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Патент USA US2403909

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July 16, 1946.
P. s. CARTER
2,403,909
BROADCAST m'nmm’
Filed Dec. 10, 1941
‘. INVENTOR
AT-TORNEY
Patented July 16, 1946
2,403,909
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,403,909
BROADCAST ANTENNA
Philip S. Carter, Rocky Point, N. Y., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
Application December 10, 1941, Serial No. 422,356
19 Claims. (Cl. 250-41)
1
2
The present invention relates to antennae for
radiating vertically polarized short wave energy.
An object of the present invention is the pro
arm
vision of a broad band antenna for vertically
polarized waves which does not use a vertically
projecting radiating conductor.
Another object is the pro-vision of a simple,
where J o is the zero order Bessel function of the
?rst kind, that is
d
A
easily constructed radiator for vertically polar
is greater than .77 (approximately) and i. is the
ized waves which is capable of operating without
operating wavelength. The inside conductor is
discrimination over a wide band of frequencies.
10 then, as shown in zone 4, gradually tapered down
A further object is the provision of an antenna
to zero, while the outside conductor may remain
which may be arranged ?ush with the surface of
of constant diameter, or it may continue to ex
a conducting ground sheet such as a flat metallic
pand. Finally, in zone 5, the outer conductor is
roof of a building.
further expanded and ?ared like a trumpet, at
Still a further object is the provision of an 15
last curving around back on itself, as indicated
antenna for vertically polarized waves in which
at 6. The changing dimensions cause the elec
it is not required that any portion thereof pro
tric ?eld of the wave in the concentric line to
ject above the surface of the ground.
gradually expand ?rst in zone 3 by expansion of
The foregoing objects, and others which may
appear from the following detailed description, 20' the outer conductor and then in zone 4 by con—
traction of the inner conductor until, in zone 5,
are attained by expanding the electric ?eld with
propagation takes place without the inner con
in a concentric transmission line connected to
.ductor. The electric ?eld then is expanded fur
a high frequency energy source by expanding the
ther in zone 5 and is propagated away from the
outer conductor of the line and by contracting
system horizontally as indicated by the electric
the inner conductor to a point until propagation '
lines of force E. No propagation takes place ver_
takes place without the inner conductor. The
tically.
?eld is then further expanded by ?aring the outer
The foregoing description has been predicated
conductor until the ?eld may be propagated
on the assumption that the end of the transmis
smoothly away from the system in a plane nor
sion line is vertically disposed. Of course, if de
mal to the axis of the transmission line and sub
sired, the system may be adapted to radiate hori
stantially uniformly in all directions in that
zontally polarized energy by disposing the upper
plane. Conversely, the antenna is operative for
face of the expanded portion of the transmission
reception of radiant energy, the tapered portions
line vertically, instead of horizontally, as shown.
acting to successively contract the ?eld until it
While the extreme end portion of the outer con
ductor
has been shown as curving around back
receiver.
on itself in Fig. 1, it is within the scope of the
The present invention will be more completely
present invention to simply extend the flared por
understood by reference to the following detailed
tion out horizontally in the form of a conducting
description which is accompanied by a drawing
in which Figure 1 illustrates an embodiment of 40 ground sheet Ill. as shown in Fig. 2, the ground
sheet In may be either the metallic top of a
the present invention and Figure 2 illustrates a
flat roofed building or the actual surface of the
modi?cation thereof. In Fig. 1 I have shown a
ground. This form of construction is particu-‘
concentric cable transmission line TL composed
larly useful when it is desired to radiate vertically
of an outer shell conductor l and an inner cen
polarized waves of ultra-short wavelengths from
tral conductor 2. One end of the transmission
certain predetermined locations in the midst of
line is connected to a source of high frequency
an airport, for example, where any projections
energy (not shown) and the other end which is
would constitute a hazard to planes landing and
to also serve as a radiator, is preferably vertically
taking off. In this form of construction it is
disposed. This end of the transmission line is
preferred that the open flared end of the outer
divided into a plurality of consecutive zones in '
conductor be closed in with as thin as possible a
each of which different operations are performed
sheet of dielectric material such as that indicated
on the wave to be radiated. In the ?rst zone,
by reference character I 2 in order to provide pro
identi?ed by reference numeral 3, the outer con
tection against the elements‘ and to present a
ductor is expanded in diameter until its diameter
55 smooth overall surface. The closure should‘ be
d is greater than that value for which
may be carried along the transmission line to a '
.7
2,403,909
3
4
thin in order not to cause excessive losses or dis
tortion of the ?eld. Furthermore, while only a,
single radiator element has been shown and de
scribed, it should be clearly understood that a
plurality of elements may be so disposed as to
obtain directivity in the horizontal plane by ar
ranging said elements so that energy from the
elements ‘is in a phase additive relationship in
outer end of said shell curved back on itself, said
inner conductor being tapered to a point within
said ?ared outer shell, the ?are of said outer shell
being so proportional that the ?eld within said
shell is smoothly converted to a ?eld extending
substantially uniformly in all directions normal
to the axis of the ?ared portion of said shell.
