path in heat trans portion |28 of the baille housing |24 is secured fer relationship with the resistance element, the through a lug member |29 to the base or terminal resistance element being instantly and only re panel IIB by screw means |3I. A groove |33 in sponsive to the temperature of the Vair flowing the terminal plate IIS receives an edge of the through the tortuous means, and means for bottom |30 of the housing |24 for securing this mounting the thermostatic device. portion of the housing to the plate I I9. Each of 30 2. In a thermostatic device comprising a re the opposed sides |32 and |34 are spaced from sistance element of high temperature coeilicient the bottom i3d thereby forming openings iiiâ and of resistance, a frame member, the resistance |38 into the baille housing |24. The opposed sides element being mounted on the frame member, | 32 and |34 of the baffle housing |24 have angular and baille means for guiding air in heat transfer ilange members |40 and |42, respectively, spaced 35 relationship with the resistance element where from the top portion |28 of the baille housing pro by there is .a constant flow of air through the viding openings |44 and |46 in the opposed sides thermostatic device and the resistance element of the baille housing. The angular flanges |43 responsive only to the temperature of the air and |42 have a projecting portion |43 and |45, flowing through the baille means. respectively.r The top |28 of the baille housing 40 3. A thermostat comprising a resistance ele |24 has depending ilange members |48, Iiìíl, and ment of high temperature coeiiicient of resist |52. Depending flange members |48 and |52 are ance, an open frame member, the resistance ele respectively spaced from the angular ilange mem ment mounted in substantially non-contactual bers |46 and |42 of the sides |32 and |34, respec relationship on the frame member, a shield tively, of the baille housing |24. Shield member member surrounding the frame member carry Hi8 has projecting members |54 and Iâë which ing the resistance element, the shield member are spaced adjacent and secured to the project ybeing open at the top and bottom for guiding ing portions |43 and |45 of the angular í‘langcs air in heat transfer relationship with the resist |40 and |42. Projecting member |54 is substan ance element whereby the resistance element is tially intermediate the ilanges |43 and Itii, and 50 responsive only to the temperature of the am projecting member |56 is spaced between flanges bient air guided into heat transfer relationship I5@ and |52. There is an angular bar member with it. |58 comprising a base portion ISG and vertically 4. A thermostat comprising a resistance ele projecting arms |552 and |64. Base portion ISii rment of Iine spirally wound wire having a high of the angular bar |53 is fastened to the bottom temperature eoeincient of resistance, ya frame ISG of the baffle housing |24 byrivets or the like member, the resistance element mounted on the means |65, and the vertical members H22 and |64 frame member, a shield member surrounding are spaced intermediate the opposed. sides |352 and |34 of the baille housing and the opposite sides the frame member carrying thel resistance ele ment, the shield member being open at the top |||l of the shield member Hi8, respectively. The and bottom, a baille member mounted over the vertical members |62 and IM are respectively top of the shield member for preventing air cur spaced from the angular members |44 and |42 rents affecting the resistance element, the shield of the opposed sides |32 and |34 of the baiile hous and baille member guiding air in heat transfer ing |24. Tortuous passageways are thus ‘formed relationship with the resistance element Where in the baille housing |24 and shield |38.. . A tortu 65 by the resistance element is responsive to the ous passageway |66 is formed which extends be temperature of the air flowing through the shield, tween the side |32 and vertical member |62 of and means for mounting the thermostat. the angular bar |53, then over the top of the ver 5. A thermostat comprising a resistance ele tical element |52 and down between the vertical ment of high temperature coe?licient of resist element I S2 and the adjacent side -| I0 of >theshield ance, a frame member, the resistance element Hi8, thence up through the shield ISB which sup mounted on the frame member, a shield member ports the resistance element,-then out of the top surrounding the frame member carrying the re of> shield |08 and over the projecting portion |54 Sistanoe element, the shield member being open of the shield and then out through the openingt at the top and bottom, a baffle member mounted |44. A similar tortuous passageway-|68 is formed 75 above the top of the shield member, an open top 2,403,843 7 housing surrounding the shield member, the shield member, and housing member providing tortuous passageways for guiding air in heat transfer relationship with the resistance element whereby the resistance element is responsive only to the temperature of the air flowing past the re sistance element. 6. In a, thermostatic device comprising a re 12. A thermostatic device comprising a resist ance element of high temperature coeiì‘icient of resistance, means for mounting the resistance element, and baffle means providing tortuous paths for guiding air in heat transfer relation ship with the resistance element and -the resist ance element being responsive only to the tem perature of the air flowing through the tortuous paths. sistance element of high temperature coefficient 13. In a thermostat comprising a relatively of resistance, a frame member, the resistance ele 10 long resistance element of ñne spirally wound ment mounted on the frame member, a shield Wire having a high temperature coefficient member surrounding the frame member carry of resistance, means for mounting the resistance ing the resistance element, the shield member element, and tortuous means for damping the being open at the top and bottom, and a housing having an open top surrounding the shield mem 15 effects of variations in air velocity of a space on the resistance element whereby the responsive ber and being spaced from the shield member on element only responds to the average ambient all sides thereby providing tortuous passageways temperature and average air movement in the for guiding air in heat transfer relationship with space. the resistance element, and the resistance ele 14. In a thermostat comprising a relatively ment being responsive to the temperature of the 20 long resistance element of ñne spirally wound air ñowing past it. wire having a high temperature coeflicient of re sistance 7. In aelement thermostatic of highdevice ‘temperature comprising coefficient a sistance, an open frame Work mounting the re sistance element in Substantially