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Патент USA US2403852

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July 9, 1946.
.
‘2,403,852
J. R. DEscH
ELECTRONIC DEVICE AND CONTROL MEANS THEREFOR
Filed Nov. '7, 1940
‘- Joscfh
R. Dcsch
nventor
By
M
His Attorney
Patented July 9,- 1,946.
2,403,352 '
UNITED STATES "PATENT orrlce
2,403,852
ELECTRONIC DEVICE AND CONTROL
” '
S THEREFOR
Joseph R. Desch, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to The
National Cash. Register Company, Dayton,
Ohio, a corporation of ’Maryland
Application November 7, 1940/, Serial No. 364,714
10.C1aims.
(Cl.177—380‘)
1
2
This invention‘ relates to means for producing a n‘; which is hereinafter described with reference to
selected number of electrical impulses at high
the drawing which accompanies and forms a part
speed by the differential operation of a series of
electronic devices.
The invention more particularly pertains to
of this speci?cation.
L. network and circuit connecting a plurality of cold
the automatic sequential operation of a selected
number of a plurality of interconnected cold
sive operation, an output conductor, and control
cathode electron tubes having a common output
devices.
'
The drawing, the ?gure shows an electrical
cathode and electron tubes for automatic succes
'
'
General description
potential impulse on the operation of any of the 10,
Referring to the, drawing, three cold cathode
associated electron tubes.
diode gas discharge electron tubes, designated
conductor,v which conductor is given an electric
The use of electric impulses to actuate account
ing devices and other devices dealing with digital
data or other data represented by impulses has
“I,” “II,” and '“III,” are shown as the beginning
portion of a plurality of electron tubes of any
desired number connected together in a group
created a need for a simple and rapid method 15 for successive operation. The cold cathode di
of producing such impulses in any desired num
ode electron tube S is provided for starting the
ber; This invention provides an electrical net
automatic
successive operation of the tubes of
work and circuits interconnecting a plurality of
the group in either direction. It will be obvious
cold cathode diode electron tubes that are ren
that hot cathode diodes may be used in place of
dered conductive one after another at intervals 20 cold cathode‘ diodes without departing from the
of a few micro-seconds, the state of conductivity
principles of the invention. Tubes I, II, and
of one tube causing conduction to commence in
III represent those connected to output conduc
the next tube of the series until the selected
tors 9 and I0 and may represent data, numerical
number of electron tubes have been operated. ‘
or
otherwise. The operation of any one of said
The change from a state of non-conductivity to 25 electron tubes I, II,‘ III, etc., produces a negative
a state of conductivity of any of the electron tubes
electric potential impulse on output conductor
in the series causes an electric potential impulse
9 and a positive electricpotential impulse on out
in a’ common output conductor.
Means is also
provided to stop the sequential operation of the
put conductor I 0. The data-representing tubes
I, II, and III are normally connected to operate
plurality of electron tubes at any desired point so 30 under control of keys I I and I2 serially from I to
that a selected number of electric potential im
pulses is impressed on the output conductor.
Another feature of the invention is that the
circuit permits the automatic ‘sequential opera
with the said keys, from Ill to I.
at which end of the series the operation is initi
ated.
S and I to become conductive successively. 0p
III or, if reversing key 8 be used in conjunction
p
The two keys II, and‘ I2 represent tubes I and
II, respectively. Operation of key I I, followed by
tion of the series in either direction, depending 35 operation of starting key I3, will cause the tubes
eration of key l2 in conjunction with the starting
key I3 will cause the tubes S and I and II to,
invention to provide means to connect a plurality
become conductive successively. Thus, by the
of cold cathode diode electron tubes in a series for 40 use of key I I in conjunction with the starting key
automatic successive operation in either direc
I3, a single'electric potential impulse is produced
tion.
.
in the output conductors 9 and I0, and,'by the
Another object of the invention is to provide
use of key, I2 in conjunction with key I3, two
means to determine what number of the plurality
electric ‘potential impulses arep-roduced in con
of electron tubes shall be made to operate in suc 45 ductors 9 and I0..
,
cession.
Operation of reversing key i8, key‘ II, and key
Another object of the invention is to provide
I3 in conjunction, in the order named, will cause
means to cause each electron tube, when operated,
tubes S and III to become conductive. Operation
to produce an electric potential impulse in a
of key 8 in conjunction with key I 3‘ will cause
Therefore it is the principal object of this
common conductor.