7. A ‘system for radiating electromagnetic
the desired direction.
‘
While I have shown and particularly described
several embodiments of my invention, it is to be
distinctly understood that my invention is not
limited thereto but that modi?cations within the
scope of my invention may be made.
'
10
waves comprising a concentric transmission line
having an outer shell and an inner conductor con
nected to a wave energy source, said outer shell
being ?ared out in a trumpet-like formation with
the outer end of said shell curved back on itself,
said inner conductor being tapered to a point and
Y
I claim:
1. A system for radiating or receiving electromagnetic waves with substantially uniformin
tensity in all directions normal to a given axis
entirely contained Within said outer shell, the
longitudinal axis of said line being vertically dis
posed whereby vertically polarized energy is
comprising a concentric transmission line lying ‘
along said axis and having an outer shell and 20
an inner conductor connected to a wave energy
radiated uniformly in all directions in the hori
zontal plane.
8. In a radiant energy system, a concentric
transmission line having an outer shell and an
transducer, said outer shell being ?ared out in a
.inner conductor, said outer shell being smoothly
trumpet-like formation, said inner conductor be
expanded in its transverse dimension along a por
ing tapered to a point and entirely contained
tion of the length of said line until the propaga
within said ?ared outer shell.
25 tion of the ?eld within said shell may take place
2. A system for radiating or receiving electro
Without said inner conductor, said inner conduc
magnetic waves comprising a concentric trans
tor being tapered to a point, said outer conductor
mission line having an outer shell and an inner
thereafter being so flared out that said ?eld is
conductor connected to a wave energy transducer,
freed from said system and is propagated in all
said outer shell being ?ared out in a trumpet-like 30 directions normal to the length of said line.
formation, said inner conductor being tapered to
9. In a radiant energy system, a concentric
a point and entirely contained within said ?ared
transmission line having an outer shell and an
outer shell, the longitudinal axis of said line being
inner conductor, said outer shell being smoothly
vertically disposed whereby said system is uni
formly responsive in the horizontal plane to verti
cally polarized waves.
3., A system for radiating or receiving electro
_magnetic waves comprising a concentric trans
expanded in its transverse dimension along a por
35 tion of the length of said line until the propaga
tion f the ?eld within said shell may take place
without said inner conductor, said inner conduc
tor being tapered to a point, said outer conductor
mission line having an outer shell and an inner
thereafter being ?ared out until said ?eld is free
conductor connected to a wave energy transducer, 40 from said system, the ?are of said‘shell ‘being con
said inner conductor being tapered to a point and
tinued so that the end of said shell is curved back
entirely contained within said outer shell said
on itself.
outer shell being so ?ared out in a trumpet-like
10. In a radiant energy system, a concentric
formation with the outer end of the shell curved
transmission line having an outer shell and an
back on itself that the‘?eld within said shell is 45 inner conductor, said outer shell being smoothly
smoothly converted to a ?eld extending substan
expanded in its transverse dimension along a por
tially uniformly in all directions normal to the
tion of the length of said line until the propaga
axis of the flared portion of the said shell.
tion of the ?eld within said shell may take place
4. A system for radiatingv or receiving electro
without said inner conductor, said innerv conduc
magnetic waves comprising a concentric trans 50 tor being tapered to a point along the next adja
mission line having an outer shell and an inner
cent length of said line, said outer conductor
conductor connected to a wave energy transducer,
thereafter along the length of said line being
said outer shell being ?ared out in a trumpet-like
?ared out until said ?eld is free from said system.
formation with the outer end of said shell curved
11. In a radiant energy system, a concentric
back on itself, said inner conductor being tapered 55 transmission line having an outer shell and an
to a point and entirely contained within said
inner conductor, said outer shell being smoothly
?ared outer shell, the longitudinal axis of said line
expanded in its transverse dimension along a por
being ‘vertically disposed whereby said system is
tion of the length of said line until the propaga
uniformly responsive in the horizontal plane to
tion of the ?eld within said shell may take place
vertically polarized waves.
