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Патент USA US2403954

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July 16, 1946.
H. o. SCHJOLIN
'
TURBODRIVE AND CONTROLS
Original Filed Feb. 9, 1938
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
WW
Zmventor
(Ittomeg
JMHY 1, 1946-
‘
H. o. SCI-IIJOLINI
2,403,954
TURBODRIVE AND CONTROLS
Original Filed Feb. 9,7 1938
5 Sheets-Sheét 2
Inventor
Gttorneg
July 16, 1946.
'
H, o, scHJo-Lm
‘
2,403,954
July 16, 3946. ‘
H. o. SCHJOLIN'
‘
TURBODRiVE AND CONTROLS
Original Filed Feb. 9, 1938
I
45
2,403,954
‘
I
5_ Sheets-Sheet 4
7/”
July 16, 1946.
2,403,954
H. O. SCHJOLIN
TURBODRIVE AND CONTROLS
Original Filed Feb. 9, 1958 ’
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
@Q .
akjz
if meg
Patented July 16, 1946
2,403,954
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
2,403,954
TURBODRIVE AND CONTROL
Hans O. Schjolin, Pontiac, Mich., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to General Motors Corpo
ration, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Dela
Ware
Original application February 9, 1938, Serial No.
189,596. Divided and this application February
9, 1939, Serial No. 255,497
22 Claims.
(Cl. 74—-189.5)
1
2
This is a divisional application of my U. S.
S. N. 189,596, ?led February 9, 1938, now matured
as Letters Patent U. S. 2,272,434, issued February
10, 1942.
The invention relates to motor vehicles, and
Figure 1 is a schematic view of my invention,
as applied to a motor vehicle such as a bus, where
in the power plant is arranged transversely at
the rear.
more particularly to an improved compact group
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section of the primary
power plant and driving assembly taken in a
ing of the driving mechanism for large, heavy
longitudinal plane of Figure l.
vehicles such as buses, trucks and tractors.
In passenger buses in particular it is essential
and while vehicles having transversely mounted
Figure 3 shows the sectional detail of the form
of one-way clutch utilized in the assembly of
Figure 2 on line 3—3, with shifter engaged.
Figure 4 is an enlarged view of the direct drive
clutch D of Figure 2.
power plants at the rear are known in the art,
the present invention embodies a speci?c, im
Figure 5 is an elevation-section view of a fric
tion clutch used as a modi?cation of the direct
to arrange the drive mechanism in a space which
shall detract the least from the pay load space,
proved arrangement, which, while including
‘
drive clutch of Figures 2 and 4, and identical in
structures for the most part in general use and
construction with the friction clutch C of Fig
of conventional character, my arrangement im
ure 2.
parts the drive to the vehicle wheels through a
Figure 6 is an operation diagram, schematic
system which provides the least wastage of effort
insofar as the general arrangement of the con-4
in power conversion from a transversely driving 20 trol elements are concerned, but giving the op
and torque converting assembly, in that the ?nal
erator’s hand and foot operated controls in eleva
output shaft receives its drive from the main
tion and part section.
centerline of the primary drive assembly.
Figure 7 is a longitudinal section of the servo
A further novelty herein is the adaptation of
control valving of Figure 6.
25
the turbine form of torque-converter to the above
Figure 8 describes in detail the interlocking ar
noted form of drive, having least wastage of axial
rangement of Figure 6 between the hand control
space consumed by the primary power group; the
and the pedal control, and is a view taken gen
added utility of the assembly being especially
erally at 8—8 of Figure 6.
adapted for ?uid pressure actuation, the demon
Referring particularly to Figure 1, it will be
stration herewith showing a novel arrangement 80 seen that my arrangement is shown as installed
having means for rendering the drive eiiective or
in the rear of a bus, with the primary power
ineffective at will, through remotely operating
connecting mechanisms, including ?uid pressure
plant arranged transversely, and the output drive
in the fore-and-aft plane of the vehicle, connect
devices.
The general arrangement of the units com 35 ing by a short jackshaft to the conventional dif
ferential gear and axle drive to the rear wheels.
prising the assembly of my invention is disclosed,
‘ The primary power plant comprises an engine
and claimed with respect to the operation of
A of suitable type, a clutch C, a clutch D, a. turbine
clutch control means in my application noted
type torque-converter T as a variable speed trans
above, of which the present application is a divi
sion, the claims herein being drawn to the over 40 mission, a gear assembly R, an overrunning de
vice F, and an accessory drive mechanism E, all
all transmission controls, as shall be apparent,
mutually coaxial.
further.
Further objects in the application of operator_
operated interlocking controls for the above forms
of driving mechanism are achieved herewith, in
the prevention of wrong motion, and in the co
ordination of foot and hand operated elements,
The propeller shaft 60’ extends forwardly with
respect to the vehicle, and downwardly, from 1a
point intermediate the engine A and the torque
converter unit T, connecting to the conventional
differential gear, as noted.
In Figure 2 the engine crankshaft is shown at
I, mounted to rotate drive shaft 2 splined at 3 for
nected with the aforesaid fluid pressure servo
devices to accomplish the shifts of drive between 50 slider 4, and splined at 5 for hub 6 and ?ange
wherein the said interlocking means are con
direct and converter positions.
7
Additional objects and advantages will appear
in the fOllOWing detailed description when con
sidered in connection with the accompanying
drawings wherein
?tting 8.
Sleeve 9 mounted on bearings, surrounds shaft
2 and is attached‘ to or integral with member
I0, which has internal ring of teeth II and ex
55 ternal bevel teeth I2.
‘
2,403,954
3
The teeth l3 of slider 4 mesh with H, where
upon member | 0 is driven at engine speed.
Output jackshaft 5E3 rotating in bearings 6| in
casing 29 is ?xed to or integral with bevel gear
l4 meshing "withgear l2, transmitting the drive
of sleeve 9 'to the driving wheels of the vehicle,
as shown in Figure 1.