'
With these and incidental objects in view, the
tubes S, III, II, and I to become conductive in that ‘
order. Only two keys, like keys II and I2, are
invention includes certain novel features of con
' shown, but the principle which will'be exempli?ed
struction and combinations of parts, the essen—
in'the' explanation which follows is applicable to
tial elements of which are set forth in appended
any number of tubes like tubes I, II, and III and
claims and a preferred form or embodiment of. 55 associated keys, like keys I I and I2. .
2,403,852
3
The cold cathode gas discharge diode electron
tubes S, I, II, and III, which have been selected
for a typical embodiment of the invention, have a
breakdown requirement of 225 volts for starting
a cathode-anode discharge and a potential drop
in a discharging tube of approximately 70 volts.
Values of operating potentials, resistors, and ca
pacitors are given as an example only as desirable
to be used with a tube of the characteristics men
20, 4|, and 35, and cathode 3I would remain at
' ground potential, being connected through re
sister 25 of 150,000 ohms to conductor 30, were it
not for capacitor 35 of .01 microfarad normally
connecting anode. I5 through contacts 32 to the
500-volt supply conductor I5 and capacitor 24 of
.01 microfarad connecting the cathode 3| to the
same 500-volt supply conductor through the same
contacts 82.
Due to the charging of capacitors 24 and 35,
tioned and should not be deemed to limit the in 10
at the ?rst instant after the closing of switch I3,
vention.
the cathode 3I and anode it of the “S” tube rise
Common to tubes S, I, II, and III is a con
toward 500 voltstand, as the capacitors 24 and
ductor l4 carrying a source of anode potential
35 charge, the cathode 3I drops back toward
of 500 volts positive with respect to ground when
starting key I3 is closed. A common conductor 15 ground potential and the anode I5 drops toward
the 350-volt potential which point 33 has by
I5 is provided, to which the anodes I6, I], I8, and
that time assumed. At the instant that the po
I9 are normally connected, each through a linear
tential difference between the anode and the oath
resistor of 150,000 ohms, respectively numbered
ode of tube S thus becomes 225 volts or more,
20, H, 22, and 23. Operation of the “1” key II
closes contacts 26 connecting the conductor I4 to 20 conduction occurs in the tube S, and the anode
potential drops to about 240 volts positive with
conductor I5 and opens contacts 28, disconnect
respect to ground, due to the combined e?ect of
ing anode I8 of the “II” tube from conductor I5.
resistors 25, 20, M, and 35. Just before tube S
Operation of the “2” key I2 closes contacts 2'!
became conductive, the potential difference be
connecting the conductor I4 to conductor I5 and
opens contacts 29, disconnecting anode I9 of tube 25 tween the anode and the cathode of the “1"
tube was 200 volts, as has been explained, and no
III from conductor I5. Thus, operation of the “1”
conduction occurred. As the “S” tube begins con
key connects the anodes of all except the “II” tube
ducting, the potential of point 39, dropping sud
to the anode supply conductor I4, and operation
denly by approximately 110 volts, causes a po
of the “2” key connects the anodes of all except
tential fall at point 55, bringing the cathode 32
the “III” tube to the anode supply conductor I4.
of the “I” tube to a potential more than 225
Each of the cathodes 3|, 32, 33, and 34 is con
volts negative with respect to anode II, which
nected to a grounded conductor 30 through
condition initiates conduction in tube I. The po
tential change at point 55 is determined by the
The anode of each tube is connected to the 35 ratio of the resistor 4| to resistor 35, since these
resistors are, in effect, a voltage divider. As con
cathode of the tube following in the series
duction begins in tube I, point 43 receives a drop
of tubes S, I, II, and III through a linear
in potential from the normal 350 volts to 265
resistor of 200,000 ohms. Thus, anode I5 of
volts, which drop in potential is impressed on
the “S” tube is normally connected to cath
point 41 and is suf?cient to begin conduction in
ode 32 of the “I” tube through contacts ‘I2,
tube II were the anode I8 of the “II” tube con
point 39, conductor 40, resistor M of 200,000
nected to the supply conductor I5. However, due
ohms, and conductor 42 to point 55. An
to the opening of contacts 28, anode I8 receives no
ode II of tube I is connected to cathode 33 of
150,000-ohm linear resistors, numbered 25, 36, 31,
and 38, respectively.
