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Патент USA US2403854

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g i4?
l H. M. GEYER mm.,
¿$03,514
PUMP
Filed Deo. 5, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
fad’
"i ATTORNEY@
2,403,854
lï’atel'ited< July 9, 1946
UNITED f vSTAT Es
ÍQFÍFICE
2,403.85! '
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PUMrjv
Howard M. Geyer and Howard Carson,vDayton,
Ohio, assignors to General Motors Corporation,
Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware
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Application December 5, 1944, Serial No. 566,6781
1o Claims. (o1. 10s-173)
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y This invention relates to highY pressure pumps
v13 Yis a View similar to Fig. 11 showing the
for use with hydraulically operated apparatus
relation lbetween the vbearing Washer, shown. in
such as, for example, the servo-motor which adejusts the pitch of airplane propeller blades.
An Vobject of the invention is to provide a
durable pump which, in proportionto its size, is
capable of v delivering liquid under relatively highV
pressure and which can be produced at relatively
low cost. Therefore it is the aim of the invention
' sectionk in Fig. 9 and its associated piston.
Fig. v14 Vis a view in the direction of arrow `I4
of a relatively small number of parts. To a0
complish this, the pump comprises a housing
providing a plurality of cylinders each receiving a
are secured together 4by screws, lsuch as screw I3;
and-the -part I2 is attached to -a portion I4 oi
of Fig@v 13, all but` one of the pistons being omitted
`
for sakeof clearness.
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15 is _a chart showing- the relation of pis- '
tons` positions and valve positions.
" ¿In Figfl, there is shown anadapter of tubular
to provide a construction which involves _the use 10 formation comprisingparts I0,'II and I2 AWhich
the engine frame indicated'in dot-dash lines.
’I_‘his adaptersurrounds the enginedriven shaft
@not shown) ’which carries the propeller hub. To `
the propeller hub there is secured a housing plate
I5l carryinwg"a` cover I6.» ¿Themembers I5 and I6,
which are¿of» annular formatiomytogether with
the tubular adapter `part I0 and annular sealing
20 members I‘I_ and I8,v provide an annular chamber
pair of oppositely reciprocating pistons and a
drive shaft which provides the movable Ivalve
members of the pump and which carries the
means for imparting positively to the piston re
ciprocatory motion in both directions.
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Further objects and advantages of the present
invention will be apparent from the following
description, reference being had to the accom
panying> drawings'wherein a preferred embodi
ment of the present invention -is clearly shown.
Inthedrawings:
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for enclosingîpartslof'an hydraulic system for
~controlling the; applicationof hydraulic pressure
toservo-motors which rotate the propeller blades
about their root axes in order to _govern the
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Fig. 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal , section 25 speed of the engine. Y One of the’parts of the hy
drau1ics`ystem`ris theîpump 20 >which will now
viewV of a portion of an vairplane propeller pitch
regulator showing a side View of apump embody
ing the invention.
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bezdescribed.
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Pump -20 comprises a housing 2| having a cy
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lindrical part 22received by the cylindrical Wall
Fig. 2V is a sectional view on line A2_2 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 3 isa sectionalviewon line 3-.3 of Fig 2ï 30 _23 deñningavrecess 24 of. housing I5 which en
Fig. 4 is a sectional View on line 4--4 of Figs. ’ closesthe pump. From the part 22, there ex
tends a IIiange 25 having holes 26 for receiving
1 and 2.
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_ Fig. 5 is la perspective view of a fragment ofthe
screws by whichV the pump’housing Y2l is secured
longitudinal sectionvof the pump showing details
to theV plate I5. »When the housing 2| is secured
of construction on a larger scale than the‘pre
`
ceeding figures.
_. .
35 in'position, its outlet passage 21 is. placed in com
' munièation with a passage 21a of» plate I 5 leading
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tov-a. manifold having parts 28, 29 and 30 for con
ducting »pressure 1*fluid to other parts of the hy
Fig. 6 is a view of one side of the pump shaft.
Fig..7 is a sectionall View on line 1_1 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a View of that side of the pump shaft ,
draulic "system,4 A Washer 3l seals the joint be
diametrically opposite tothe side shownin Fig. 6 40 tween the passages 21- and 21a.' For details'of. the
systems, reference is made to Blanchard and Mac
and a sectionalview of a bearing washer assem- "
bled with the shaft.