4
3, and since this type of structure is well known,
no lengthy description of its operation is believed
necessary in the demonstration of my invention.
It is worthy of note that the arrangement of the
outer member 2|, inner member “3, sleeve l5, and
slider 25 constitutes a means for obtaining a full
release of the roller clutch F when the slider 25 is
placed in the “reverse” position. The arrange
ment permits the saving of power plant length by
mounted on shaft 2 and has a?ixed gear l6 and
roller clutch race l8, its inner end terminating 10 mounting the transfer control for forward, re
verse and neutral drive between the toothed ends
in turbine element 30, which is the output mem-.
of the gearbody 29.
ber of the turbo torque-converter T. The outer
The inner face of the outer member 2| is
roller clutch member 2! is externallysplined at
smooth, and acts as a race for rollers I9 carried
22, and teeth 23 and spline 24 of sleeve 9 are
Sleeve i5 concentric with sleeve 9 is bearing ‘
aligned axially and radially therewith. Bridging 15 in cage |9a rotating with the inner one-way cam
slider 25 is splined internally at 2|’ so that when
these teeth are in mesh with the teeth 23 of
sleeve 9, the outer member 2| of the roller clutch
assembly F is released.‘ External teeth 26 of
slider 25 are arranged to mesh also in the left 20
ward position with the teeth 25 of gearbody 29
rotating in appropriate bearings in casing 20.
Teeth 21 of gearbody 29 constantly mesh with
reverse idler gear 32, which in turn mesh with
member I8. The rollers are biased by appropriate
means, for one-way locking of members I8 and
2|. The cage l9a has limited lost motion with
respect to member I8.
The neutral position of the slider 25 occurs
when the teeth 2|’ are demeshed from spline teeth
22' of element 2|, partially meshed with teeth 23;
but without mesh between teeth 26-28.
The detail of one form of clutch D is shown in ‘
gear 18. When slider 25 is in the right hand posi 25 Figure 4 where slider 4 splined at 3 to shaft 2
may mesh its teeth l3 with teeth I | of bevel gear
tion of the ?gure, the drive from sleeve I5 is
body It. Inside the overhang of teeth H is lo
through roller clutch members l8 and 2| to slider
cated friction ring 52, locked to rotate with mem
25, since internal splines 2|’ are then meshed
ber l5, and presenting tapered friction face 52a.
with'teeth 22 and thence from slider 25 to sleeve
Balk piece 53 is splined at 54 to an extension
9, yielding “forward” drive. When the slider 25 so
of slider 4, for limited rotational motion with
is in the left hand position, the drive is through
respect to slider 4. Auxiliary teeth 5411-55 cut
gears _|6—'-32, gearbody 29, slider'25 and sleeve 9
on slider 4 are spaced to accommodate poppets 58,
through the described toothed elements, yield—
which are loaded radially by springs 59 in the
ing”“reverse drive,” which is obvious from the
radial recesses shown. The poppets 58 transmit
pairing of the gearing,
' The hub 5 is one member of the turbine driving
axial force on slider 4 toward mesh of teeth
clutch C, and hub 33 is the other, splined on sleeve
34,.‘ integral with the input or impeller member
45 of the'torque converter T.
|3—| |, to the adjacent edge of spline teeth 54a
engine is transmitted to jackshait 60 through the
torque converter T at variable torques and speeds.
'When clutchvD is engaged, the drive is trans
meshing engagement.
of balk piece 53, so that registry of the teeth of
5ll~~55 will coincide with release of drag force,
‘ The'blades 59a and 505 are integral with re 40 permitting |3-—|| to mesh without clash. Addi
tional force is needed to depress the poppets for
action member 5?'attached to, or integral with
completion of mesh.
casing 20.
Piece 53, because of friction contact of its ring
The rotation of impeller 4|] causes the liquid
56 with ring 52 at 52a, may then rock positively
contained in the casing to impinge on the blades
or negatively on the splines 54, so that teeth 54a
3|a against which the liquid is thrown by
of piece 53 will be out of registry with teeth 55,
centrifugal force from buckets 4| of the impeller
the teeth ends abutting, preventing further mo
40. The specialized contour of the blades 50a and
tion toward mesh of slider 4 and teeth l3.
501) permits the liquid to apply a rotational force
If the faster member be the engine shaft | the
to output-connected blades 3| and 3|a mounted
50 balking piece 53 will rotate positively due to fric
in rotor3|l attached to sleeve 85.
tion drag, to set up rejection of mesh. If output
The multiplication of torque achieved in the
connected member Ill be the faster member, in
turbine by virtue of the presence of the reaction
either case there is rejection of mesh until the
members 50a and 50b is a well-known e?ect, de
drag force acting on piece 53 disappears, as it
scribed in U. S. 1,199,359 to Fottinger, ?led June
does at synchronism, when the slider 4 may now
19, 1906, issued September 26, 1916; and no in
move, teeth 55 may enter spline teeth 54a of piece
vention is herein claimed for this characteristic.
53, and also teeth l3 mesh with teeth H, where
The presentinvention relates to the control ar
upon direct drive between shaft I and member
rangement for such a turbine type transmission
ID is accomplished.
wherein alternately operated clutches are actu
During the asynchronous rotation interval of
ated by ?uid pressure servo means, remotely con 60
slider 4 and member ID, the opposing force con
trolled.
dition persists, until synchronism is reached.