operating potential. Thus, only the “I” tube, of
the tube II through point 43', through a conductor
44, a resistor 45 of 200,000 ohms, and conductor 45 tubes I, II, and III, is rendered conductive, as
conduction in tube II is necessary to cause tube
45 to point 41. Anode I8 of tube II is connected
III to break down.
to cathode 34 of tube III through contacts 28,
If the “2” key I2 were operated in conjunc
point 48, conductor 49, resistor 50 of 200,000 ohms,
tion with key I3 instead of the “1” key I I, as de
conductor 5|, and point 52. Points 43, 48, and
06 are respectively grounded through condensers 50. scribed, the conduction would occur in the “S,”
“I,” and “II” tubes successively, as the “II” tube
53, 54, and 61, each of .01 microfarad capacity.
would then have anode potential, whereas the
The electron tubes are therefore symmetrically
‘III” tube anode would be disconnected.
connected to a gridlike system of resistances con
Therefore, operating the “1” key II in con
necting potential supply conductors.
If the “1” key II is depressed, closing contacts 65 junction with the starting key IEI‘ causes the “S”
and the “I” tubes to conduct in succession, and
26 and opening contacts 28, and the starting
the “2” key I2 used in conjunction with the start
key I3 is thereafter closed, anode voltage is ap
ing key causes the “S,” “I,” and “II” tubes to
plied to the “S,” “I,” and “III” tubes, and the
conduct in succession. Such successive conduc
“II” tube is disconnected. Capacitors 53, 54, E1,
68, B9, and ‘I0 charge.
Anode I‘! of the “I” tube tends to become 350
volts positive with respect to ground, being con
nected through resistor 2I of 150,000 ohms to the
500-volt positive conductor I5 and being con
nected to ground through resistor 45 of 200,000
ohms and resistor 31 of 150,000 ohms. Anode I8
of the “II” tube receives no potential.
Cathode
32 of the “1” tube tends to become 150 volts posi
‘tive with respect to ground, being connected at
‘point 55 through resistor 36 of 150,000 ohms to
ground and to the 500-volt conductor I5 through
resistor III of 200,000 ohms, point 39, and resistor
20 of 150,000 ohms. Anode I5 of the “S” tube
would tend immediately to assume the 350-volt
potential of point 39, as determined by resistors
60 tion may occur with any number of tubes con
nected as shown.
Operation of key 8 in conjunction with a key
I I or I2 and with the key I3, in that order, causes
the data-representing tubes “I”, “II”, and “III’”
to be operated serially in reverse order.
Opera
tion of key 8 opens contacts ‘I2, disconnecting
anode I6 from point 39 so-that the conduction in
tube S Will not break down tube I, closes contacts
‘I3 to connect anode I6 through resistor 11 of
150,000 ohms to the anode supply conductor I4,
closes contacts ‘I5, which connects cathode 3| of
the “S” tube by means of conductor 00, through
resistor 16 of 200,000 ohms, to anode II) of the
“III” tube, opens contacts, 82 disconnecting ca
pacitors 24 and 35 from conductor I5, and closes
2,403, 852
"5
contacts 8I grounding capacitors '24 and}. 35.v
This switching :action of key 8 causes the risein
potential of cathode v3I of tube 5, on conduction
of tube S to be impressed on the anode of the
last tube of the series, tube III in this embodiv
ment, which causes the sequential operation of
tubes I, II, and III to commence with the “III”
tube and to proceed toward the "I” tube until
stopped by reason of the operation of a key,‘ like
6
conduct in sequence, which represents the com-7
plement, on the base of nine, of the digit repre
sented by the data key depressed. For instance,
if a key associated with the tube representing
“live” is operated in conjunction with keys like
8 and I3, the tubes S and 0 and tubes represent
ing IX," VIILand VII would be operated in the
order named, the tube 0 and the supposed tubes
IX,'VI_II, and VII being four in number, which
key II, which disconnects the anode of 'the'tube 10 is the complementof ?ve on the base of nine.
next higher in order from the source of anode
potential. Considering the speci?c example of
operating the key II, the key 8, and the key I3,
‘Thus,'by. the use of the same data key, repre
sented by the keys II and I2, either data repre
senting a number or its complement may be de
in the order given, the “S” tube will begin con
rived in the form of electric potential impulses I
ducting, followed by conduction in the “III’ftube. 15 impressed on output conductors 9 and I0 in a
Operation of key 8 connectspoint 18 with point
manner to be described.