.
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'NeilÍPatentNa v2,307,102, filed January 15, 1943.
_
`V`.R'eferrin'g_tof1ï‘ig; 2, passages 33r and 34 connect
passage 21`-withthe central bore 35 in the hous
tional view of a bearing washer assembled _there 45 ing f2I§ which provides a bearing for- the pump
Fig. 9 is a side view of a wobble plate to be 'as
sembled with the shaft shown in Fig. 8 and a'sec
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Fig., 11,is a diagrammatic 'view showing
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will be submerged with the hydraulic fluid or oil
contained Within the housing’parts vI5 and I6
Fig. 10 is a side View of a clamp Washer to be
assembledwith the pump shaft).
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' driveshaft 40 having »an inletpassage 4I. which
.
the .
when rotating, the annular rotating level being
relation between the `rbearing Washer, vshownV in _5.9 indicated approximately by line x-x in Fig. 1.
section in Fig. 8, and the pump pistons associated *i Obliqueipassage 42 connects inlet »4I with a recess
therewith..
Fig. 12 isV a ' View in the
. direction'of
,
arrow'
f
I 2_
of Fig.,11 all but one of the pistonsbjeing omitted
for _sake ofjçlearrie’ss.l _'
.‘ j' _
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43`fpr’ovided'by the shaft 40 as shown 'in Figs. 2,
3, and '8.' This'recess'43 is wide enough to reach
to 'two vtmdsometimes thru'portsl 44, each leading
,55 toadisplac'ement chamber within a pump 'cy
2,403,854
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linder 45, there being five pump cylinders in the
disclosed embodiment. Each port 44 is provided
which extends at right angles to the plane upper
by drilling the holes 46 and 41 which are plugged.
Each cylinder 45 receives a pair of oppositely
reciprocating pistons. The pistons to the left ol’
section line 3_3 of Fig. 2 are marked I to V, and
those to the right are marked I’ to V’. During
practically all of the travel of a pair of pistons
away from each other the port 43 is so disposed
as to connect the pump inlet with the cylinder 10
face of the piston head 'l0 and is received by a
hole in the ring. As the wobble-plate 6i] rotates,
the center of wobble-ring,r e! oscillates in the path
denoted by circle Sip in Fig. 1l, and causes each
of the five pistons to rotate as denoted by the
circles lip. This connection between the wob
ble-ring and the piston heads accomplishes two
things, namely: (l) The outer surface of each
Apiston head ll) is caused to be in coincidence
'with the plane of the adjacent surface of the
enclosing that pair of pistons. During practi;
cally all of the trail of a pair of pistons toward> ' “ ring Si so that the force exerted by the ring to
move the pistons inwardly is distributed over the
each other the port 44 of the cylinder enclosing
engaging surfaces of the ring and piston head.
that pair of- pistons is connected with the pump
outlet 21 by a recess 59 (Figs. 2, 3 and 6) a chan
nel 5| and an annular groove 52 always connected
with passage 34, The channel 53 connects the
recess 5B with an annular groove '54 for supply
ing lubrication to the shaft bearing more remote
from the recess 50,
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yThere can be no vcooking of a piston head surface
relative to the ring surface, and no point or line
contact. A surface contact is insured. (2) Since
each piston must rotate as it reciprocates, there
is no straight line scoring of the engaging sur
20 face of the piston and cylinder. The pistons are
positively moved in both directions, namely: they
The valve recesses 43 and 55 are diametrically
are moved in by the >wobble-plate 60 and out by
opposite and are separated by blocking areas A
and B each of a width slightly exceeding the
the flange B4 whose surface B5 operates as a
wobble-plate.
width of each port 43 as best shown in Fig. 15.
The foregoing applies to the operation of pis
In that figure line M-M represents a planeïpass 25
ing through the center of each cylinder 45. Line
tons I’ to V’ which are operated by the unit 80
(Figs. 9, 13 and 14) having parts corresponding
Z--'m-1z, which represents the relation of move
in function to the similarly numbered parts of
ment of pistons I to Vvtoro’tation of the pump
shaft, passes through the centers of short hori
zontal lines marked I to V which represent the
inner ends of these pistons.> Line Z’--m’-n'
which represents the relation of movement of
pistons I’ to V’ to the rotation of the pump shaft,
passes through the center of short horizontal
Figs. 8, 1l and l2, the reference numbers of the
parts of Figs. 9, 13 and 14 having a prime añixed.