It is deemed su?icient to state that the three
Then the drag force from ring 52 to ring 56 dis-‘
elements of the turbinedevice, constitute a multi
appears, which because of the release of the balk
plier of torque imparting a variable speed to
sleeve l5 from sleeve 34 rotating at engine speed. 65 ing action, permit further free travel toward
mesh, thereby allowing teeth |3--|| to complete
When clutch C is engaged, the drive of the
This is described as a form of synchronism re
sponsive mechanism having a balking, or rejec
mitted at a ?xed ratio from engine shaft | to 70 tion-of-mesh characteristic, wherein the friction
and camming forces are provided to control the
jackshaft 5D; whereupon both members, input
mesh motion rather than to absorb the differen
sleeve 34 andoutput sleeve l5, ofv the torque con
tial inertias of the engine and vehicle. The char
verter T may come to rest, since roller clutch F
acteristic may be described as a friction balking
permits sleeve 9 to overrun sleeve l5.
,
The detail of roller clutch F'is shown in Figure 75 or lock-out action arranged to permit mesh or
2,403,954‘
.
5
reject mesh, according to synchronous or asyn
nected for unitary rotation.
splined on casing extension 46. Fork 4‘! pivoted
to the casing 20 is moved by its external lever
41a pivoted to piston rod I32 attached to piston
It should be emphasized that if the driver allows
engine speed to fall off below synchronism before
the shifting force is exerted on the slider 4, the
relative rocking action of balk piece 53 would be
reversed, and the device would reject mesh be
I3I of cylinder I30 mounted on the casing 20.
When air is admitted to pipe I23 and cylinder
I30, collar 44 and sleeve 45 are moved toward
the left. When air pressure is released therefrom,
return spring I33 in cylinder I30 shifts collar 44
cause of the lag of teeth 55 with respect to teeth
and sleeve 45 to the right. The servo actuation
means are shown schematically, and may be so
disposed in the engine compartment space as en
chronous rotations of the two members to be con
54. The operator need therefore only bring the
engine speed up to synchronism by depression of
the accelerator pedal, whereupon, as before, the
completion of mesh is permitted.
As will be seen, this form of synchronism re
gineering requirements demand. The detail of
the servo control system is given further in this
speci?cation.
I
sponsive device is needed for clutch D to operate 15
The prime-numbered elements in the lower half
correctly in combination with the controls for the
of Figure 5 refer to identical parts in the control
turbine torque converter.
for clutch D of Figure 4, the arrangement for Fig
The form of clutch C shown in Figure 2 is that
ure 5 being identical with that for clutch C‘ of
of a single-plate friction clutch in which ?ange
Figure 2.
0a of hub 0 terminates in drum 35 in which presser 20
Figure 6 describes the remote control system
plate 36 is allowed limited longitudinal motion on
for clutches C and D, whereby the operator may
splines 38. Disc spring 42 held by ring 30 to drum
at will select and operate the drive through the
35 extends inwardly toward hub 33 and may en
torque converter, or in direct.
gage projection 3'! of presser plate 36. The inner
The driver controls consist of a gearshift lever
portion of spring 42 engages sleeve 45 movable 25 assembly £00 mounted to rock longitudinally be-'
longitudinally so as to shift the inner part of the
spring 42 to either side of its critical flexion posi
tion with respect to the clamped outer edge.
When the sleeve 45 is positioned to the right,
as in Figure 2, the external force applied to sleeve
45 shifts spring 42 through its critical flexure
position, whereupon the force of the spring is
exerted on projection 31, tending to load presser
plate 30. Hub 33 carries the driven element 4-9
of ‘clutch C to which the customary facing discs
48 are ai‘?xed. When plate 30 is loaded, clutch
C transmits the drive of shaft 2 to the input mem
ber 40 of the torque converter T, at a given clutch
capacity.
tween three ‘positions, forward, neutral and re
verse; and pedal i0| having three operative posi
tions; direct for actuation of clutch D, neutral,
and the fully depressed position for putting in
clutch C which drives the torque converter T.
The system of the invention herewith includes
air servo means consisting of reservoir
tained by the customary air pump I03
matic cut-off valve I04; air pressure
505 and E00 connected to air main
I02, main
and auto
feed pipes
I08, valve
assembly ii 0 controlling pressure to operate the
control for clutch D; and valve assembly I 20 con
- trolling pressure to operate the control for clutch
C, as shown in Figures 6 and 7.
When the external force shifts sleeve 45 to the
The valve assemblies H0 and I20 are ?tted to
left, the spring 42 is anew ?exed through the
bores III and H2 respectively, in valve casing
critical position, and its force is dissipated in
I09, and are operated by mechanism shown in
holding the presser plate 36 free from load, thus
detail in Figure '7, having external lever I I5 and
declutching clutch D.
link H0 moved by lever IIB of pedal IOI. When
It should be noted that the external force to be 45 the pedal IOI is depressed to the “torque con
applied to sleeve 45 need only be effective to carry
verter” position indicated, lever I I8 swings clock
the spring 42 through the critical mid-position,
wise from the position shown; and valve assem
and that no external force thereafter is needed
blies III) and I20 admit atmosphere to lines
to hold the clutch C engaged or disengaged.
I22—I23 and to cylinders I25-—I30 in which pis
External controls for clutches C and D, alter 50 tons I26 and I3! slide. As will be seen later, the
nating their engagement, may therefore connect
spring I33 of Figure 2 tends to engage clutch C,
the drive for variable speed and torque through
establishing drive through the converter T.
the converter unit T, or for ?xed ratio or “direct”
drive.
_ When pedal IOI returns to the “neutral” posi
'
tion shown, valve assembly I20 cuts off the at
In Figure 5 the clutch assembly D takes the 55 mosphere from line I23, and applies ‘pressure to
form of a friction clutch, identical in operation
with that of the clutch just above described, and
shown as connecting shaft 2 and sleeve 3.