90 by closing contacts 15,. disconnects the anode
I6 from point 39 by the opening of contacts’ 12,
The starting tube S and the three data tubes
I, II, and III and their interconnections shown
in the drawing are suf?cient to illustrate how any
and connects anode I6 to conductor I4 through
resistor 11 of 150,000 ohms by the closing of con 20 number may be so interconnected.
tacts 13., Under these conditions, when starting
Between point 43 and ground wire 30 is a ca_
key I3 is closed, anode I6, which is connected to
p-ac'itor 53 of .01' microfarad, which acts as an
the 500-volt conductor I4, and cathode 3| are
energy reserve by charging before tube I breaks
temporarily grounded by the charging of ‘the
down, causing a strong sharp positive potential
now grounded capacitors 24 and 35. The anodes 25 impulse at point 55 when the “I” tube begins to
and the cathodes of tubes I, II, and III assume
conduct. Anode I1 is kept from dropping to its
their potentials, ‘as has been explained in the
?nal potential while capacitor-53 is discharging,
example or normal operation, and capacitors 53,
thus causing the cathode, 32 to rise momentarily
54, 61, 68, 69, and 10 are charged as capacitors
to about 300. volts above ground potential, after
24 and 35 are being charged. Thereafter, point
which it drops back to‘ about 190 volts. Similar
18 and cathode 3| rise toward 150 volts positive,
capacitors 54 and B1 are shown connected to the
and anode I6 rises toward 500 volts positive;
anodes of the “II” and the “III” tubes, respective
Tube S breaks down when anode I6 and‘ cathode
ly, and are provided for the same purpose in con
3| reach a potential difference of-‘225 volts, and
nection with the potential impulse produced at
conduction begins therein, whereupon the oath
' - points 41 and 52. ' It will be apparent that anodes
ode 3| rises still further to about 260 volts due to
'I‘I,, I8, and I9 will drop in potential after. the
the combined action of resistors 11, 25, 16, and 23.
discharge of capacitors '53, 54, 61, 68, 69, and ‘I0,
Under these conditions, Point 90 and anode I9 of
due to conduction'in the associated tubes, causing
tube III, before tube SI begins conducting; and '
a negative impulse at points 43, 48, and 66,
while capacitor 24 is'charging, are about 350 volts 40
Output conductor I0, ~ grounded through a
positive, being connected to point 18 through re
100,000-ohm resistor 65, is connected to each of
sistor 16 of 200,000 ohms, which . is grounded
the cathodes of the tubes I, II, III, etc., each
through resistor 25 of 150,000 ohms and con
thrcugh a capacitor of .002 microfarad, like ca
nected to the 500-volt conductor I5 through re-'
pacitors 55, 51, and 58, and receives a positive po
sistor 23 of 150,000 ohms. ' Cathode 34 being at.
tentialfimpulse of approximately 150 volts each
150 volts positive with respect to ground and
time vone of the tubes I, II, III, etc., becomes con
anode I9 being at 350 volts positive, tube III will
ductive. Output conductor 9, grounded through
not conduct. As tube S begins conducting, point
a‘10,000-ohm resistor BI, is connected to each of
18 reaches 260 volts, causing anode I9 to rise H the anodes through a capacitor like capacitors
toward 400 volts,, which causes tube III to break 50' 58, 69; and ‘I0, each of .002 microfarad, and con
down. , On tube III conducting, point 52 rises in
doctor 9 receives a negative potential pulse each
potential from 150 volts positive with respect to
time one of said tubes becomes conductive.
ground to 245 volts, which potential rise in part
‘Thus, by depressing the “I” or “2” key in con
is impressed on point 48 and, if plate I8 of tube
junction with starting key I3, one or two positive
II were not disconnected by reason of key II
potential impulses may be sent out on the con
being depressed, would be sufficient to causethe
ductor I0, and one or two negative potential im
tube II to break down, followed by tube I break
pulses may be sent out on conductor 9. With
ing down, as cathode 33 would rise from 150
the values vgiven for the resistors and the capaci
volts to abOut 240 volts, '
,
.
tore; the total time elapsing for the operation of
The normal sequential operationof the tubes
the several tubes shown is a matter of a few mi
from I to III is initiated and maintained by the
ere-seconds.