The unit 8@ is attached by a key 8l (Fig. 2) to
kthe shaft 4D. A washer 82 is located next to wob
ble-plate 6G; and, by means of a nut the unit
80 is forced against a shoulder 84 of shaft 40.
lines marked I’ to V’ which represent the inner 35 This nut is the vhub of 9| of a gear 90 which
meshes with `a gear 92 integral with part l0 (Fig.
ends of these pistons.` Lines Z-mè-n :and
l) having its axis substantially in coincidence
Z’-m’-n' are sine curves denoting that the mo
with the axis of the engine shaft. After screw
tion of the pistons is simple harmonic motion in
relation to shaft rotation. The rate of piston
ing on the gear hub 9i, a hole is drilled through
the hub and shaft and a pin 93 is driven through.
travel relation to shaft rotation near the begin
ning and the end of stroke is relatively small. '
As the housing l5, I6 rotates around the axis of
When pistons I and I’ are beginning to sepa
the engine shaft, part lil being fixed, the gear
BB rotates at relatively high speed. ‘
rate, the port 441, of their cylinder 45> is blocked
It will` be noted by referring to Figs. 8 and 9
by the shaft surface B between recesses 50 and
43. At that instant the pistonsII, II”, and III, 45 that thev eccentric bosses 62 and 61,’y are diamet
and III', which are separating, are in the posi
rically opposite. Therefore when wobble-ring 6I
tions shown in Fig. 15 and their respective cylin
is up (Fig. 1), the wobble-ring 6I’` is down. The
der ports 441i and 44111 are connected by recess
purpose of this arrangement is‘to obtain` dy
43 with the pump inlet. At the same instant, . namic _balancing of the rotating'parts with re~
the pistons IV, IV', and V, V’. which are ap 50 spect Vto the aXis of shaft 49. rIfherefore the _crank
proaching, are in the positions shown and their
pins 1I (Fig. 12) ' extend from the upper portions
respective cylinder ports 441V and `44y4are con
ofthe inclined surfaces ofthe heads 10 of pis»
nected with the pump outlet by recess 59. When
tons I to V; andthe crank pins 1I’ (Fig. 14) ex
any pair of pistons, such as I and II, arriveV at , tend from the lower portions of the inclined sur»`
the inner ends of their strokes,l their cylinder 55 faces of the heads 10' of pistons I’ torV’.
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The motions positively imparted through the
port is blocked by shaft surface B; and when at
wobble-members by the shaft to Vthe pistons in
the outer ends'of their strokes, their cylinder
port is blocked by shaft surface A. During their
both directions areV simple harmonic motions.
brief intervals when a cylinder port'is blocked,
While >the embodiment of the present inven
the rate of piston travel is low; therefore the 60 tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred
amount of hydraulic braking is inconsequential.
form, it is to be understood that other forms
might be adopted, all coming within the> scopeof
The pistons I to V are caused to reciprocate
by rotation of a wobble-plate 60 (Figs. 1,2, 6 and
the claims which follow.
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What i's claimed is as follows:
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8) integral with shaft 40. Motion of plate 60 is
1. A fluid pump comprising a housing having
imparted to the inclined heads 'l0 of the pistons 65
through an `interposed wobble-ring‘ßl‘ of bearing . a central bore and a‘plurality yof cylindrical dis
placement chambers parallel to the bore and
bronze journalled on an eccentric boss B2 which
equally spaced in a circular row rconcentricV with
is located next to a groove 63 between the boss
the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displacement
62 and a flange 64 having a wobble surface `B5 for
engaging the inner side plane surfaces ofthe 7 0 chambers, displacement chamber` inlet and, out
let‘ports each connecting a displacementv cham
piston heads 10 which are received by the groove
53. The center of the shaft 40 is indicated at r401;“
and the center of the boss B2' is indicated Vat 62c
of Figl 11. Each
head
I
_ 1S of a piston-Ito_lVis
ber with the bore, a rotatable shaft journalled
in ythejbore Yand rhaving inlet` and. outlet recesses
rotatable past the ports andfseparatedlbyvalve
connected with the ring 6| by a crank'pin' 1| 'i5 lands provided by shaft surfaces closely ñtting
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the- bore, pistons'ïreciprocable'in the displacement>
the-bore, a fluid inlet ductfconnected-witn the h
inlet recess- ofthe shaft,v a single -fluid outlet duct
for all of the displacement chambers'connected
with the outlet‘recess ofthe shaft, and means
operated by the shaft for imparting reciprocating , di;.
