Патент USA US2403854код для вставки
g i4? l H. M. GEYER mm., ¿$03,514 PUMP Filed Deo. 5, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 fad’ "i ATTORNEY@ 2,403,854 lï’atel'ited< July 9, 1946 UNITED f vSTAT Es ÍQFÍFICE 2,403.85! ' ' " PUMrjv Howard M. Geyer and Howard Carson,vDayton, Ohio, assignors to General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware ' ' Application December 5, 1944, Serial No. 566,6781 1o Claims. (o1. 10s-173) ; 1 l y This invention relates to highY pressure pumps v13 Yis a View similar to Fig. 11 showing the for use with hydraulically operated apparatus relation lbetween the vbearing Washer, shown. in such as, for example, the servo-motor which adejusts the pitch of airplane propeller blades. An Vobject of the invention is to provide a durable pump which, in proportionto its size, is capable of v delivering liquid under relatively highV pressure and which can be produced at relatively low cost. Therefore it is the aim of the invention ' sectionk in Fig. 9 and its associated piston. Fig. v14 Vis a view in the direction of arrow `I4 of a relatively small number of parts. To a0 complish this, the pump comprises a housing providing a plurality of cylinders each receiving a are secured together 4by screws, lsuch as screw I3; and-the -part I2 is attached to -a portion I4 oi of Fig@v 13, all but` one of the pistons being omitted ` for sakeof clearness. _ . . 15 is _a chart showing- the relation of pis- ' tons` positions and valve positions. " ¿In Figfl, there is shown anadapter of tubular to provide a construction which involves _the use 10 formation comprisingparts I0,'II and I2 AWhich the engine frame indicated'in dot-dash lines. ’I_‘his adaptersurrounds the enginedriven shaft @not shown) ’which carries the propeller hub. To ` the propeller hub there is secured a housing plate I5l carryinwg"a` cover I6.» ¿Themembers I5 and I6, which are¿of» annular formatiomytogether with the tubular adapter `part I0 and annular sealing 20 members I‘I_ and I8,v provide an annular chamber pair of oppositely reciprocating pistons and a drive shaft which provides the movable Ivalve members of the pump and which carries the means for imparting positively to the piston re ciprocatory motion in both directions. ~ Further objects and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following description, reference being had to the accom panying> drawings'wherein a preferred embodi ment of the present invention -is clearly shown. Inthedrawings: I '» ,. „ for enclosingîpartslof'an hydraulic system for ~controlling the; applicationof hydraulic pressure toservo-motors which rotate the propeller blades about their root axes in order to _govern the f Fig. 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal , section 25 speed of the engine. Y One of the’parts of the hy drau1ics`ystem`ris theîpump 20 >which will now viewV of a portion of an vairplane propeller pitch regulator showing a side View of apump embody ing the invention. ‘Y ' e « bezdescribed. ~ Y 'K 'f ' ~ , Pump -20 comprises a housing 2| having a cy Í lindrical part 22received by the cylindrical Wall Fig. 2V is a sectional view on line A2_2 of Fig. 4. Fig. 3 isa sectionalviewon line 3-.3 of Fig 2ï 30 _23 deñningavrecess 24 of. housing I5 which en Fig. 4 is a sectional View on line 4--4 of Figs. ’ closesthe pump. From the part 22, there ex tends a IIiange 25 having holes 26 for receiving 1 and 2. Y « » ». ` f _ Fig. 5 is la perspective view of a fragment ofthe screws by whichV the pump’housing Y2l is secured longitudinal sectionvof the pump showing details to theV plate I5. »When the housing 2| is secured of construction on a larger scale than the‘pre ` ceeding figures. _. . 35 in'position, its outlet passage 21 is. placed in com ' munièation with a passage 21a of» plate I 5 leading ~ tov-a. manifold having parts 28, 29 and 30 for con ducting »pressure 1*fluid to other parts of the hy Fig. 6 is a view of one side of the pump shaft. Fig..7 is a sectionall View on line 1_1 of Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a View of that side of the pump shaft , draulic "system,4 A Washer 3l seals the joint be diametrically opposite tothe side shownin Fig. 6 40 tween the passages 21- and 21a.' For details'of. the systems, reference is made to Blanchard and Mac and a sectionalview of a bearing washer assem- " bled with the shaft. . l 'NeilÍPatentNa v2,307,102, filed January 15, 1943. _ `V`.R'eferrin'g_tof1ï‘ig; 2, passages 33r