non-contactual of resistance, frame member, the resistance element mounted on the frame member, and 25 relationship, the resistance element having a rel atively high wattage input, the resistance ele means comprising spaced apart elements provid ment having a relatively wide variation in resist ing cirouitous paths for guiding air in heat trans ance upon a small change in temperature, and fer relationship with the resistance element means for moderating the effects of variations in whereby the resistance element is responsive to the temperature of the air guided by it. 30 air velocity in a space on the resistance element whereby the resistance element responds to the 8. In a thermostatic device comprising a re average air movement in the space. sistance element having high temperature coeffi 15. A thermostat comprising a resistance ele cient of resistance, a. frame member, the resist ment having high temperature coefhcient oi re ance element mounted on the frame member, a baille housing surrounding the frame member 35 sistance, baffle means providing a tortuous path for guiding air in heat transfer relationship with carrying the resistance element providing tor tuous passageways for guiding a constant flow of the resistance element, and the resistance ele ment being only responsive to the temperature air in heat transfer relationship with the resist of the air flowing through the tortuous path. ance element and the resistance element being 16. In a thermostat comprising a resistance responsive only to the temperature of the ambi in element of high temperature coeñicient oi resist ent air flowing past it. 9. In a thermostatio device comprising a tine ance, a frame member mounting the resistance element in a substantially triangular-shaped spirally wound resistance Wire having high tem unit, a shield open at the top and bottom sur perature coefficient oi resistance, a frame mem rounding the resistance element, an open top ber, the resistance wire mounted on the frame housing member spaced from the shield member member, a barile housing surrounding the frame providing a passageway between the shield and member carrying the resistance wire providing housing, the passageway between the housing tortuous passageways in. the housing whereby the resistance element is responsive to the average and shield guiding air from the top of the hous air movement of a space, and means for sup 50 ing to substantially the bottom thereof before the air enters the inside of the shield member at its porting the thermostatic device. bottom end for contacting the resistance element 10. In a thermostatic device comprising a fine splrally wound resistance element having high in heat transfer relationship, and the air finally passing out of the shield member at its top in temperature coeiiicient of resistance, a frame close proximity to the point of entrance of the air member, the resistance element mounted on the into the housing member whereby the resistance frame member, a baffle housing surrounding the’ element is only responsive to the temperature of frame member carrying the resistance element providing tcrtuous passageways in the housing the air flowing past it. for guiding air in heat transfer relationship with 17. In a thermostat comprising a shield mem the resistance element whereby the resistance 60 ber, a resistance element of high temperature co element is only responsive to the temperature of efficient of resistance, a frame member compris ing two spaced apart triangular-shaped legs, the the air flowing by it, and means lfor supporting triangular-shaped legs having their apex por the thermcstatic device. l1. In a thermostatic device comprising a .fine tions adjacent the bottom of the shield member, spirallt.7 wound resistance wire having high tem 65 the frame member mounting the resistance ele ment into a unit whereby the size of the resist perature cceiiîcient of resistance, Y-shaped ance unit gradually increases from the bottom frame member. the resistance wire mounted on the Y-shaped frame member providing a trian to the top of the shield, the shield member open at the top and bottom surrounding the resist Irrular shaped resistance unit whereby a relative 1y large area of the resistance wire is exposed to 70 ance element, an open top housing member spaced from the shield member providing a pas air, a baiiie housing surrounding the frame mem sageway between the shield and housing, the ber carrying the resistance wire providing tor passageway between the housing and shield guid tuous passageways for the flow of air through the ing air from the top of the housing to substan housing, and means for mounting the thermo 75 tially the bottom thereof before the air enters the static device. 2,403,843 inside of the shield member at its bottom for con tacting the resistance element in heat transfer - relationship, and the air ñnally passing out of the shield member at its top in close proximity ance element of high temperature coeflicient of resistance, a frame to the point of entrance of the air into the hous ing member whereby the resistance element is only responsive to the temperature of the air ñowing past it. 18. In a thermostatic device comprising a re sistance element of high temperature coeiiicient member located over the top of the shield mem ber, the shield member having communication with the baffle member, an open top housing member spaced from the shield and bañie mem bers providing a passageway between the shield of resistance, a frame member, the resistance element mounted on the frame, means for guid ing air in a tortuous path in heat transfer rela and housing, the passageway between the hous ing and shield guiding air from the top of the tionship with the resistance element, the resist ance element being instantly and only responsive fore the air enters the inside of the shield mem housing to substantially the bottom thereof be ber at-its bottom end for contacting the resist to the temperature of the air'flowing through the tortuous means. ance element in heat transfer relationship, the air emerging out of the top of the shield mem '19. In a thermostatic device comprising a fine ber into the balile member, then the air finally spirally wound resistance wire having high tem perature coeiiicient of resistance, a frame. mem 20 passing out of the bañie member into the space in close proximity to the point of entrance of the ber mounting the resistance element in a sub air into the housing member whereby the resist stantially triangular shaped unit, a baiiie hous ance element is only responsive to the tempera ing surrounding the frame member carrying the ture of the air ñowing past it. resistance Wire providing tortuous passageways for the ilow of air through the housing. VILYNN O». BEAM. 25 20. In a space thermostat comprising a resist BENJAMIN CYR. JOHN M. WILSON.