close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2403956

код для вставки
Ju?y H6, 1946.
K. SCHLESINGER
,
2,403,956.
STORAGE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Filed May 11, 1945
,5
6 Sheets-Sheet l
17514991.
:F ________ __7l___/._ — _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1/
— _ _ _ _ ___l:
I:
47
a
3-9‘
J5
i
~
"5
0/
'10
/'f
Lt!|e
{f
I
'J
\
=
i-
1,1
.
I
I
i
.
"'% Ig35
l
.-
i3L- _______________ __/_ __________ __.||':
|
..
‘my
:ELA?
II,
:i i:
Mg?1:5
,
II
I
4/
/6
v
23“.
|
L
J
2’
INVENTOR.
11
I
BY
H
ATTOPNEL/
4
July 16, 1946.
K. SCHLESINGER
‘
STORAGE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Filed May 11, 1943
F’MQ.
I
2,403,955
'
_
.
6 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2
4/
INVEIYTOR.
Kart paws/m
A TTOPNEY
July 16, 1946.
K. SCHLESINGER
2,403,956
STORAGE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Filed May 11, 1945
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
WQTER LINE
WH TEX’ L INE
PE?CH/NG DISTHNGE
6S'EM9/T/ wry)
I
INIfENTOR.
A TTOPNEL/
7
July 16, 1946.
K. ST'CHLESINGER
'
2,403,956
STORAGE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Filed May 11, 1945.
Q
2*
w
§
AAAAAAA
VIVIII'
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
§
lllllllll
""'I"'~
“inn
"""I
I
‘E
:‘Q ‘
w
"‘\
g’ I
_ F
b
.
v
INVEIYTOR.
ATTOE’NEV '
July 16, 1946.
K. 'SCHLESINGER
2,403,956
STORAGE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Filed May 11, 1943
-
6 Sheets-Sheet 5
9
INIfENTOR.
BY
ATTOPNEY
July 16,‘ 1946-
K. SCHLESINGKER
2,403,956 >
STORAGE vAMPLIF]:ER CIRCUIT
Filed May 11. 1943
6 Sheets-Sheet‘ 6
4|
lllllllll
'I'I'I'II
mm
Z_..._____ ...______......
Q
_
INVFNTOR.
agar
ATTOPNE'K
’
Patented July 16, 1946
2,403,956
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,403,956
STORAGE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT
Kurt Schlesinger, West Lafayette, Ind., assignor
to Radio Corporation of America, a corpora- ,
tion of Delaware
1
Application May 11, 1943, Serial No. 486,522
29 Claims. (Cl. 171-352)
2 ,
This invention is related to ampli?er apparatus
vided to control a suitable indicator unit, and
and particularly to ampli?er apparatus of a type
the system was so set up and constructed that .I
operating in connection with slowly alternating,
the indicator unit produced a measurement, not
only of the ‘presence of the disturbance itself but
in was an indication of the location and magnitude
quasi-static, electric or magnetic ?elds in space,
and wherein an initial control on the ampli?er
circuit is exercised by an unbalancing electrical
?eld condition in the region of the apparatus to
make possible the detection and/or location of
objects or ?eld disturbing conditions. Such ac
of the disturbance.
tion necessitates the use of a phase and ampli
tude responsive A. C, ampli?er system.
The particular invention herein to be disclosed
is, generally speaking, related to the substance
of co-pending application entitled “Electron tube
circuit,” which was ?led on May 11, 1943, as
Serial Number 486,521 by this applicant. In
the mentioned companion case, the disclosure is
directed primarily to an ampli?er unit called, for
convenience, a "storage ampli?er,” which may be
use of a device herein to be described, it will
unit will be so constructed and set up as to make
possible the immediate location of ferro-magnetic
bodies in the vicinity of and up to reasonable '
tivated from an alternating current source and
tubes are so arranged as to load suitable energy
ative by having been controlledly energized from
some suitable activating source; an electrical en
ergy storage circuit will be charged in its plate
and caused to control the second tube during
the next half-cycle, and so forth, until sequen
tially all of the other tubes of the combination
repeat and amplify the signal so as ?nally to
produce an observable indication which shall be a
retarded, but magni?ed, indication of the effect
initiating the operation.
Further, by the companion case, the operation
of the described system was initiated in many
of its forms by the unbalancing of an electro
static ?eld. This eifect initiated the production
of observable indications for frequency disturb
distancesaway from the ?eld producing element.
The'system of the present invention is designed
to provide an indication or recording simultane
ously representative of the proximity, as Well as
the position, of any object within a 360° angle
connected thereto in alternating polarity. The
tive periods of each. As was described in the
companion case, whenever the ?rst of the series
of grid controlled recti?er tubes becomes oper
‘
be appreciated, from what is to follow, that the
considered, broadly speaking, to comprise a chain r
or cascade of grid controlled recti?er tubes ac
storage circuits in accordance with the conduc
-
The system to be described in this applicae ,
tion is for the purpose of utilizing many of the
general principles of the storage ampli?er circuit
still further, and for the purpose of developing
a magnetically operated locating device which is
capable of operating under the control of ro
tating electrical ?elds. In connection with the
of the transmitter.
2.
» a
-
'
Since alternating magnetic effects can readily
penetrate into water, in contrast to radio waves
being reflected, from the water surface, and elec
trostatic e?ects not being possible of attainment .
through water, this invention becomes of par
ticular importance and value in connection with
the detection of submarines and sea mines in
war time, as Well as for the use/and detection '
of land mines, for instance, or magnetic deposits
and for the-protection against collision of various
types of transport machines.
'
'
.
many “such uses it will be seen, from what
is to follow, that there is a common’feature,
generally speaking, of providing ways and means
whereby an alternating magnetic ?eld is built
up in the space around the station which is
equipped with one or more ampli?er units of the
type hereinabove described, and referred to in
more detail in the above mentioned co-pending
frequency of the energizing alternating current 45 application. In all cases, the frequency of the
ances Where the frequencies were close to the
source.
The system heretofore described was
also particularly useful and extremely sensitive
for providing phase shift measurements between
the input and the supply voltage.