and 34 connect passage 21`-withthe central bore 35 in the hous tional view of a bearing washer assembled _there 45 ing f2I§ which provides a bearing for- the pump Fig. 9 is a side view of a wobble plate to be 'as sembled with the shaft shown in Fig. 8 and a'sec i f ` r ; _ . y ‘ Y - , . ¿ Fig., 11,is a diagrammatic 'view showing n will be submerged with the hydraulic fluid or oil contained Within the housing’parts vI5 and I6 Fig. 10 is a side View of a clamp Washer to be assembledwith the pump shaft). Y ' driveshaft 40 having »an inletpassage 4I. which . the . when rotating, the annular rotating level being relation between the `rbearing Washer, vshownV in _5.9 indicated approximately by line x-x in Fig. 1. section in Fig. 8, and the pump pistons associated *i Obliqueipassage 42 connects inlet »4I with a recess therewith.. Fig. 12 isV a ' View in the . direction'of , arrow' f I 2_ of Fig.,11 all but one of the pistonsbjeing omitted for _sake ofjçlearrie’ss.l _' .‘ j' _ j 43`fpr’ovided'by the shaft 40 as shown 'in Figs. 2, 3, and '8.' This'recess'43 is wide enough to reach to 'two vtmdsometimes thru'portsl 44, each leading ,55 toadisplac'ement chamber within a pump 'cy 2,403,854 3 4 linder 45, there being five pump cylinders in the disclosed embodiment. Each port 44 is provided which extends at right angles to the plane upper by drilling the holes 46 and 41 which are plugged. Each cylinder 45 receives a pair of oppositely reciprocating pistons. The pistons to the left ol’ section line 3_3 of Fig. 2 are marked I to V, and those to the right are marked I’ to V’. During practically all of the travel of a pair of pistons away from each other the port 43 is so disposed as to connect the pump inlet with the cylinder 10 face of the piston head 'l0 and is received by a hole in the ring. As the wobble-plate 6i] rotates, the center of wobble-ring,r e! oscillates in the path denoted by circle Sip in Fig. 1l, and causes each of the five pistons to rotate as denoted by the circles lip. This connection between the wob ble-ring and the piston heads accomplishes two things, namely: (l) The outer surface of each Apiston head ll) is caused to be in coincidence 'with the plane of the adjacent surface of the enclosing that pair of pistons. During practi; cally all of the trail of a pair of pistons toward> ' “ ring Si so that the force exerted by the ring to move the pistons inwardly is distributed over the each other the port 44 of the cylinder enclosing engaging surfaces of the ring and piston head. that pair of- pistons is connected with the pump outlet 21 by a recess 59 (Figs. 2, 3 and 6) a chan nel 5| and an annular groove 52 always connected with passage 34, The channel 53 connects the recess 5B with an annular groove '54 for supply ing lubrication to the shaft bearing more remote from the recess 50, v 1,5 yThere can be no vcooking of a piston head surface relative to the ring surface, and no point or line contact. A surface contact is insured. (2) Since each piston must rotate as it reciprocates, there is no straight line scoring of the engaging sur 20 face of the piston and cylinder. The pistons are positively moved in both directions, namely: they The valve recesses 43 and 55 are diametrically are moved in by the >wobble-plate 60 and out by opposite and are separated by blocking areas A and B each of a width slightly exceeding the the flange B4 whose surface B5 operates as a wobble-plate. width of each port 43 as best shown in Fig. 15. The foregoing applies to the operation of pis In that figure line M-M represents a planeïpass 25 ing through the center of each cylinder 45. Line tons I’ to V’ which are operated by the unit 80 (Figs. 9, 13 and 14) having parts corresponding Z--'m-1z, which represents the relation of move in function to the similarly numbered parts of ment of pistons I to Vvtoro’tation of the pump shaft, passes through the centers of short hori zontal lines marked I to V which represent the inner ends of these pistons.> Line Z’--m’-n' which represents the relation of movement of pistons I’ to V’ to the rotation of the pump shaft, passes through the center of short horizontal Figs. 8, 1l and l2, the reference numbers of the parts of Figs. 9, 13 and 14 having a prime añixed. The unit 8@ is attached by a key 8l (Fig. 2) to kthe shaft 4D. A washer 82 is located next to wob ble-plate 6G; and, by means of a nut the unit 80 is forced against a shoulder 84 of shaft 40. lines marked I’ to V’ which represent the inner 35 This nut is the vhub of 9| of a gear 90 which meshes with `a gear 92 integral with part l0 (Fig. ends of these pistons.