The
cylinder I30 so that clutch C is now disengaged,
?exing spring 42 to the left side of its critical posi
tion.
prime-numbered elements of Figure 5 correspond
Movement of the pedal IOI to the direct drive
to the parts described above in conjunction with 60 position rocks levers I I8 and I I5 counterclockwise,
the turbine driving clutch C‘ of Figure 2.
so that both valve assemblies H0 and I20 admit
Referring back to Figure 2, the collar of slider
air pressure from line I03 to lines I22-I23 and
4 is intersected by fork ‘I0 affixed to rod ‘II having
to cylinders I25—I30. Piston I20 is arranged to
sliding bearing in casing extensions ‘I2 and 12a.
permit spring ‘I4 to load the slider 4 of Figure 2
Lock ring ‘I3 retains biasing spring 14 which nor 65 toward engagement; or to shift the sleeve 45’
mally urges slider 4 toward engagement of teeth
of Figure 5 toward clutching engagement. Pis
I 3-! !. Rocker lever 15 pivoted on the casing is
ton 5 3| maintains pressure on. spring I33, but
arranged to load the slider 4 for disengagement
spring 42 being flexed to the left of its critical
through piston rod 10 and piston I26 of air cylin
position is not thereby loaded.
der I25 mounted on the casing 20 when air is
When pedal IOI returns to the “neutral” posi
admitted to pipe I22, to overcome the tension of
tion shown, valve assembly IIO cuts off the air
return spring 11.
pressure from line I 05 and vents cylinder I25 and
'At the right of Figure 2, the casing 20- is shown
line I22 to atmosphere, so that clutch D may be
disengaged, through the relieving of load on
broken away to disclose the external control ap
plied to collar 44 which moves clutch sleeve 45 75 spring 14 in the instance of the jaw clutch slider
2,403,954
7
of Figure 1; or the action of spring 11’, in the
case of the modi?cation of Figure 5.
The shifter lever member 90 is pivoted in ?t
ting 9| fastened to the floor of the driver’s com
partment, and its extension lever 90a is pivoted
to rod 92 extending to the rear of the vehicle,
to bellcrank 93 mounted on the bulkhead I80.
The other end of bellcrank 93 is pivoted to
8
by small spring I42 normally seals port I43 in
casing I09.
In description of the valve assembly IIO, bore
II I is occupied by valve body I45 having pivoted
roller I46 at its right end. The valve I45 is cen
trally drilled at I48 and communicates with an
nular port I49 which may intersect atmospheric
port I50 cut in casing I09. The hardened seat
I52 is held on the spindle end of valve I45 by
rod 94 movable parallel to the bulkhead; the
rod 94 being in turn pivoted to rocking lever 95 10 conical spring I5I which normally acts to cause
pivoted on the casing 20 of the power plant. The
valve I45 and roller I46 to follow cam I60.
opposite end of lever 95 projects into the casing
20 and is forked to operate the slider 25 of Fig
normally held in an extended position from the
Tapered seat I52 at valve I48 may be sealed
by the adjacent end of the dumbbell valve I4I at
full stroke.
Servo port I41 connects to line I22, and to cyl
inder I25 of the direct drive clutch D.
When the valve I45 is as shown in Figure 7,
spring I5I is active, cam I60 is out of the way,
air pressure in line I05 seals port I43 with dumb
bell valve I4I assisted by spring I 42, and the servo
line I22 and cylinder I25 are vented through port
I41, passage I48, port I49 and port I50.
When cam I 60 stresses spring I5I, shifting
valve I45 to the left, port I49 is out of registry
with port I50, and ground seat I52 intersects
valve MI, unseating it, and admitting air pres
sure from line I05 and nipple I40 to port I41
and line I22. As has been noted, this position
corresponds to the shift from “neutral” to “direct
drive” of pedal IOI, which through the linkage
IIO—II6—II5, rocks shaft I6I and cam I60 to
pivot 96 of ?tting 9|, by spring 91 enclosed in
Similarly, in description of valve assembly I20,
ure 2.
Tracing out the motion, one will observe that 15
the lever assembly I00 rocked counterclockwise
exerts a pull on rod 92, rocking bellcrank 93
clockwise, and through rod 94, rocking lever 95
clockwise. The forked end of lever 95 then has
shifted slider 25 of Figure 2 to reverse driving 20
position. When the lever I00 is rocked clockwise,
rod-92 receives a thrust, and bellcrank 93‘ and
lever 95 rock counterclockwise; which, upon com
parison with Figure 2, causes slider 25 to uncouple
the reverse driving gearing 23—-28—21-—I6, and 25
reconnect sleeve 9 with member 2l—25.
Since it is desirable that the operator be en
abled to compel not only a neutral position of
slider 25 but also a neutral drive for both clutches
C and D, the lever I00 is of composite form, being 30
sleeve 98.
The shifter lever rod 99 ?ts loosely in a recess
move roller I46 and valve I45.
valve I55 in bore II2 of casing I09 is equipped
with roller I56, has central port I58 communi
35
of the lever 90, and projects through the pivot
cating with port I59 and carries ground seat I62
center 96 to the underside of the floorboard.
held by conical spring I63. Dumbbell valve I64
Bellcrank 80 pivoted at 8i is shaped at 82 to
is normally loaded by spring I65 to seal pressure
intersect the movement of the end 83 of rod 99.
port I66 connected to nipple I61 of line I23, and
The pedal IOI is mounted in pivot ?tting 84
is
unseated at full stroke of valve I55. Atmos
40
?oorboard, at 85.
pheric port I68 in casing I09 may intersect port
A bridle or yoke 86 is arranged to slide in an
I59 of valve I55; and vent servo port I61, line
aperture in the ?oorboard in a plane intersecting
I23 and cylinder I30 of the torque converter
the “neutral” pedal position at right angles. Each
clutch C.
leg of the yoke 86 is equipped with a roller 86a
When the valve I55 is as shown in Figure 7,
so that when the yoke 86 is pressed upward, the " the cam I60 is active, spring I65 is compressed,
ground seat I62 has intersected the dumbbell
pedal I0! will be positioned at “neutral,” whether
valve I64 sealing off the central passage I58, open
it has been in direct or in the “torque converter"
ing pressure porting I06 to the servo line I23,
control positions.