'
'.
drop'in potential of the anode as a tube begins
In the example ‘of normal operation given with
conducting, breaking down the following tube,
the “1” key II depressed, the anode plate I8 of
'-whereas in the reverse sequential operation the
the “II” tube was‘given ‘no “ positive potential; _
cathode rise in potential is so utilized.
consequently tubeII did not become conductive,
The operation-initiating impulseis taken from
and the cathode 34 of the “III” tube did notre
the anode of the starting tube S for normal oper
ceive the‘negative potential'impulse necessary to
ation and from the cathode of the starting tube
cause tube‘ III to ?re.v Thus, the operation of
S for reverse operation.
'
keys II or I2 not only interrupts the anode po
\In'considering tubes I, II, and III, extended
into a series of ten, each tube representing a digit
in a denomination of the decimal system, includ-'
ing a zero tube following the tube representingv
nine, it will be apparent that operation of such a
series in reverse will cause a number of tubes to?
tential of‘the next. higher tube, rendering con
duction therein impossible, but also interrupts
the delivery of the initiating impulse, which
otherwise vwould cause a conduction in the follow
ing tubes in sequence.
‘
.
.
Any method other than starting key I3 may be
2,403,852
7
used to connect the anode source of potential to
conductor l5, and any method other than keys I I
and 12 may be used tointerrupt the successive
operation of the tubes, without departing from
the principle governing the automatic and suc
cessive operation of the tubes.
It will also be
apparent that the negative or positive impulse
necessary to initiate a normal or reverse sequen
8
takes place in said tube, the ensuing change in
the potential of the other electrode due to the
mentioned resistance between it and its supply
means being impressed on the connected elec
trode of the next tube of the series, causing it
to change potential to a point where conduction
begins in said next tube, which in turn causes the
?ring of the next tube in the series.
4. In combination, a plurality of electron tubes;
tial operation of the data tubes may be derived
means connecting the tubes in a series so that
from any desired source other than tube S.
the operation of the tube at either end of the
While the form of mechanism herein shown
series will cause the remainder of the tubes to '
and described is admirably adapted to ful?ll the
be operated in sequence automatically to the
objects primarily stated, it is to be understood
other end of the series; a ?rst conductor com
that it is not intended to con?ne the invention
mon to all the tubes; means to produce a positive
to the one form or embodiment herein disclosed,
electric potential impulse on said conductor each
for it is susceptible of embodiment in various
time a tube is operated; a second conductor com
forms all coming within the scope of the claims
mon to all the tubes; and means to produce a
which follow.
negative impulse on said conductor each time a
What is claimed is:
,
1. In combination, a plurality of cold cathode 20 tube is operated.
‘5. A plurality of cold cathode gas discharge
gas discharge tubes; means including a resistance
tubes arranged in'a sequential operative series;
connecting the anode of one tube with the cath
means to connect the tubes in the series, the anode
ode of another tube; common means for supply
of
the preceding tube being connected through a
ing anode-cathode potential to the tubes slightly
under that necessary to cause conduction therein, 25 resistance to the cathode of the succeeding tube;
means to supply anode-cathode potential to all
said means including a resistance between each
tubes, said means including a resistance in the
anode and the common supply means; and means
anode supply conductor of one tube arranged in
to cause the cathode potential of one tube to be
series through said connecting means with a re
come more negative to the point of causing con
duction in said tube, said ensuing conduction 80 sistance in the cathode supply in the following
tube, the anode-cathode potential in any tube
causing a drop in anode potential, due to the re-.
being less than that necessary to cause conduc
sistance between the anode and the supply means,
tion; means to lower the cathode potential of the
which drop in potential is impressed on the oath
?rst tube in the series to a point where conduc
ode of the tube to which the anode is connected,
tion takes place in said tube, the ensuing drop
35
such cathode drop in potential in the second
in anode potential due to the mentioned resist
mentioned tube causing conduction to commence
ance in its supply conductor being impressed on
therein, and by the same method to cause con
the cathode of the following tube, which lowers
duction in all the tubes in sequence.
said cathode in potential to a point where con
2. In combination, a plurality of cold cathode
gas discharge tubes each having an anode and a 40 duction begins in said following tube, causing its
anode to drop in potential, thus ?ring the next
cathode; a positive electric supply conductor; a
tube in sequence; and a common output con
negative electric supply conductor, the potential
ductor connected to all the cathodes each by
difference between said positive and negative con~
ductors being greater than the breakdown poten 45 means of an electric ?eld whereby the potential
rise in any of the cathodes as said tube begins
tial of a tube; a plurality of similar parallel cir
to conduct is impressed upon said output con
cuits joining said conductors, each circuit in
ductor.