` Lines Z-mè-n :and l) having its axis substantially in coincidence Z’-m’-n' are sine curves denoting that the mo with the axis of the engine shaft. After screw tion of the pistons is simple harmonic motion in relation to shaft rotation. The rate of piston ing on the gear hub 9i, a hole is drilled through the hub and shaft and a pin 93 is driven through. travel relation to shaft rotation near the begin ning and the end of stroke is relatively small. ' As the housing l5, I6 rotates around the axis of When pistons I and I’ are beginning to sepa the engine shaft, part lil being fixed, the gear BB rotates at relatively high speed. ‘ rate, the port 441, of their cylinder 45> is blocked It will` be noted by referring to Figs. 8 and 9 by the shaft surface B between recesses 50 and 43. At that instant the pistonsII, II”, and III, 45 that thev eccentric bosses 62 and 61,’y are diamet and III', which are separating, are in the posi rically opposite. Therefore when wobble-ring 6I tions shown in Fig. 15 and their respective cylin is up (Fig. 1), the wobble-ring 6I’` is down. The der ports 441i and 44111 are connected by recess purpose of this arrangement is‘to obtain` dy 43 with the pump inlet. At the same instant, . namic _balancing of the rotating'parts with re~ the pistons IV, IV', and V, V’. which are ap 50 spect Vto the aXis of shaft 49. rIfherefore the _crank proaching, are in the positions shown and their pins 1I (Fig. 12) ' extend from the upper portions respective cylinder ports 441V and `44y4are con ofthe inclined surfaces ofthe heads 10 of pis» nected with the pump outlet by recess 59. When tons I to V; andthe crank pins 1I’ (Fig. 14) ex any pair of pistons, such as I and II, arriveV at , tend from the lower portions of the inclined sur»` the inner ends of their strokes,l their cylinder 55 faces of the heads 10' of pistons I’ torV’. Y y The motions positively imparted through the port is blocked by shaft surface B; and when at wobble-members by the shaft to Vthe pistons in the outer ends'of their strokes, their cylinder port is blocked by shaft surface A. During their both directions areV simple harmonic motions. brief intervals when a cylinder port'is blocked, While >the embodiment of the present inven the rate of piston travel is low; therefore the 60 tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred amount of hydraulic braking is inconsequential. form, it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the> scopeof The pistons I to V are caused to reciprocate by rotation of a wobble-plate 60 (Figs. 1,2, 6 and the claims which follow. . y ' . What i's claimed is as follows: ' 8) integral with shaft 40. Motion of plate 60 is 1. A fluid pump comprising a housing having imparted to the inclined heads 'l0 of the pistons 65 through an `interposed wobble-ring‘ßl‘ of bearing . a central bore and a‘plurality yof cylindrical dis placement chambers parallel to the bore and bronze journalled on an eccentric boss B2 which equally spaced in a circular row rconcentricV with is located next to a groove 63 between the boss the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displacement 62 and a flange 64 having a wobble surface `B5 for engaging the inner side plane surfaces ofthe 7 0 chambers, displacement chamber` inlet and, out let‘ports each connecting a displacementv cham piston heads 10 which are received by the groove 53. The center of the shaft 40 is indicated at r401;“ and the center of the boss B2' is indicated Vat 62c of Figl 11. Each head I _ 1S of a piston-Ito_lVis ber with the bore, a rotatable shaft journalled in ythejbore Yand rhaving inlet` and. outlet recesses rotatable past the ports andfseparatedlbyvalve connected with the ring 6| by a crank'pin' 1| 'i5 lands provided by shaft surfaces closely ñtting 6 5 the- bore, pistons'ïreciprocable'in the displacement> the-bore, a fluid inlet ductfconnected-witn the h inlet recess- ofthe shaft,v a single -fluid outlet duct for all of the displacement chambers'connected with the outlet‘recess ofthe shaft, and means operated by the shaft for imparting reciprocating , di;. motion to the pistons'and so related to the'shaft _ recesses that, duringan intake stroke of a piston, 'its chamber port is- connected with the >inlet re cess of the'shaftand, 'during the dischargeY stroke , of a piston, its'chambjer port