and. the annular port I59 has shifted out of
Bellcrank 90 is linked to bellcrank 01 by the v
registry with the atmospheric port I68. In this
short rod 35, and 81 terminates in a cam foot 81a
position, the conditions correspond to the posi
which intersects the motion of the rod end of
tioning of pedal IOI at “neutral drive.”
yoke 85. Spring 89 bears against the ?oorboard
The contouring of the cam I60 is such that
?tting 84 and against cam foot 81a so that, nor
mally, the pedal is free to move without inter 55 when the clutch C is engaged, as when pedal IN
is in “torque converter” position, that is, fully
ference by the bellcrank 81.
depressed, both valve I45 and I55 are positioned
Whenever the driver depresses the knob 99a
for
atmosphere to enter both cylinders I25 and
and rod 99 to compress spring 91., the above de
I30; when it is in “neutral" position, valve I45
scribed bellcrank system becomes active, spring
admits atmosphere to cylinder I25, but valve I55
89 is also stressed, so that unless the pedal IN
admits reservoir pressure to cylinder I30; and
is already in the “neutral” position, the resulting
when it is in the “direct drive” position, both
clockwise rocking of the bellcranks 80 and 81 will
valves I45 and I55 admit reservoir pressure to
shift the yoke 86 to neutral-compelling position.
both cylinders I25 and I30.
It is realized, of course, that the previously
In the case of the modi?cation of Figure 5
described valve motions, in connection with the
where the jaw clutch of Figure 4 is replaced by
control movements of the pedal IOI will therefore
the friction clutch for direct drive, the sleeve
ensue, when the shifter lever assembly I00 is
45', which stresses spring 42', is arranged so that
manipulated as above described.
when servo pressure in cylinder I25 is exerted,
' Figure 7 provides a sectional detail describing
the spring 42' is positioned to ?exibly load pro
a speci?c form of valve mechanism used here
jection 31’ of pressure plate 36'. When the air
with as an example of the principles of the in
pressure is relieved, spring 11’ may overcome the
vention.
force of 42’ and disengage the clutch D.
At the left the valve casing I09 is equipped
When the operator is driving‘ the vehicle in
with nipple I40 joined to pipe I05 leading from
direct drive, the fluid pressure is therefore main
the pressure source. Dumbbell valve I4I held 75 taining the sleeve 45’ of the clutch D in engaged
9
2,403,951;
position, and clutch C is disengaged. If there be
a demand for acceleration at a lower speed ratio
than 1 to l, the operator will depress pedal “II
to “torque converter” position. Valve I45 ?rst
cuts off the servo pressure from cylinder I25, as
the pedal i?l passes through “neutral” position;
10
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent is:
.
1. In a power transmission assembly, for motor
vehicles in combination, a power shaft, a ?uid
turbine torque-multiplying transmission mounted
to rotate concentrically with said shaft, a clutch
away from the presser plate 36', and clutch D
device connecting said, transmission with said
becomes disengaged.
.
,
shaft, operating means for said device, a power
When the pedal reaches the “torque converter” 10 receiving shaft concentric with said power shaft,
and spring ‘12 being shifted by spring 133, ?exes
position, valve I55 moves to cut off servo pressure
from cylinder I30, which vents to atmosphere,
and spring 42 of clutch C is shifted so as to load
a gearing unit arranged to transmit reverse
geared drive between said transmission and said
power receiving shaft and to couple them directly,
a load shaft arranged at right angles intersecting
the presser plate 36, and thereby establish drive
through the clutch plate 48 and the torque con 15 the centerline of said power shaft and said power
verter T of Figure 2,
receiving shaft, and a drive coupling consisting
The relative biasing shown for the clutches for
of a jaw clutch adapted to drive said power re
engagement and disengagement is believed to be
ceiving shaft directly from said power shaft lo
novel, providing advantages in smooth operation,
cated adjacent the intersection of said centerline
safety and the ability to maintain operation re
with said load shaft.
gardless of failure.
2. In power driven vehicles, adapted for trans
Further modi?cation may be made of the rela
versely arranged power plants, in combination, a
tive action of the clutch control members with
vehicle, an engine arranged transversely in said
respect to the inherent characteristics of the disc
vehicle and connected to one end of a power shaft
spring actuating clutch controls, without depart 25 coaxial therewith, a hollow power receiving shaft
ing from the scope of my invention.
surrounding a portion of said power shaft, a vari
In order to assure the shifter mechanism moved
by the operator’s control 99 from wrong motion,
the shifter mechanism is interlocked, so that the
ball etc and. rod 99 must be depressed for each
shift among forward, neutral or reverse.
The sectional View of Figure 8 shows lever 99a,
movable with the rocking shifter motion of rod 99
as shown by the arrows. On the inner face of
lever 99a is welded guide key I'M.
Pad 82 of
lever 80 moves in an arc to intersect key I10,
and notches I'HR, FUN, and l‘HF respectively,
are the positions occupied by the tongue of the
key Ill! when the handlever assembly I00 is
placed in the reverse, neutral and forward posi
tions.
The lever assembly I01! cannot be rocked
through these positions until gearshift ball 99a
and rod 99 are depressed su?iciently to swing lever
89 and the notches of pad 82 clear of the key Hi].
When the new shift is accomplished, the spring
89 returns the lever 80, pad 82 and notches to
able ratio drive comprising a fluid turbo-torque
multiplying transmission mounted coaxially with
said shafts and adapted to transmit drive from
said power shaft, a forward and reverse gear unit
having an input element driven from the output
of said transmission, a coaxial clutch device effec
tive to couple said unit with the other end of said
power shaft, whereby the drive of said power
shaft is transmitted from the ?uid transmission
to said power receiving shaft, a load shaft adapted
to drive the vehicle arranged in a plane inter
secting the common centerline of said power shaft
and said power receiving shaft, and a selective
drive coupling effective to join said power shaft
directly with said power receiving shaft when the
drive of said clutch device is disconnected.