The arrangement of the companion case men
tioned had reference, at least in part, to a form
of protecting signal apparatus wherein an elec
trostatic ?eld was :built up in the space or area
alternating ?eld which is developed coincides,
as above set forth, with the supply frequency.
The result, as will .be explained, is that when
any foreign body comes within the produced al
50 ternating, magnetic ?eld to. change the equilib- I
rium of the established ?eld, an'unbalanced con
ditionin the apparatus results, so that by com
bining correctional properties of the unit,~the
magnitude of the disturbing effect, and also the
surrounding the location of the storage ampli?er
unit. The frequency of such alternating ?eld 55 location thereof, immediately become apparent
was made to coincide with that of the power
in indicating apparatus co-ordinated therewith,
supply which was to supply the operating energy
with each disturbance being ‘the result of a pro
to the several grid controlled recti?ers. By suit
duced change in the permeability of the ?eld. ,
ably arranging the system, a delicately balanced
Accordingly, it becomes an. object of this in;
and highly sensitive bridge circuit could be pro 60 vention toprovide an electronic device capable
u
i
in l‘
2,403,956
3
of operating in such a manner that a slowly al
ternating, or quasi~magnetostatic ?eld is de
4
of some disturbing object within the ?eld can be
indicated on the indicating device, rather than
the exact position of the disturbance relative to
veloped and ferro-magnetic bodies entering that
the complete unit.
?eld and disturbing it by their permeability are
In the arrangement as it is shown, a disturbing
III
immediately detected.
body, such as that shown at IE), is placed within
A further object of the invention is that of
the response range of the storage ampli?er unit
providing a magnetic ?eld which, if disturbed,
contained within the shielding area indicated at
will react upon a controlled type of storage ele
ment to produce therefrom output energy of such
magnitude as to give useful indications of the
nature of the initiating disturbance.
Other objects of the invention are those of
providing an electronic tube circuit which is ca
pable of making measurements of predetermined
H. Within the range of the disturbing body l0
there is located a loop I3 which may be orientated
horizontally, for instance, as it is shown. To
supply energy for developing a magnetic ?eld
from the loop i3, alternating current energy
power source 15 has been provided.
The energy
output of this power source is supplied by way
conditions and reducing those measurements to 15 of a carefully shielded push-pull transformer ll
optical effects, with the magnitude, position or
brilliance of such effects being indicative of the
of the step-down variety to the loop l3, with the
shielding indicated at Hi, It is apparent, in this
of the initial disturbance. A further ob
way, that considerable current of relatively low
the invention is that of providing a pro
voltage
will be fed into the loop is from the source
system readily adaptable for use on ships 20 it and, consequently, with the loop constituting
like, whereby searching vessels are able
a ?eld coil, the field strength which is built up
to locate exactly submarines, submerged wrecks
in it, due to the current ?owing therein, will have
and the like, even though the located object re
a reaching distance, as will later be shown par
nature
ject of
tective
or the
main completely immobile and is well beneath
ticularly in connection with Fig. 3, which is di
[0 Ill
the water’s surface.
rectly proportional to its area and to the current
Other objects of the invention are those of
or ?ux produced, but inversely proportional to a
providing a protective system for use in connec
power function of the object’s distance.
tion with transport media whereby collisions may
Whenever current ?ows through the loop I3,
be avoided and whereby, if the transport medium
a balanced condition of the bridge circuit formed
happens to be a ship, the ship can protect itself 30
can be achieved where the variable resistor ele
from submerged objects by virtue of indications
ment i9 is adjusted to compensate for the resist
produced in a suitable indicating medium capable
ance of the loop and the variable inductance ele
of showing the exact location of the object and
ment 2!, which is appropriately shielded, as in
whether it is stationary or moving. .
dicated at 23, is adjusted to compensate for the
Other objects and advantages of the invention
inductance of the loop l3. The shielding unit
are to provide a protective system which is rela
23, at high operating frequencies of the order of
tively simple in its arrangement; a system which
30 kc. should preferably be of copper, whereas
will operate at relatively low power, and a sys
at low operating frequencies of the order of 60
tem which is highly efficient in its use.
cycles, it may be formed of iron and copper. It
can be seen that if the secondary winding of the
Other objects of the invention will suggest
themselves promptly to those skilled in the art
transformer H is split at its center point, which
connects to ground 25, as shown, and if the resist
eral forms of circuit and the illustrative explana
ance I9 is adjusted to equal the resistance of the
tion, as embodied in the several ?gures of draw~
loop is, and the inductance 2! is adjusted to
ings, is read in connection with the following spec- 4 - equal the loop inductance, a balanced condition
i?cations.
for no disturbance within the range or ?eld of
By the drawings:
the loop I3 may be achieved, with a result that
Fig. 1 illustrates, in schematic form, a simpli
across the diagonal of the bridge between the
?ed form of magnetic locating device;
junction point l8 and ground 25 no energy will
Fig. 2 represents a modi?cation of Fig. 1, where '3.," flow.
the apparatus is utilized in connection with a
If, now, however. with the inductance 2| care
ship to locate the right or left position relative
fully shielded, as indicated at 23, a disturbing
thereto to a disturbing condition;
effect such as a ferro-magnetic body l0 comes
Fig. 3 is an explanatory diagram to indicate,
within the ?eld of the loop H, a balanced condi
to which the invention is directed, when the sev
generally speaking, the range of operation;
Fig. 4. shows one form of the apparatus as ap
plied to a ship;
Fig. 5 is a modi?cation of Fig. l ;
Fig. 6 is a further modification wherein a dou
Ll
tion no longer will be maintained across the
bridge diagonal indicated.
Under such circum
stances, energy will now ?ow through the primary
ble control system is utilized and response indi
winding of the transformer 21 to be supplied, by
way of the transformer secondary winding, to the
control electrode element of the ?rst tube 29 of
cations for all directions are attained equally as
the aniiplifier unit contained within the shielded
easily;
Fig. 7 is another modi?cation of the arrange
ment of Fig. 6; and,
Fig. 8 shows a further re?nement and simpli?
cation of the invention.
In the companion application hereinabove
mentioned reference may be made for further
details of the speci?c operation of the storage
circuits as a whole. Generally speaking, the cir
cuit of Fig. 1 illustrates broadly the principles
upon ‘which operation is based. In the arrange
ment of Fig. 1, an extremely simple form of the
device is illustrated. In this system, the device
is so constituted and set up that only the presence
area I
.