motion to the pistons'and so related to the'shaft
_ recesses that, duringan intake stroke of a piston,
'its chamber port is- connected with the >inlet re
cess of the'shaftand, 'during the dischargeY stroke ,
of a piston, its'chambjer port is connected withV
the outlet'recess of‘the‘shaft, each chamber rport
being completely blocked by a valve’land at the'
chambers,` ports each connecting a displacement
chamber -with the bore, fluid inlet and outlet
ducts; a rotatable shaft journalledin thevbore and
having valve means for connecting chamber` ports
Withthe inlet duct during intake strokes of 4their
associated pistons and for -connecting chamber
ports» with the.A outlet Yduct during discharge
strokes of` their associatedpistons,v andv means
Operated «by the `shaft for causing, each piston gto
complete a cycle of reciprocations and simultane- Y
ously 'to rotate one vrevolution for Vav revolution. of
the‘ shaft wherebylongitudinal scoring of the
contacting surfaces of the pistons and chambers
end
2..A
ofv fluid
a stroke
pump
of according
its vassociated
`to claim
piston.
l1 further
‘_ 2.
is avoided.
characterized by'the fact thatïthe valve"lands
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« 7,. A ñuid pump comprising a housing having a
are slightly wider thanthe ports and bythe fact
central bore and >a pluralityy of'cylindrical 'dis
that the means which transmits motion from the
placementY chambers parallel Yto the .-bore'and ,
shaft to the pistonsfoperates toimpart to lthe
.equally spaced in- a circular-'row concentric 'with
pistons a relatively Smau amount ofjmovement
near'the ends of their strokes whereby hydraulic
the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displacement
chambers-portsìeach connecting a displacement
braking of the pump, when a chamber port is
chamber f with the fbore, fluid inlet and outlet
. blocked by a valve land, is minimized.
ducts, -a rotatable shaft journalled in the bore and
, 3. A fluid pumpaccording to claim 1 further
having valve»v means for connecting chamber
characterized by the fact that the inlet duct is
ports with the inlet duct during intake strokes of
25
provided by a passage in the shaft for connecting
their associated pistons and for connecting cham
a supply of fluid with the inlet recess of the shaft
ber ports with the outlet duct during discharge
within the bore, and by the fact the outlet
strokes of their associated pistons, piston heads
ductfrom the outletrecess of the shaft is pro
having inner and outer parallel plane surfaces
vided by a longitudinal groove in the shaft and
oblique to the axis of the piston, «a flange on the
by >an annular groove in the shaft longitudinally 30 shaft having an oblique plane surface for en
displaced from the chamber ports and connected
gaging the inner surfaces of the piston heads, a
with the longitudinal groove and by a passage
wobble-washer oblique to the shaft for engaging
in the housing connected with the annular groove.
the outer surfaces of the piston heads, a circular
4. A fluid pump comprising aj housing having
a central bore and a plurality of cylindrical dis
boss provided by the shaft eccentrically thereof
35 upon which the wobble-Washer is journalled a
placement chambers parallel to the bore and
wobble-plate provided by the shaft obliquely
thereof for engaging the wobble-washer, and
the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displace
crank connections betweenv the wobble-washer
ment chambers, ports each connecting a dis
and the piston heads whereby, as the wobble
40
placement chamber With the bore, fluid inlet and
washer is caused to wobble and move'eccentrical
outlet ducts, a rotatable shaft journalled in the
ly relative to the shaft, the pistons are caused to
equally spaced in a circular row concentric with
‘bore and having valve means for connecting
rotate in order to maintain their head-inner
surfaces in the plane of the oblique surface of
_ chamber ports with the inlet duct during intake
strokes of their associated pistons and for con
said shaft-flange and in order to maintain their
45 head-outer surfaces in the plane of the engaging "
necting chamber ports with the outlet duct dur
ing discharge strokes of their associated pistons
surface of the wobble-washer, and whereby rota
tion of the pistons avoids scoring of the contact
and means operated by the shaft for imparting
ing surfaces of the pistons and chambers.
reciprocatory movement to the pistons and for
8. A pump according to claim '7 further char
imparting rotary motion during reciprocation
50
acterized'by the fact that the crank connection
whereby longitudinal scoring of the contacting
between the wobble-washer and the piston heads
surfaces of pistons and chambers is avoided.
are provided by 'crank-pins which are fixed to the
5. A fluid pump comprising a housing having
heads and extending at right angles to the outer
a central bore and a plurality of cylindrical dis
surfaces of the heads and the wobble-washer is
placement chambers parallel to the bore and
equally spaced in a circular row concentric with 55 provided with holes for receiving the crank-pins.