3. In a power transmission, in combination, a
power shaft, a load shaft, a ?uid transmission
unit adapted to transmit drive between the shafts,
a ?rst clutch arranged to connect said shafts
directly, a second' clutch arranged to connect said
locking position. This simple interlock is believed
shafts through said fluid unit, a gear unit adapted
an improvement over the customary poppet lock
to transmit the drive of said ?uid unit to said
50 load shaft, a fluid operated piston adapted to
ing means,
The preceding description is believed to encom
actuate said ?rst clutch, a ?uid operated piston
pass a number of novel features, among which are
adapted to actuate said second clutch; a servo
the ?uid pressure operated direct engine cou
valve arranged to control said ?rst-named clutch
pling of Figures 2 and 4, the related servo control
piston, a second servo valve arranged to control
motions of the shifter mechanism which alter
said second-named piston, a mechanism com
nates drive between clutches C and D, the novel
monly operative upon both said valves embodying
arrangement of the friction clutch loading and
a cam. and a pedal connected to said mechanism
unloading means in conjunction with the alter
effective upon said cam to establish sequential
nating ?uid pressure control, and the free release
drive through one of said clutches, no-drive or
mechanism involving the one-way clutch where 60 drive through the second of said clutches, by
by the turbo-driven element may be brought to
opening of both of said valves, closing of one valve
rest. The present divisional of my Letters Pat
or by closing of both of said valves respectively.
ent U. S, 2,272,434, noted above, is directed in par
4. In an automotive vehicle, in combination, a
ticular to the features involved in the overall
?uid torque converter, a clutch coupling to said
transmission controls of the invention as distinct
converter, a power operated unit for establishing
from the clutch controls claimed in the parent
drive through said ?uid torque converter which
case.
From the foregoing, it is apparent that a num
ber of related novelties embodying invention in
combination are herewith disclosed. Changes in
the speci?c arrangements and forms of the struc
latter is arranged to connect a power and a load
shaft, said unit comprising a piston adapted to
disengage said clutch, an opposing spring adapted
tures may be made without departing from the
spirit and scope of my invention, said invention
to engage said clutch, a gear unit adapted to
transmit the drive of said converter and said
clutch to said load shaft, a ?uid servo valve
effective to load or unload'said piston according
being limited only by the scope of the appended
claims.
mounted on the ?oorboard of said vehicle for
to
positional
movement,
a
pedal
pivotally
2,403,954
11
controlling the action of said valve, intervening
12
shafts, a ?uid torque converter, asecond clutch
adapted to establish indirect drive between said
input shaft and said converter, gearing arranged
in the driving path established by said second
clutch, control means operative to actuate said
mechanism between said pedal and said valve
movable at the will of the operator effective to
set aside the action of said spring and cause said
piston to disengage said clutch, and a ratio shift
clutches alternatively comprising pedal-operated
control for said gear unit operable upon said
mechanism, and a positionable control for said
mechanism to establish a predetermined setting
gearing coacting with said means and operative
of said valve for given ratio positioning of said
to disconnect both clutches prior to movement
ratio shift control.
5. In a controlling mechanism for power plants, 10 to or from at leasttwo gear-drive-establishing
positions.
wherein a pneumatically operated clutch system
affords direct drive, torque converter drive, or no
drive, and wherein a forward and reverse driving
gearbox is provided, operating in conjunction
9. In vehicle power transmission controls, in
combination, a transmission drive assembly in
cluding a selective ratio gear unit and a clutch
with a ?uid torque converter device having direct 15 arranged to establish reduction drive between
input and output shafts and through said unit, a
drive means, a valve mechanism arranged to
second clutch arranged to establish direct drive
establish any of said drives or to establish no
between said shafts, a ?uid torque converter in
drive by control of said means, a pedal con
trolling said mechanism movable into direct, con
cluded in the torque path of said ?rst named
verter or neutral drive positions, a hand lever
20' clutch, a valve casing, two concentric bores in
adapted to shift the gears of said gearbox into
forward, neutral or reverse, and interlocking
means connecting said pedal and said lever
said casing, valve members mounted to slide in
plate; the other member of said device including
mechanism operative to condition the operation
said bores, two fluid, pressure chambers co-ex
tensive with each of said bores, a ?uid pressure
source, two ?uid pressure inlets connected to said
whereby said pedal is moved to no-drive position
before a shift of said lever through its neutral 25 source, each arranged to be connected with said
chambers, auxiliary valves normally sealing said
gear position from either forward or reverse posi
inlets from said chambers, clutch servo devices
tions may be made.
~
connected to said chambers operative to actuate
6. In vehicle power transmission controls, an
said clutches for alternate engagement, ?uid
engine shaft, an output shaft, gearing connected
to said output shaft for selective forward neutral 30 pressure relief porting in said casing intersecting
the movement of said ?rst named valve members,
or reverse driving conditions, a clutch device one ,
and mechanism for said two valve members
member of which consists of a ?anged drum con
operative to shift both for ?uid pressure admis
nected to said engine shaft, a movable presser
sion when in at least one position, and a con
plate rotating with said drum, and a discoidal
spring adapted to exert spring force upon said 35 nection between said gear unit control and said
of said mechanism for given settings of said gear
a disc rotating with said intermediate shaft and
unit control.