As was explained in the companion case the
same source'of alternating current 15 which en
ergizes the bridge and ?eld coil I3 is connected
so as to supply operating voltages to all of the
tubes within the unit H with successive tubes
being energized by alternate half-cycles of the
supply energy source l5. The operating point of
the ?rst tube 29 is preferably set by way of the
energy which flows through the resistor 3i] and
the potentiometer 3!, with the cathode of the
tube 29 being connected at some intermediate
; point on the potentiometer 3|, which results in
5
2,403,956
providing appropriate bias for the vcomplete
system.
6
representing the nearness of vthe disturbance to
the'loop, but regardless of the direction of ap
Whenever a, disturbing condition coming with
proach., The indication is, however, dependent '
in the ?eld of the loop I3 is such as to unbalance
upon
the angle under which the disturbanceapg
the bridge, it causes current to ?ow through the 5 pears, ,as seenfrom theloop. It is a coszilaw
input transformer 21. The transformer 21 should
with'respect to the loop axis, with the maximum
be of the step-up variety to provide a voltage
sensitivity" along theaxis.
'
, , W
_'
increase effect in the secondary winding, at least
In
themodi?cation
of
Fig.
2,
itbecomes
pose
of the order of 100 to 1, and the transformer
sibleto-make a f‘rightorleft?’ indication, in addi-,
should have preferably a core of the type known 10 tion; to information» ‘about the proximity ' of; the
as “permalloy.” In this way, the unbalanced
conditions will be transferred as alternating volt
To this end, in Fig. 2, two ?eld coils l3 and
age waves of the common supply frequency, but
I3’ are providedand arranged’ in parallel j'ver
of variable phase and amplitude to the control
tical planes on each side of a metallic ship (that
electrode of the tube 29. The unbalance is meas
is, for instance,-starboard and port) and each
ured relative to a reference point which; like that
coil is energized from the same source I_ 5 in a
of the rest of the system, is established by the
balanced-to-ground manner. As the ?gure is
ground connection 25 and which might, for‘in
drawn, the, ship is being viewed, for instance,
stance, in connection with a ship, be constituted
from a position almost directly over it butslightly '
as the metallic body of the ship, or it vmight, in 20 to one side, so that the coils or loops: l3 and I3’
connection with a tank for instance, where the
may, be considered as being supported on the sides‘
device is used to search for land mines or to pre
of the vessel.
'
, ~
--,
vent collision, be the tank's armor. The main
order to provide energy to the coils or loops
purpose of the connection is to establish a ?xed
l3 or l3’, a generator unit I5 is again provided.
reference point.
This generator supplies alternating current to the
Now, whenever current ?ows through the trans
loops in phase opposition and, by virtue ‘of an
former 21 to produce an activating or control
unbalanced‘
condition occurring when ferro-mag
signal voltage on the control electrode of the tube
neticobjects'come within the reaching distance
29, that tube will draw current from source l5
of the loops, indications will'be producedon an
disturbance."
during half-cycle periods when positive voltage
'
Y
'
'
,
.
Y
,
,
.
_
indicating element 41," in accordance with ‘the
is applied to its plate or anode. The magnitude
of this half-wave pulse of plate current in the
tube 29 will depend entirely upon the phase and
general method described in connection with
amplitude, during that cycle, of the unbalance
arrangement'of the type of Fig. 2, that the<vessel
of the bridge system transferred to the grid from
the step-up input transformer 27. It thus can
be appreciated that whenever current flows
through the tube 29, it causes an electrostatic
charge to be built up in the condenser element
35 of the storage circuit 33, which includes also
the plate resistor 31 of the tube 29. The magni
tude of the charge in the condenser 35 is made
proportional to the disturbance e?ect upon-the
loop l3 which initiated the current flow in the
tube 29.
During the next half-cycle of the power supply
l5, the tube 39 (assumed to be the second tube of
the series) will commence to draw current. The
average bias on the tube 39, like other tubes of
the system, has been automatically set by that
bias applied to tube 29, as was explained in more
detail in the companion case hereinabove men
tioned. The current flow through tube 39 will be
measured by, and determined in accordance with,
the energy charge in the storage circuit 33. In
a manner like that explained for tube 29, current
?owing through the tube 39 will cause energy to
be stored in its associated storage circuit 4|.
This energy may then be transferred through a
suitable
number of
additional ampli?cation
stages, operating in a similar manner and con
nected through conductor 43, for instance, until
Fig.
1.
'
/
It will be understood,“in connection with .an 7
H forms a ferro-magnetic shell to vwhich the
ground point 25 may be made. This is quite
essential as it. makes the two ?eld coils I 3, l3’
virtually independent of each other. The energy
output'of the generator I 5 which, in the example
illustrated, may be alternating current developed
at a frequency of the order of 20 kc., is connected
to energize simultaneously the various grid con
trolled'recti?er tubes 29, 39, and so on, to the
output tube 45 in a manner already explained.
In order that strong currents may be set up
and caused to ?ow through the [coils l3 and I3’,
antieresonance ‘is introduced by suitable ‘con-3
denser units 49 and 59, which are connected'in
termediate these coilsi or loops ‘and the power
source l5. These condensers, when serially con~
nected, provide tuning at a frequency of the gen~
erator which makes possible the developr'riéntof
high currents in the loop at relatively small power
of the generator. The indicating element d'l‘of
the circuit of Fig. 2 is adjusted by application
of cathode bias into the first tube at 3!, as’ above
mentioned.
The bridge arrangement, on the. a
other hand, is so adjusted thatthe point It from
which energy is derived carries no voltage with
respect to ground in the balanced condition.