is connected withV the outlet'recess of‘the‘shaft, each chamber rport being completely blocked by a valve’land at the' chambers,` ports each connecting a displacement chamber -with the bore, fluid inlet and outlet ducts; a rotatable shaft journalledin thevbore and having valve means for connecting chamber` ports Withthe inlet duct during intake strokes of 4their associated pistons and for -connecting chamber ports» with the.A outlet Yduct during discharge strokes of` their associatedpistons,v andv means Operated «by the `shaft for causing, each piston gto complete a cycle of reciprocations and simultane- Y ously 'to rotate one vrevolution for Vav revolution. of the‘ shaft wherebylongitudinal scoring of the contacting surfaces of the pistons and chambers end 2..A ofv fluid a stroke pump of according its vassociated `to claim piston. l1 further ‘_ 2. is avoided. characterized by'the fact thatïthe valve"lands .f v ~ ‘ f ~ - ' ' « 7,. A ñuid pump comprising a housing having a are slightly wider thanthe ports and bythe fact central bore and >a pluralityy of'cylindrical 'dis that the means which transmits motion from the placementY chambers parallel Yto the .-bore'and , shaft to the pistonsfoperates toimpart to lthe .equally spaced in- a circular-'row concentric 'with pistons a relatively Smau amount ofjmovement near'the ends of their strokes whereby hydraulic the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displacement chambers-portsìeach connecting a displacement braking of the pump, when a chamber port is chamber f with the fbore, fluid inlet and outlet . blocked by a valve land, is minimized. ducts, -a rotatable shaft journalled in the bore and , 3. A fluid pumpaccording to claim 1 further having valve»v means for connecting chamber characterized by the fact that the inlet duct is ports with the inlet duct during intake strokes of 25 provided by a passage in the shaft for connecting their associated pistons and for connecting cham a supply of fluid with the inlet recess of the shaft ber ports with the outlet duct during discharge within the bore, and by the fact the outlet strokes of their associated pistons, piston heads ductfrom the outletrecess of the shaft is pro having inner and outer parallel plane surfaces vided by a longitudinal groove in the shaft and oblique to the axis of the piston, «a flange on the by >an annular groove in the shaft longitudinally 30 shaft having an oblique plane surface for en displaced from the chamber ports and connected gaging the inner surfaces of the piston heads, a with the longitudinal groove and by a passage wobble-washer oblique to the shaft for engaging in the housing connected with the annular groove. the outer surfaces of the piston heads, a circular 4. A fluid pump comprising aj housing having a central bore and a plurality of cylindrical dis boss provided by the shaft eccentrically thereof 35 upon which the wobble-Washer is journalled a placement chambers parallel to the bore and wobble-plate provided by the shaft obliquely thereof for engaging the wobble-washer, and the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displace crank connections betweenv the wobble-washer ment chambers, ports each connecting a dis and the piston heads whereby, as the wobble 40 placement chamber With the bore, fluid inlet and washer is caused to wobble and move'eccentrical outlet ducts, a rotatable shaft journalled in the ly relative to the shaft, the pistons are caused to equally spaced in a circular row concentric with ‘bore and having valve means for connecting rotate in order to maintain their head-inner surfaces in the plane of the oblique surface of _ chamber ports with the inlet duct during intake strokes of their associated pistons and for con said shaft-flange and in order to maintain their 45 head-outer surfaces in the plane of the engaging " necting chamber ports with the outlet duct dur ing discharge strokes of their associated pistons surface of the wobble-washer, and whereby rota tion of the pistons avoids scoring of the contact and means operated by the shaft for imparting ing surfaces of the pistons and chambers. reciprocatory movement to the pistons and for 8. A pump according to claim '7 further char imparting rotary motion during reciprocation 50 acterized'by the fact that the crank connection whereby longitudinal scoring of the contacting between the wobble-washer and the piston heads surfaces of pistons and chambers is avoided. are provided