arranged to be gripped between said plate and a
10. In vehicle power transmission controls, in
portion of said drum; axially shiftable means for
combination, a ?uid torque converter drive in
the inner circumference of said discoidal spring
cluding a power shaft adapted to be connected to
operative in one position to render said spring
an engine, a controllable coupling for connect
ineffective for releasing the drive of said device, a
ing the shaft to the engine, a driven shaft con
control pedal connected to said means having
centric With said shaft, a one-way clutch having
two positions in one of which the said means
renders said spring ineffective to exert its force 45 an internal memberaffixed to one of 'said shafts
and an external member for connecting to the
upon said plate, control mechanism connected to
other of said shafts, a gear serving as the primary
operate said pedal, a ?uid torque converter hav
element of a reverse gear train connected to said
ing an input element connected to said disc and
?rst named shaft, a gear device connected to the
an output member connected to said gearing, and
operator-operated means for shifting said gear~ 50 ‘other of said shafts adapted to couple to said
external member, a reverse gear train engaging
ing effective to control disengagement of said
with said device and meshing with said ?rst
device by said ?rst named means prior to prede
named gear, and positionable control mecha
termined gear shifting motion by said means in
nism for ‘said device arranged to establish for
selecting and shifting said gearing through a
connection to said mechanism enforcing the said 55 ward one-way drive between said shafts and
through said torque converter to establish no
pedal to move to a drive-releasing position upon
drive, or to couple the said Shafts through the
a predetermined movement of said operator
reverse gear train and said torque converter
operated means.
while releasing the said external member, accord
'7. In vehicle power transmission controls, in
combination, a ?uid torque converter, a forward 60 ing to the positioning of said mechanism.
11. In vehicle power transmission controls, in
and reverse gear driven by said converter, a dis
combination, an engine, a ?nal drive, a torque
connectable driving clutch for said converter, a
speed ratio selecting pedal adapted to control
converter, coupling means arranged to establish
drive between said engine and said ?nal drive
connection or disconnection of the drive through
said clutch to said converter, a gearshift lever 65 including a gear compartment adjacent said con
verter housing, a reverse gear train therein com
for said gear positionable to at least two gear
drive positions, and having a supplementary
prising a primary gear a?ixed to an input shaft
driven from said converter, a countershaft in said
clutch control motion, and interconnecting means
compartment having a plurality of longitudi
between the said lever and said pedal operative to
inhibit shift of said lever from either of said 70 nally spaced idler gears one of which is caused
to rotate by said primary gear, an output shaft
positions until said supplementary motion is ob
extending into said compartment, splines on said
tained.
output shaft carrying a slider therein having a
8. In vehicle power transmission controls, in
range of motion limited by the longitudinal spac
combination, a direct coupling clutch connected
to establish drive between input and output 75 ing of said idler gears, said slider having a ring
2,403,954
13
14
of teeth meshable with one of said idler gears,
and having a second ring of teeth, a one-way
clutch the inner member of which rotates rwith
said input shaft, the outer member of which is
externally toothed to mesh with said second ring
of slider teeth, and control mechanism for said
duction drive between said shafts through the
actuation of said clutching means by said servo
means as controlled by operation of said valving,
and coacting control means between said gear
ing control and said mechanism for permitting
or preventing action of the mechanism for pre
slider operative in successive positions to estab
determined control settings.
lish forward drive through said one-way clutch,
15. In motor vehicle drives, in combination, an
engine, a power shaft driven by said engine, a
establish no-drive or neutral, or to establish re
verse drive through said primary gear, said 10 load shaft, driving means arranged to couple
said shafts embodying a fluid turbine transmis
' countershaft, said ?rst named ring of slider
sion affording in?nitely variable speed reduction
teeth, and said output shaft splines, according
ratios, and embodying forward and reverse gear
to successive positioning movements of said
mechanism.
‘
‘
ing, alternately actuable clutching means adapted
to connect said shafts directly, or to connect said
12. In vehicle power transmission controls, in
combination, a variable speed ?uid transmission
shafts indirectly through said transmission, ?uid
providing in?nitely variable reduction speed
with torque multiplication through input, out
pressure actuation means effective to cause alter
nate direct or reduction drive by operation of
said clutching means, valving controlling said
put and reaction turbine members, including a
coupling clutch, for establishing reduction drive 20 ?uid pressure actuation means, mechanism for
operating said valving, a manual selection control
by said transmission, a second clutch arranged
to provide direct drive, a forward and reverse
for said forward and reverse gearing, and con
necting means between said control and said
gearbox connected to transmit drive by one of
mechanism effective to compel predetermined
said clutches, a manually positioned pedal ar
operation of said valving prior to selection by
ranged to establish drive by either of said
said control.
clutches or to disengage both, a gearshift lever
16. With a combination such as stated in claim
adapted to establish forward, neutral or reverse
13, the sub~combination of an arrangement of
drive in said gearbox, and interconnecting means
the elements of said linkage effective to cause
between said pedal and said lever operative to
operation‘ of said valving prior to predetermined
inhibit shifting of said lever from one position
forward or reverse shift selection of said gear.
to another without restoration of said pedal to
1'7. In the combination of claim 14, the sub
the position in which it enforces disengagement
combination of an arrangement of elements of
of both clutches.
said control means and said mechanism of said
13. In motor vehicle control devices, power
and load shafts adapted to’ be coupled directly or 35 claim 14 operative for causing said valving to
release both clutches for predetermined position
indirectly at reduction ratio by a ?uid turbine
ing of said gearing control.