This “bridge-adjustment”- may be brought about
by suitable- “tapping” of the generator winding
the output tube 45 of the sequence ?nally receives
I5 at l3, and/or ‘by individual tuning of the two
the signal. In this last or output tube of the
?eld coils or bridge arms 49, 59, as‘ shown in Fig. 2,
sequence, the output energy is caused to produce 65
at their respective condensersf, The ~ step-up’ '\ ‘
an indication on the indicating device or meter
41 where the resultant indication is a measure
transformer 21 is illustrated in the arrangement
of Fig. 2 in the form of the so-called auto-trans
of the magnitude of the disturbance only, but not
' former, which is well known, and provides voltage ’
indicating the direction from which the disturb
step-up between the loops l3 or l3’ and the input,
ance originated. As an example, if the indicator 70 circuit of the tube 29, which
constitutes the ?rst '
41 indicates a zero reading for an equilibrium
of the several tubes of the series.
condition, the presence of a disturbing body l9
Under conditions of normal balance, as out
within the effective ?eld of the loop l3inay~ be
lined, it will be'seen that’ ‘wheri'any disturbing
made to cause always a positive indication on the
body comes within the range of the electro-mag
indicator 41, with the magnitude of the indication 75 netic ?eldset up by the coils ‘or.
loops l3 or I3’, ‘
2,403,956
8
may be derived from the self-inductance of the
an unbalanced or input voltage will be set up to
be applied to the ‘?rst tube 29 of the ampli?er
unit. This voltage will be in phase with ‘or in
coil after expressing this in the form
_n2A
L'A
phase opposition to the voltage of generator l5,
depending upon whether the ‘disturbing effect be
The equation (.6) above may also be written
in the following form:
comes effective ?rst upon the loop l3 or upon
the loop l3’. Whatever ‘disturbing voltages are
induced by such operation to apply control volt
age to ‘the ?rst tube will, in the manner already
explained, produce an increase or decrease in'the 10
1':
JALAAVl cos” a
‘
'
v
_—-————————
(6a)
A6
e
output current ?owing from the output tube 45,
A consideration of the foregoing equation will
and in this ‘way a resultant indication will appear
show that the indicating ability of the disclosed
upon the indicator 4'! by an indication of the
system decreases with the sixth power of the ‘dis;
pointer to the right or left, for instance.
To establish the range or distance within which 15 tance r and that it depends also upon the azi
muth a in the form of a cosine square law (cosz),
a system of the type above described shall be
as shown by Fig. 3, and it is also proportional
effective, general reference may be made to the
to the volume of .the disturbing and intruding
showing of Fig. 3. In this arrangement, the loop
body 6% (such as a submarine) as well as the
13, which may be assumed to be arranged ac
cording to the forms previously described, or in 20 area of the ?eld coil and the sensitivity of the
balance indicator of the measuring device. As
accordance with forms later to be described here
in, may be assumed to be energized by a current
was above noted, the term it does not appear
I. The loop, for purposes of present considera
in the last equation, in that a single turn is con
sidered adequate in most instances, as was above
tion, ‘will be assumed to have n turns about an
area A. Generally speaking, there will be only 25 also suggested.
,
a single turn of the loop so that the term n may
Now, continuing with a consideration of vari
be neglected under most conditions. In any case,
ous forms which the system may assume, it will
it will be appreciated that the coil 13 may be
follow, from the analysis above given and with
assumed to be duplicated by a magnetic dipole
fairly reasonable currents and voltages impressed
30 upon the loop 13, that fairly high reaching dis
having a dipole moment Do as shown, where
tances of e?‘ectiveness may be obtained. If only
D0=1LIA
(1)
an indication of the presence, but not of the ex
This dipole will produce a magnetic ?eld H1
act location, of an object is required, the ar
at the location of the intruder, which may be
rangement of Fig. 4 illustrates the general form
85 of ‘system, hereinabove explained in connection
expressed by the equation
with Fig. l, with the loop I3 arranged horizon
tally beneath or around the ship ll and prefer
ably slightly below the water line illustrated. In
where the angle 0. represents the angle at which
this arrangement, the ship II is assumed to be
the intruder or disturbing body 60 is assumed to 40 formed of ierro-ma'gnetic material in order to
be positioned relative to the dipole (see Fig. 3)
make the space inside the ship ?eld-free, so that
H1: 2D,:3cos a
(2)
and ,r indicates the distance.
magnetic bodies may be moved aboard without
in?uencing the system. If the steel hull of the
For purposes of these considerations, .the dis
turbing body or intruder may be assumed as a
ferro-magnetic body 68 with practically in?nite
45
permeability and a volume which can be repre
by a degau'ssing coil inside the hull, energized
sented V1. Under these circumstances, the orig
inally produced ?eld will build up a magnetiza
tion of the body 60 which may be duplicated by
from the common source, or copper plating may
be relied upon.
50
the following induced dipole moment
ship is insufficient to bring about magnetic
shielding, further improvement may be obtained
The bridge, ‘which was explained in connection
with Fig. ,1, is again in Fig. 4i assumed to be com
pleted by the coil 2| and the generator l5, as
well as the storage ampli?er unit and the step
up transformer 21. The sensitivity of such an
Reference may now be made to Equation 2.,
above, in order to ?nd the re?ected ?eld strength
arrangement is symmetrical completely around
at the location of the transmitter or ?eld strength 55
the ship in a horizontal plane, but shows a de?
(H2) which gives the reaction caused by the in
nite maximum as indicated by the curve, of
truder upon the transmitting .coil or loop 13.
“reaching distance” or “sensitivity.” An ar
This ?eld may be calculatedas follows:
rangement of the foregoing type, while having
4 cos aV1
many advantages, such as use in connection with
the aiming of depth charges for instance, lacks
Consequently, H2
the: reflected
D0.
7.5 magnetic flux is:
certain properties of indicating the disturbing
bodies in such a way that indication is of max
2
imum usefulness in immediately locating exactly
65 the position of such bodies.
By the arrangement of Fig. 5,, a further im
This reflecting ?eld will induce a countervoltage
¢=AH2 cos a=4Pc(3i-9--V1A21LI
16
Ac:
M1412
(5)
provement in the system is made and the ar
rangement here disclosed, as in Fig. 2, provides
dt
the location of the intruder by means of two
in the coil and cause an unbalance of the bridge, 70 loops or ?eld coils 13 and i3’ on the two outside
and opposite portions of the ship H. The re
sult v‘is that the sensitivity ‘curve indicated by
Fig. 5 is improved and the presence of the dis
§a__é§__4kAV1
cos2 a
(6)
e _ L _
1‘6
turbance on either side of the 'ship is readily in
the foregoing equation, the length factor A 75 dicated in that, if the disturbance is on one side
as above explained, of the following amount:
2,403,956
of the ship for instance, one of the ?eld coils,
such as I3’, will be influenced by its presence,
whereas the second ?eld coil I3 is more or less
screened from the influence by the ship’s steel
structure. As is apparent from the curve of indication in Fig. 5, the meter or indicator Iil’ de
?ects positive or negative from an intermediate
value or equilibrium position for disturbances at
either the port 0!‘ starboard side; of the ship.