60 without said inner conductor, said inner con
5; A system for radiating electromagnetic
ductor being tapered to a point along the next
waves comprising a concentric transmission line
adjacent length of said line, said outer conductor
having its longitudinal axis vertically disposed
thereafter along the length of said line being
and said line including an outer shell and an
?ared out until said ?eld is free from said system,
inner conductor connected to a wave energy 65 the flare of said shell being continued so that the
source, said inner conductor being tapered to a
end of said shell is curved back on itself.
‘point entirely within said outer‘ shell, said outer
shell being so flared out in a trumpet-like forma
12. In a radiant energy system, a concentric
transmission line having an outer shell and an
tion that vertically polarized energy is radiated
inner conductor, said outer shell being smoothly
uniformly in all directions in the horizontal plane. 70 expanded in its diameter (1 along a portion of the
6. A system for radiating electromagnetic waves
length of said line until said diameter is greater
comprising a concentric transmission line having
than that value for which,
an outer shell and an inner conductor connected
to a wave energy source, said outer shell being
?ared out in a trumpet-like formation with the 75
tea
2,403,909
5
6
where Jo is the zero order Bessel function of the
said guide is freed from said system and is propa
gated in all directions normal to the length of
said member.
16. A radiant energy transmission system in
?rst kind, that is,
cluding a hollow wave guide member having a
where A is the operating wavelength whereby
diameter 11 greater than that value for which
propagation of the ?eld within said shell may
take place without said inner conductor, said in
her conductor being tapered to a point along the
next adjacent length of said line and said outer 10 where Jo is the zero order Bessel function of the
?rst kind, that is,
conductor thereafter along the length of said line
being ?ared out until said ?eld is free from said
system.
_
13. In a radiant energy system, a concentric
transmission line having an outer shell and an 16 where A is the operating wavelength, said member
being ?ared out at one end until the ?eld within
inner conductor, said outer shell being smoothly
said guide is free from said system, the ?are of
said guide being so continued that the end thereof
is curved back on itself.
expanded in its diameter d along a portion of
the length of said line until said diameter is
greater than that value for which
20
where Jo is the zero order Bessel function of the
?rst kind, that is,
d
K>.77
where A is the operating wavelength, whereby
propagation of the ?eld within said shell may
take place without said inner conductor, said
-17.'A system for radiating electromagnetic
waves comprising a concentric transmission line
having an outer shell and an inner conductor
connected to a wave energy source, said inner
conductor being tapered to a point entirely within
25 said outer shell, said outer shell being ?ared out
in a trumpet-like formation so that the ?eld with
in said shell is smoothly converted to a ?eld ex
tending substantially uniformly in all directions
nrorlriial to the axis of the ?ared portion of said
s e .
inner conductor being tapered to a point along 80
18. In a radiant energy system, a concentric
the next adjacent length of said line and said
transmission line having an outer shell and an
outer conductor thereafter along the length of
inner conductor, said outer shell being smoothly
said line being ?ared out until said ?eld is free
expanded in its transverse dimension along a por
from said system, the ?are of said shell being
tion of the length of said line until the propaga
85
continued so that the end of said shell is curved
, back on itself.
14. A radiant energy transmission system in
cluding a hollow wave guide member having a
transverse dimension such that propagation of
they radiant energy ?eld within said guide may
take place without the presence of an inner con
ductor, said member being ?ared at one end to
_such an extent that the ?eld within said guide
is free from said system, and said ?are being fur
ther continued so that the end of said guide is
tion of the ?eld within said shell may take place
without said inner conductor, said inner conduc
tor being tapered to a point, said outer conductor
thereafter being so ?ared out that said ?eld is
freed from said system, said outer conductor
merging smoothly into a plane conductive sheet
normal to the axis of said line.
19. A radiant energy transmission system in
cluding a hollow wave guide member having a
diameter d greater than that value for which
curved back on itself.
15. A radiant energy transmission system in
where Jo is the zero order Bessel function of the
cluding a hollow wave guide member having a
?rst kind, that is,
diameter d greater than that value for which
60
where Jo is the zero order Bessel function of the
where A is the operating wavelength, said member
?rst kind, that is,
being so ?ared out at one end that the ?eld with
where A is the operating wavelength, said member
being so ?ared out at one end that the ?eld within
55 in said guide is freed from said system, the ?are
of said member merging smoothly into a plane
conductive sheet normal to the axis of said guide
member.
PHILIP S. CARTER.
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