by 'crank-pins which are fixed to the 5. A fluid pump comprising a housing having heads and extending at right angles to the outer a central bore and a plurality of cylindrical dis surfaces of the heads and the wobble-washer is placement chambers parallel to the bore and equally spaced in a circular row concentric with 55 provided with holes for receiving the crank-pins. ` the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displace 9. A fluid pump comprising a housing having a central bore therethrough and a plurality of ment chambers, ports each connecting a dis bores therethrough to provide cylindrical dis placement chamber with the bore, fluid inlet and placement chambers parallel to the` bore and outlet ducts, a rotatable Shaft journalled in’the bore and having valve means for connecting 60 equally spaced in a circular row concentric with the central bore, two pistons oppositely recipro chamber ports with the inlet duct during intake cable in each chamber, ports each for connect strokes of their associated pistons and for con ing a central portion of a chamber with the cen necting chamber ports with the outlet duct dur tral bore, fluid inlet and outlet ducts, a rotatable ing discharge strokes of their associated pistons, and means operated by the shaft for imparting 65 shaft journalled in the central bore and having valve means yfor connecting chamber ports with reciprocatory movement to the pistons positively inlet ducts during intake strokes of their associ in both directions and for imparting continuous rotary movement to the pistons during reciproca ated pistons and for connecting chamber ports with outlet ducts during discharge strokes of tion in both directions whereby longitudinal scor ing of the contacting surfaces of pistons and 70 their associated pistons, the ends of the housingl chambers is avoided. Y 6. A fluid pump comprising aA housing having a central `bore and a plurality of cylindrical dis placement chambers parallel to the bore and equally spaced in a circularv row concentric with 75 beyond which the shaft extends being provided with plane surfaces at right angles to the axis of the shaft, devices located adjacent the plane surfaces of the housing and so connected with the shaft as to limit longitudinal movement there sarcasm 7 8 of in relation to the housing and having provisions for causing the pairs of pistons in the chambers to reciprocate in opposite‘direction and to rotate while reciprocating in order to avoid scoringof wobble-washer5V and a- wobble-_washer mounted the contacting surfaces of the pistons _and cham+ bers. , ' upon theeccentr-ic boss of each structure and en gageable with the outer surfaces of the piston heads, and with the wobble plate, and crank con nections between the wobble Washers and the pis ton heads adjacent thereto whereby, as the Wob ble-washers are caused to wobble and move ec 10. ‘A fluid pump according to claim 9 in which each piston has a head having parallel plane sur centrically relative to the shaft, the pistons are caused to rotate in oi‘der to'maintain their head faces oblique to the axis of the piston and in which one of the> devices includes afstructure in 10 inner-surfaces in the planes of the adjacent tegral with the shaft and the other is anintegral oblique surfaces of the iian’ges and in order to unit detacha-bly ñxed to the shaft, each struc-Y maintain their head-oute?-'surfaces in the planes ture comprising a ñange having >a plane surface at right angles to the axis of the shaft and adapt of the engaging surfaces of their adjacent wobble Washers, and whereby rotation of the pistons avoids scoring of the contacting surfaces of the pistons and chambers, the two motion transmit ting devices being so positioned >relative to the shaft that their plates and washers wobble in ed to engage a plane at an end of the housing 15 and having a plane surface oblique to Ithe axis of the shaft for engaging the inner plane surfaces of the piston heads, each structure comprising a circular boss separated from the flange by a opposite directions and that the axes of their ec piston-head-receiving space and providing a 20 centric, wobbleew'asher-journalling bosses are on journal for a wobble-washer, said boss being ec n diametrically opposite sides of the shaft axis. Y centric to the axis of the shaft and oblique there to, and each structure comprising a wobble plate HQWARD M. GEYER. oblique to the axis of the shaft for engaging a HOWARD CARSON.