Consequently, by reason of symmetry and polar
ity-opposition, there appears sharp zero indica
tion for an intruder situated directly beneath the
ship. This balance is particularly sharp and well
de?ned as it is caused by two strong
opposite
where desired.
The same v"energy source III);
which supplies current to'the coils MI and I02, 7'
also supplies energizing voltages to the several
tubes of the storage-ampli?er unit It!) in the
manner already explained.
‘
If now, the 90° phase shift energy is red from
the source I I!) to the other pair'of dipoles or coils
I 93—IIM, it will be appreciated, from what has
been stated above, that a balanced condition or
bridge circuit may be established in the same .
manner, with any unbalanced conditions being
represented by a voltage appearing across the
bridge diagonal between the point I26 and ground
25. In this way, the unbalanced‘ condition Will
unbalancing effects cancelling each other rather - - produce a control voltage upon the'control elec
than by fading or Weak unbalances from distant
trode of the ?rst tube 29' of the storage ampli?er
objects. Therefore, the arrangement of Fig. 5
lends itself particularly well to applications where
accurate aiming toward objects just beneath the
station is desired, such as depth bombing from '
submarine destroyers, or slow ?ying airplanes or .
helicopters or blimps.
IE3’ in a manner like that already explained;
All that is mentioned above about the east-lwest ‘
system I 92, IIlI with the bridge point I25, holds
equally as well for the north'_south system I03, I04
with the bridge point H5. Each of the bridge
points will exhibit unbalanced voltage, the electri
Accordingly, it can be seen that the arrange
ment of Fig. 4 possesses some advantages not
present in Fig. 5, and vice versa.
associated magnetic dipole system in either di-'
Now, making reference to Fig. 6, a further
modification or" the invention is disclosed where
the system provides for locating disturbing ?elds
of the object relative to that dipole system. The
twounbalances of the two bridge points I25, I25
cal vector of which will point along the axis of the
rection corresponding to the situation or location
are always out-of-phase with respect to each
other by 90° in either the positive or negative
tating ?eld arrangement is provided with four 30 direction. Both voltages are zero where there
coil elements Mil, I32 and I68, iiiiir arranged
are no disturbances and/or in the particular case
relative to a support element I556 to be energized
that th'edisturbance is directly above or directly
from a two-phase alternating current source I it.
beneath the quadrupole system, that is, located
This source feeds its energy by way of conductors
somewhere along the axis symmetry normal to
H2, IM to energize the transformers H5 and "‘ the plane comprising the four dipoles I QI-IM.
I i 9 by way of supplying energy to primary wind
Here again, it will be appreciated that the ‘zero
ings H5 and I29 of these transformers. The
condition just beneath the quadrupole arrange;
energy from the transformer primaries is then
ment Offers extremely accurate indications where
supplied to the secondary windings I I‘! and I 2:,
by the device may be used as an accurate bomb
'
"
respectively, with the center points H53 of each 40 sight for depth bombing.
transformer secondary being connected together
Bias for each of these storage ampli?er units
and being connected to ground 25, as indicated.
It!) and IDS’ is set by an adjustment of the
Likewise, one terminal of each primary winding
tapping point on the potentiometers 3| and'3I'
I it and I253 is preferably connected to ground ‘25.
to which the cathodes of the ?rst tubes 29 and
Thus it can be seen, when energy output from 6) 29' of the ampli?er are connected. The normal
the source I It] is supplied to the two transformers
adjustment for the output meter reading will be
H5 and H9, it is fed in one phase to the coils
at center-scale if the bridge points are balanced
or, which is equivalent, if the input ‘grids are
I?I and I02, for instance, and at 90° out-of
phase with respect thereto to. the other two coils
directly short-circuited to ground 25. The stor
I93 and HM, respectively.
age circuits 33 and 33' are charged, as before
If new, the two storage ampli?er units, gen
stated, in accordance with ‘the current ?owing
erally designated as ldil and we’, are connected
in their associated grid controlled recti?er.
,
so that the ?rst tubes 29 and 29' will be con
It will be appreciated that the time constant
trolled by any unbalanced condition, it will be
of each of the storage circuits, such as 33, M, and
appreciated, in the light of what has heretofore 55 so on, is adjusted so as to be at least of the
been stated, that the coils or loops NH and I 92
order of the inverse supply frequency. Under
according to a 369° pattern.
To this end, a, ro
may be connected in bridge fashion so that an
these conditions, the output stage of the ?nal
unbalanced condition will be represented by the
storage ampli?er tube shall provide a current
voltage appearing between the point I25 on the
impulse of median amplitude which lasts for ap
bridge and its diagonally opposite point 25 which 60 proximately one h'alf—cycle of the supply fre
represents the ground connection. The bridge
quency of the alternating current source II II.
arrangement is suitably balanced, as disclosed,
The height in magnitude of such an impulse will
in that the windings or coils IilI and 982 on a
pair of dipoles are each connected to ground 25,
with the point I25 being established as the bal
deviate from some pre-set'normal or median value
in the positive or negativedirection according to
the position of the disturbing body.
,
In order to transform these variations of half
occurs, the control electrode of the ?rst tube 29
wave amplitude of the output of the output tubes
is modulated in accordance therewith.