` the bore, pistons reciprocable in the displace
9. A fluid pump comprising a housing having a
central bore therethrough and a plurality of
ment chambers, ports each connecting a dis
bores therethrough to provide cylindrical dis
placement chamber with the bore, fluid inlet and
placement chambers parallel to the` bore and
outlet ducts, a rotatable Shaft journalled in’the
bore and having valve means for connecting 60 equally spaced in a circular row concentric with
the central bore, two pistons oppositely recipro
chamber ports with the inlet duct during intake
cable in each chamber, ports each for connect
strokes of their associated pistons and for con
ing a central portion of a chamber with the cen
necting chamber ports with the outlet duct dur
tral bore, fluid inlet and outlet ducts, a rotatable
ing discharge strokes of their associated pistons,
and means operated by the shaft for imparting 65 shaft journalled in the central bore and having
valve means yfor connecting chamber ports with
reciprocatory movement to the pistons positively
inlet ducts during intake strokes of their associ
in both directions and for imparting continuous
rotary movement to the pistons during reciproca
ated pistons and for connecting chamber ports
with outlet ducts during discharge strokes of
tion in both directions whereby longitudinal scor
ing of the contacting surfaces of pistons and 70 their associated pistons, the ends of the housingl
chambers is avoided.
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6. A fluid pump comprising aA housing having a
central `bore and a plurality of cylindrical dis
placement chambers parallel to the bore and
equally spaced in a circularv row concentric with 75
beyond which the shaft extends being provided
with plane surfaces at right angles to the axis
of the shaft, devices located adjacent the plane
surfaces of the housing and so connected with
the shaft as to limit longitudinal movement there
sarcasm
7
8
of in relation to the housing and having provisions
for causing the pairs of pistons in the chambers
to reciprocate in opposite‘direction and to rotate
while reciprocating in order to avoid scoringof
wobble-washer5V and a- wobble-_washer mounted
the contacting surfaces of the pistons _and cham+
bers.
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upon theeccentr-ic boss of each structure and en
gageable with the outer surfaces of the piston
heads, and with the wobble plate, and crank con
nections between the wobble Washers and the pis
ton heads adjacent thereto whereby, as the Wob
ble-washers are caused to wobble and move ec
10. ‘A fluid pump according to claim 9 in which
each piston has a head having parallel plane sur
centrically relative to the shaft, the pistons are
caused to rotate in oi‘der to'maintain their head
faces oblique to the axis of the piston and in
which one of the> devices includes afstructure in 10 inner-surfaces in the planes of the adjacent
tegral with the shaft and the other is anintegral
oblique surfaces of the iian’ges and in order to
unit detacha-bly ñxed to the shaft, each struc-Y
maintain their head-oute?-'surfaces in the planes
ture comprising a ñange having >a plane surface
at right angles to the axis of the shaft and adapt
of the engaging surfaces of their adjacent wobble
Washers, and whereby rotation of the pistons
avoids scoring of the contacting surfaces of the
pistons and chambers, the two motion transmit
ting devices being so positioned >relative to the
shaft that their plates and washers wobble in
ed to engage a plane at an end of the housing 15
and having a plane surface oblique to Ithe axis
of the shaft for engaging the inner plane surfaces
of the piston heads, each structure comprising
a circular boss separated from the flange by a
opposite directions and that the axes of their ec
piston-head-receiving space and providing a 20 centric, wobbleew'asher-journalling bosses are on
journal for a wobble-washer, said boss being ec
n diametrically opposite sides of the shaft axis. Y
centric to the axis of the shaft and oblique there
to, and each structure comprising a wobble plate
HQWARD M. GEYER.
oblique to the axis of the shaft for engaging a
HOWARD CARSON.
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