cluding resistances greater than the internal re
6. A plurality of cold cathode discharge tubes
sistance of a conductive tube, and the anode of
one tube and the cathode of another tube being 50 arranged in a sequential operative series; means
to connect the tubes in the series, the anode of
connected to each one of said circuits with a por
the preceding tube being connected through a
tion of the resistance between the connecting
resistance to the cathode of the succeeding tube;
points so as to give any one tube an anode-cath
means to supply anode-cathode potential to all‘
ode potential slightly less than the breakdown re
tubes, said means including a resistance in the
quirements; and means to cause a discharge in
55 anode supply conductor of one tube arranged in
the ?rst one of the tubes, whereby the resulting
series through said connecting means with a re
potential drop of the anode causes a potential
sistance in the cathode supply in the following
drop in the connected cathode of the next tube,
tube, the anode-cathode potential in any tube
causing it to discharge and in turn to cause a
being less than that necessary to cause conduc
discharge throughout the remainder of the plu
tion; means to lower the cathode potential of the
rality of tubes in sequence.
3. A plurality of diode gas discharge tubes ar
, ?rst tube in the series to a point where conduc
ranged in a sequential operative series; means
tion takes place in said tube, the ensuing drop
including a resistance between each two tubes to
in anode potential due to the mentioned resist- 1
. connect the tubes in the series, the anode of a 65 ance in its supply conductor being impressed on
tube being connected to the cathode of an adja
the cathode of the following tube, which lowers
cent tube; common means to supply anode-cath
said cathode in potential to a point where con
ode potential to all tubes, said means including
d-uction begins in said following tube, causing its
a resistance between each anode and the com
anode to drop in potential, thus ?ring the next
mon supply means and a resistance between each
tube in sequence; a common output conductor
cathode and the common supply means, the sup 70 connected to all the cathodes by means of an
plied anode-cathode potential in a given tube
electric ?eld whereby the potential rise in any
normally being less than that necessary to cause
of the cathodes as said tube begins to conduct is
conduction therein; and means to change the
impressed upon said output conductor; and
potential of one of the electrodes of the ?rst
means to disconnect the operating potential from
tube in the series to a point where conduction 75
2,403,852
10 "
the tube following the one it is desired to operate
last in the series.
7.»In combination, a series of electron tubes
said operation being commenced at the other end
of the series by applying a negative potential im
each having an anode and a cathode; a common
I said other ‘end; an operation-initiating electron
conductor; means connecting each anode to the
common conductor; and means associated with
each tube which when operated connects the com
mon conductor to a second conductor and dis
connects the anode of the tube next in the series
from said ?rst-mentioned conductor.
8. In combination, a plurality of electron tubes
arranged in a series; means connecting thetubes
so that they are automatically operable in se
quence from one end of the series to the other
end of the series in either direction; means to
control the direction of operation; and a plu
rality of means each when operated acting to
interrupt the operation at a certain tube in the
series, each of said means determining how many
tubes shall operate in sequence in one direction
and how many tubes shall operate in sequence in
the other direction, said determined numbers of
tubes being complementary to the total number
of tubes in the series less one.
9. In combination, a series of electron tubes
pulse to the cathode of the beginning tube at
tube; and means for connecting the initiating
tube to one end or the other of said series, said
means being arranged so that the operation of
the initiating electron tube when connected to
one end of the series will supply a positive elec
9 tric initiating impulse to the anode of the be
ginning tube and when connected to the other
end of the series will supply a negative electric
initiating impulse to the cathode of the begin
ning tube at said other end.
10. In combination, an electrical network com
prising two electric potential supply conductors
connected by a plurality of resistance paths ar
ranged in parallel; a plurality of electron gas dis
charge tubes having a breakdown requirement
less than the potential difference between the
supply conductors; and means connecting one of
the electron tubes between each pair of adjacent
resistance paths at points so that the potential
difference between the anode and the cathode is
slightly less than the breakdown requirement and
each having an anode and a cathode; means con
so that the potential, difference between each‘ of
necting the tube for automatic sequential oper
» the electrodes and its supply conductor is the
ation beginning at either end of the series, said
same, a breakdown caused in one of the tubes
operation being commenced at one end of the
causing a breakdown in the next adjacent tube
series by applying a positive ‘potential impulse to 30 on either side.
'
I
the anode of the beginning tube at that end, and
‘
'
JOSEPH R. DESCH.
_
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