45 and 45' into usable effects to control the de
A step-up transformer of the type shown, for
?ection in the cathode ray tube, a special control
instance, at 27, with the circuits of Fig. 1 and 70 system is provided. It will be seen, from the cir
ance point, so that when a disturbing condition
Fig. 2, is provided in order that the voltage input
may be stepped-up and the control voltage on the
?rst tube shall be adequate. The condensers
which are represented in Fig. 2 at 49 and 58 may
also be included with the arrangement of Fig. 6,
cuit shown by Fig. 6, that the output energy from
the ?nal output tubes 45 and d5’ of the storage
ampli?er units we and I66’ is caused to be sup
plied by way of conductors I36 and I38, respec
tively, to the de?ecting electrode members >I3I
2,403,956
11
and I33 of a cathode ray indicating tube I30 in
which the electron beam I00 will be assumed, in
the illustration of Fig. 6, to be centrally positioned
12
shape of indicator diagram, According to Fig.0,
the installation provides for locating ferro—mag
netic bodies in such a manner as to provide im
energy from the output tubes 45 and 45' varies
so that the de?ecting plates I3! and I33 are made
mediate observation of ‘both the direction and the
proximity of the disturbance. While the output
circuit of Fig. 6, with the compensating diodes in
cluded, yields a polar diagram on the cathode ray
more positive than their counter-plates I32, I34,
respectively, the cathode ray beam will be moved
toward these plates. Accordingly, if the beam
I60 should move from its central position along
a diagonal between the plates I3I and IE3, it
might be assumed that some disturbing condition
took place between the dipoles IOI and I03 so
in the diagonal directions, the type of circuit
shown by Fig. '7 results in a pointer diagram which
is equally sharp in all co-ordinates or directions
of the compass. In the arrangement provided, the
loops IOI, I02 and I03, I06, are provided as before,
and these serve to determine the signal control
within the tube. It immediately becomes appar
ent, from what is disclosed, that if the output
that this'e?ect would be measured as occurring
in a direction northwest, for instance, (as indi
cated by the compass point letters) of the indi
cator and the magnitude or nearness of the dis
turbance would become a function of the amount
or distance of the lateral motion of the beam I60.
However, in order to provide accurate indica
tions of such effects, it is desirable to compensate
tube screen in the form of leaflets which broaden
voltage applied to the storage ampli?er units,
conventionally represented as I00 and I00’, re
spectively.
By virtue of the state of balance obtained, con
trol is had for the trace I00 on the end of the
cathode ray tube I55 and various patterns, de~
, pending upon conditions, are traced and more
speci?cally described in the mentioned companion
for any de?ection which might be due to an av
case.
As was before indicated, the two pairs of
spectively, to de?ecting plate elements I32 and
or A. C. source I I0 is connected, as before, to ener
I34, which serve to balance, respectively, any non
disturbance initiated deflection due to a voltage
of-phase, so that a rotating ?eld is built up ex~
coils are arranged externally to the magnetic
erage or balanced output impulse and, to this end,
two diode elements MI and I42 have been pro 25 shielded body I06 with the axes of the coils being
at 90° one to the other. The two-phase generator
vided to connect, by conductors I31 and I39, re
applied to the de?ecting plates I3I and I33. To
immobilize the spot, the balancing bias at the
counter plates I32, I34 has to be a voltage wave
itself, rather than a D. C. bias, and this wave must
be identical in form, phase and amplitude to the
gize the two pairs of coils with current 90° out
ternally of the shielded space I00. The frequency
of the alternating current generated by the two
phase generator IIO may, for general purposes,
be of the order of 10 kc. or more, which makes
possible the tuning of the coils or loops shown by
median output wave from the ampli?ers in their 35 way of the reasonably small condensers 50 and
50' for the loops IOI and I02, while the con
balanced condition. Such requirements are met
densers 49 and 49’ provide adequate tuning for
by connecting diode recti?ers MI and I42 together
the loops I03 and I04. Thus, greatly increased
with volume controls I43 and I44 across the com
currents and more powerful ?elds are set up by
mon plate supply lines H2 and H4.
It will be seen that the diodes are connected in 40 resonance phenomena, with comparatively small
power at generator I I0.
such a way that the plate or anode elements there
In order that the magnetic bridge may be pro
of become positive, so that the diode draws cur
vided in each of two directions, the generator I I0
rent at the same time that the output tubes 45
has its center tap connected to ground 25, as in
and 45’ of ampli?ers I00 and I00’ draw current.
In this way, it can be appreciated that any de 45 dicated. While the generator IIII may be a high
frequency alternator, in the order of 1 kw. or
?ection of the cathode ray beam I00 in any direc
more, an ordinary vacuum tube generator may be
tion is due to an unbalanced condition of the
used equally as well as a dynamo, and readily
system, in that the current through the diodes
can develop the necessary power. Such a tube
is made independent of the signal appearing upon
the input tubes of each storage amplifier, and 50 transmitter preferably would comprise a common
master oscillator serving to energize the grid cir
yet a balanced condition for no disturbing eifect
cuits of two output stages So that two pairs of
within the ?eld of either of the pairs of dipoles
push-pull power stages, each of approximately
is provided, causing the cathode ray beam I60 to
one-half kilowatt or more, may be provided for
be centrally located for balanced bridges.
If, in the above example, the cathode ray beam 55 the two pairs of ?eld coils, with one of the units
driven through a 90° phase shifter so that the
I60 should move along a diagonal path between
rotating ?eld may be developed.
the de?ecting plates I3I and I33, it might be as
In the case of such a tube transmitter, con
sumed that the disturbing body was in the north
nected in push-pull fashion, it is relatively easy
west quadrant, and the magnitude of the de
?ection would indicate the nearness of the body. 60 to provide circuits which will take care of main
taining power supply to the bridge automatically
Thus, if the loop elements or dipoles were in
in balanced to ground condition.
stalled upon a ship, as above described, the de
In the arrangement shown by Fig. 7, the two
flection of the beam I60 might indicate the pres
ence and direction of an unseen and submerged
submarine.
This indication follows all move
ments of the disturbing body (for instance, the
“disturbing body” might be a submarine) with
negligible delay and collapses sharply as soon as
the disturbing body is situated directly beneath
the ship (for instance, if the disturbing body were 70
a submarine and the ship sailed directly over it) .
In the modi?cation of Fig. 7, an installation,
assumed to be on shipboard, has been illustrated
which is closely related to the system described
in Fig. 6 but yields a different, and more accurate,
storage ampli?er units, conventionally repre~
sented at I00 and I00’, are connected to the
bridge balance points I8 and I8’, respectively,
through the input step-up transformers repre
sented at 21 and 21’ with a voltage step-up ratio
of about 100 to 1.