transmission unit, for both forward and reverse
18. In motor vehicle drive controls, a power
drive, a forward and reverse drive control means,
transmission assembly including a power shaft
a plurality of clutches, one of which is actuable
to couple said shafts directly and another of 40 driven directly by said engine, a load shaft, a
first clutch arranged to couple said shafts directly
which is independently actuable to couple said
when engaged, a variable ratio ?uid transmission
shafts indirectly through said unit, ?uid pres
unit adapted to couple said shafts, a second clutch
sure servo means operative to actuate said
arranged to connect said power shaft to the input
clutches alternatively in engagement and disen
of said transmission, a gearing unit for coupling
gagement for coupling said shafts directly and
said load shaft to said ?uid unit for transmitting
in reduction ratio, valving controlling said servo
the drive of said clutches, a control for said gear
means, mechanism for operating said valving. a
ing unit, ?uid pressure actuated means operative
pedal controlling said mechanism and having in
to cause alternate engagement and disengage
its range of movement one position of control
ment of said clutches, mechanism moved‘ by said
in which neither of said clutches is engaged, an
means for causing initial actuation of said ?rst
other position in which one of the clutches is en- 1
named clutch, while said means is disengaging
gaged, and a third position in which the alternate
said second named clutch, means associated with
clutch is engaged, and a coacting linkage between
said ?rst named clutch for preventing engage
said drive control means and said pedal for co
ment thereof until said shafts are rotating at
ordinating their respective motions.
synchronous
speeds and interlocking linkage con
14. In motor vehicle power controls, an engine
trolling the action of said ?uid pressure means
driving a power shaft, a load shaft, driving means
in accordance with settings of said gear unit
arranged to couple said shafts for both forward
control.
and reverse drive embodying a ?uid turbine
60
19. In motor vehicle drives, an engine, a power
transmission affording in?nitely variable speed
shaft directly driven by said engine, a load shaft,
reduction ratios, alternately actuable clutching
a clutch arranged to couple said shafts directly,
means adapted to connect said shafts directly, or
a variable speed ?uid drive adapted to couple
indirectly through said transmission; forward
said shafts at in?nitely variable reduction ratios,
and reverse drive gearing coupling said trans~
a shiftable gear unit, a second clutch arranged
mission with said load shaft, a control for said
to connect said power shaft to said variable speed
gearing, ?uid pressure operated servo means ef
drive through said unit, a third clutch adapted
fective to cause no-drive, direct or reduction drive
to connect said load shaft with the output of
of said driving means by selective actuation of
said variable speed drive and said unit when said
said clutching means, valving controlling the ac
second clutch is engaged, blocking means in said
tion of said fluid pressure operated servo means
?rst named clutch adapted to prevent its engage
for selective actuation of said clutching means,
ment at asynchronous speeds, loading means nor
mechanism for operating said valving, a pedal
mally operative to bias said first named clutch
linked to said mechanism effective to establish
for engagement, a member positionable to oppose
no-drive or to establish alternate direct or re 76 the action of said loading means, ?uid pressure
2,403,954
15
means. including manually operated valving for
actuating said ?rst two named clutches and in
cluding a device for positioning said member, and
a control for said unit combined with said con
16
pled thereto, a sliding toothed member to by-pass
the drive of said freewheel clutch, a gear as
sembly surrounding said freewheel clutch, and
effective to convert forward into backward rota
tion between the said torque converter when said
trol mechanism for said valving e?ective to estab
member is made eifective to by-pass said free
lish alternate drive by said ?rst and second named
wheel clutch; and arrangement of the said engine,
clutches or effective to compel both to remain dis
the" said clutching means, the said freewheel
engaged at the will of the operator, as applied
clutch, the said member, the said torque converter
to the positioning of said mechanism.
20. In motor vehicle drives, in combination, 10 and the said load shaft wherein these named ele
ments are all displaced concentrically, and a ?nal
concentric power and load shafts, a concentric
drive shaft coupled to said load shaft by bevel
?uid turbine transmission unit arranged to couple
gearing for driving the latter shaft always at a
said shafts, a plurality of concentric clutching
?xed ratio speed reduction from that of the said
means adapted to couple said unit with said power
shaft, to couple said shafts together directly, one 15 engine.
22. In power drive apparatus for motor ve
of which couples said unit intermittently with
hicles, the combination of an engine shaft, a
said load shaft when said unit is coupled with
power output shaft, a transmission intermediate
said power shaft, a ?nal drive shaft displaced at
shaft, selective gearing for alternate coupling of
right angles to and intersecting the centerline of
said power and load shafts, ?xed ratio gear mech 20 said power output and said intermediate shafts
positively for two-way forward or reverse drive;
anism‘ constantly coupling said load shaft and
‘ a clutch device having a member rotatable with
?nal drive shaft at a ?xed reduction gear ratio,
said engine shaft and a mating member rotatable
?xed ratio forward and reverse gearing including
with said intermediate shaft, loading means nor
said intermittently operating clutching means
displaced in the driving train between the output 25 mally effective to press said members together,
an axially shiftable means for removing the ef
of said unit and the said load shaft, operative
fect of said loading means so as to disengage said
to set aside the action of said intermittent clutch
clutch device, control mechanism for said axially
ing means when said gearing is driving in reverse,
shiftable means; a fluid turbine torque converter
and a control for said gearing e?ective to un
couple the said coupling means prior to shifting 30 having an input element connected to said inter
mediate shaft and an output element connected
same to reverse.
to drive said power output shaft, and operator
21. In power plant installations for motor ve
operated means for shifting said selective gearing
hicles, in combination, an engine, a torque-multi
for alternately coupling said power output and
plying torque converter, a load shaft, clutching
means arranged to transmit the power of said 35 said intermediate shafts for said two-way forward
or reverse drive, said last named means being
engine directly to said load shaft while said torque
connected to said control mechanism for e?ecting
converter is idling or non-rotating, and arranged
disengagement of said device during operator
to transmit the power of said engine to said load
operated motion of said last named means pre
shaft at in?nitely graduated variable speed ratios
while said direct transmission of power therebe 40 determined for a subsequent alternation of drive
by said selective gearing.
tween is inhibited, a freewheel clutch adapted to
HANS O. SCHJOLIN.
disconnect the drive of said torque converter from
said load shaft when said engine is directly cou
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