As in the arrangements previously disclosed
and described, the plate energy supply for the
various tubes of the storage ampli?er units is pro
vided from the same generator or oscillator IIO
which supplies the energy to the ?eld coils. Such
energy may, as already stated, be developed at a
13
2,403,956,
frequency of the order of 10 to 30v kc., with a line
voltage applied to the tubes of the separate
storage ampli?er units being of the‘ order of 100
volts.
In the arrangement of Fig. 7, the storage ampli
?er uints I00 and I00’ are shown to include only
1
the length of the pointer I60 will increase as the
disturbance comes closer to the loops l?l to I04,
inclusive.
In connection with the particular arrangement
shown by Fig. 7, it must be mentioned, however,
that in the event that more ‘than one intruder
or disturbance should simultaneously come within
the ?eld of the several loops, an integrating e?'ect
preferred in order that a stable gain of the order
of several hundred thousand may be obtained. 10 could conceivably take place and the indication
I60 on the target might show a resultant, and
The manner of connection of the several addi
therefore an imaginary, disturbance under such
tional stages is indicated by Fig. 6 and also by
_ conditions. However, an extremely accurate rep
reference to the hereinabove mentioned com
resentation for one disturbance is obtained, and
panion application.
checks can frequently be made from time to time
In order to provide the panoramic indication,
two stages each, but it will be appreciated that,
in practice, six to eight stages are usually to be
the cathode ray tube I55 is connected in such a
15 by the systems heretofore disclosed, to guard
against the possibility of false indications. It
way that its de?ecting electrode members I33 and
should be noted, however, in this connection, that
I3I, for instance, are supplied with recti?ed D. C.
the indication of a resultant, rather than indi
energy from the output of the storage ampli?er
vidual
indications in a group is not a “defect,”
units I00 and I00’, respectively. This provides
because the farther remote the disturbing objects
two perpendicular de?ection ?elds within the
are located relative to the indicator the less im
tube and it will be appreciated, of course, that
portant the individual indication becomes, As
the de?ecting electrodes actually are positioned
an example, if the system should be used to detect
more nearly in the neck of the tube than shown,
submarines, for instance, and a group or ‘pack of
and also that these de?ectors may, where desired, 25 submarines
were a substantial distance from~ the
be of the magnetic variety.
energy
source,
the indicator would indicate the
Since the ampli?ers I00 and I00’ are to pro
correct
direction
toward the apparent ‘center of
vide a direct current output only to energize
the pack or group, which would be a useful and
the de?ecting electrode members I33 and I3I, it
a desirable indication. Then, as the group came
may, under some circumstances, be desirable to
nearer or the searcher approached the group, a
provide additional ?ltering in the connecting lines
sharp “null” indication for each separate dis
I36 and I38, although, generally speaking, the
turbance, or, in the assumed case, each separate
condenser elements of the last storage ‘circuit,
submarine, would be obtainable once the search
conventionally represented at 4| and M’, are such
ing vessel moved over the submarine or very near
that no 10 kc. ripple (this being the assumed fre- '
to it. In order to release a depth charge, such
quency of the source H0) can be transmitted to
indications would be had at all times, irrespective
the de?ecting elements of the cathode ray tube.
of whether the disturbing body or submarine was
It will be noted, in the connection of Fig. 7,
at rest or in motion.
that the de?ecting electrode members I32 and
Fig. 8 represents a circuit arrangement for the
I34, arranged in co-operative relationship to the
production of an indicator diagram on the oscil
de?ecting plate members I3I and I33, respec
loscope screen I 30 in the form of a narrow pointer
tively. are connected together and connected to
I50 which may assume any direction within 360°
a ground which may be the point 25 or its equiva
and the length of which increases, measured from
lent in the form of the connection to the shield
the center outwardly, in proportion to the near
I05.
In this Way. with a direct current voltage
applied to the de?ecting plate electrode members
I33 and I 3|, the cathode ray beam I60 would be
shifted into one of the four quadrants of the
ness of a disturbing effect or body Ill.
The arrangement is a form of balanced modu
lator with a single source of alternating current
2“! of any arbitrary frequency, preferably 60
cycles, serving as the power supply frequency of
of the disturbance and would tend to remain in 50 the oscilloscope I30’. The circuit comprises two
such a position. However, to obtain a pointer
tubes 2!“ and 202 of the diode-triode type. Under
shaped indication, as indicated by Fig. 7, rather
the
action‘ of the voltage in the secondary of
than an immobilized spot, the cathode ray tube
transformer
2 I0, the triode sections ‘will emit half
may be assumed to be energized with A. .C. plate
voltage instead of a constant D. C. voltage. To 55 waves of plate current, the amplitude of ‘which '
is controlled by the D. C. bias which is developed
this end, the alternating current energy is sup
at the last output storage circuits connected to
plied at the terminals I52 and then fed through
the plates or anodes of the tubes 45 and 45',
the transformer I54 to energize the various elec
‘assumed to be the last two units of storage am
trode members within the tube. The frequency of
pli?ers I00 and I00’ energized by the two phases
the alternating current at the terminal I52 may 60 of a 2 phase'A. C. voltage source I I0~<as in Fig. 7).
be anything from the normal 60 cycle supply up
In the balanced condition, the half-wave out
to the assumed frequency of the source IIO.
puts from the triodes 20I and 202 are of an aver
In the example shown by Fig. 7, the tube I55
age height and their effect upon the de?ectors
is assumed to be focused electrostatically and its
I32 and I34, respectively, is being cancelled and
electron gun I 59 is connected intermediate the 65 the cathode ray consequently kept at rest by ad
cathode I57 and the plate or anode coating
justing the‘stappirig points in the volume controls I
through a bleeder resistor I56, so that the spot
205, ‘ 205, respectively, which‘ derive current
I60 on the end of the tube remains sharply
through the diode sections within the triode
focused during the complete cycle of operation.
bulbs, and which tapping points connect to 'de
With this arrangement. it will be seen that the 70 ?ecto-r electrodes ISI and I33.
resulting spot I60 on the tube I55 is in the form
Under these conditions it is apparent that any
of a linear pointer, with its brightest portion at
deviation of the applied grid-bias above or below
the center of the viewing target and a dim tip
the average or balanced value will result in a
pointing in a quadrant in which the located
de?ection directed toward or away from the de
ferro-magnetic body is positioned. In this case, 75
?ectors I32, I34, respectively. Furthermore, this
viewing target in accordance with the position
2,403,956
de?ection will increase in the direction, as indi
cated, as the unbalance increases in the same
sense. The arrangement will, therefore, serve to
make indications of both the bearing and the
proximity of the object if it is connected to the
output of the quadrupole-twin ampli?er unit
energized by the two-phase current, as was de
scribed and explained in the preceding ?gures.
To improve the reaching distance of the appa
ratus, multiple ?eld producers, mounted on a
plurality of ships or other carriers which are sail
ing or moving (or even stationary) at substan- _
tially uniformly spaced distances from each other
comparable to the wave length of the generator
source (for instance, six miles for a 30 kc. source) ,
may be provided.
In all such uses, the trans
mitters should be synchronized to each other,
both as to frequency and phase, and, under these
circumstances, the ?eld energy experiences an
increase in certain directions and the ?eld
strength pattern becomes directional, as in the
in accordance with the presence of bodies com
ing within the reaching range of the e?ect of
the developed electro-magnetic ?eld, a direct
connection from the output of each recti?er of
the cascade to the input of the next succeeding
recti?er to control in sequence the current flow
in the recti?ers and the charge stored in the
associated storage circuit under the in?uence of
the ?rst stored charge from the ?rst of the
recti?ers to the last of the cascade at each half
cycle of the supplied alternating current, and
a load circuit connected to receive the energy
output of the last recti?er of the cascade se
quence.
2. An electron tube circuit comprising a plu
rality of thermionic elements having the output
circuit of one directly connected in cascade to
theinput circuit of the following, a source of
alternating current for supplying operating volt
ages for said thermionic elements so that alter
nate tubes of the cascade are connected to the
case of the multiple dipole antenna rays. The
?elds may be synchronized by cable or radio and,
source in alternate polarity so as to form the
with the regular pattern arrangement provided,
cascade into two alternately conductive groups
of thermionic elements, an energy storage cir
cuit connected to each of said thermionic ele
ments to receive an electrical charge varied in
accordance with the current ?owing in the ‘asso
ciated thermionic elements, means to bias the
?rst of said thermionic elements to establish a
the developed magnetic ?elds may be caused to
penetrate into the water to much greater depths
than would otherwise be possible. This will then
provide for increasing very substantially the
reaching distance of the device in order to detect
disturbing conditions such as submarines or
wrecks in the water. Thus, the device herein
predetermined current flow therethrough during
described becomes particularly useful when the
normally conductive periods, means for estab
lishing a direct connection from the output of
each thermionic element of the cascade to the
next succeeding element to control the current
?ow in the several elements in proportion to the
charge energy stored in the ?rst of said storage
disturbing objects come closer to the source of
the radiated energy. Thus, it becomes possible
to use the arrangement and system hereinabove
explained in combination with suitable far
reaching ultra-sonic devices.
The arrangement shown particularly by Fig. 4
circuits so that an electrical charge is acquired
may be installed on board airplanes or airships
(dirigibles) as well. The arrangement, with one
by the last of the storage circuits after sequen
tial steps from one storage circuit to another at
each half-cycle of the supplied alternating cur
rent, inductive loop means connected to said
single horizontal coil, provides a de?ection maxi
mum, if the position of the ferro-magnetic body
is just beneath the installation. Since the sys
tem operates purely as an inductive bridge and
at low input impedance, little trouble is encoun
tered from movements of the crew aboard the
ship. Simple electrostatic shielding of the cabin
is su?icient to avoid reactions from movements
aboard the ship upon the bridge balance.
source of alternating current supply so that an
electro-magnetic ?eld extending for a predeter
mined distance therefrom is developed as a result
of current ?ow through the said inductive loop
means, means including the inductive loop to
supply a control voltage to the ?rst thermionic
element of the cascade to vary the current flow
Bi-directional indications on board non-metal
lic planes or blimps may also be obtained.
16
supply of alternating current, means to initiate a
current flow in the ?rst recti?er of the cascade
therethrough. in proportion to the disturbing
effects due to transient bodies coming within the
reaching area of the developed electro-magnetic
?eld, and a load circuit connected to receive the
output from the last of the said thermionic ele
ments.
To
accomplish this end requires the installation of
two vertical coils which are either shielded from
each other by metallic coating or by adequate I
mutual separation, as hereinbefore suggested,
particularly in what was shown by Fig. 5 and its
3. In a locating system wherein there is in
cluded a plurality of cascaded directly connected
grid-controlled recti?er devices and a source of
description.
Having described the invention, what is claimed
is:
‘ " alternating current for supplying alternating cur
1. An electron tube circuit comprising a plu
rality of cascade connected recti?er devices, a
source of alternating current for supplying op
erating voltages for said recti?er devices with
alternate tubes of the cascade being connected to .
be energized in alternate polarity so as to form
the cascade into two groups of alternately con
ductive recti?er devices, an energy storage cir
cuit connected to each recti?er to receive an elec
trical charge built up in accordance with the out
put current ?ow through the individually con- F
nected recti?ers, inductive loop means, means for
connecting the said source of alternating current
to said inductive loop means to develop an elec
tro-magnetic ?eld relative thereto and Within a
reaching distance thereof determined by the
rent to the said recti?er devices to provide oper
ating voltages therefor with alternate tubes of
the cascade being connected in alternate polarity
with the said alternating current source so as to
form the cascade into two groups of tubes alter
nately conductive and wherein each of the tubes
is loaded by an energy storage circuit connected
in the output circuit thereof, and wherein the
said source of alternating current is connected
to inductive loop means so as to develop within
a predetermined reaching distance thereof an
electro-magnetic ?eld of predetermined magni
tude, the method of detecting and locating the
presence of bodies tending to alter the normally
produced ?eld which includes the steps of initiat
17
2,403,966
ing a normal current ?ow in the ?rst recti?er
of the cascade, charging the storage circuit
under the control of the produced current ?ow,
subsequently energizing the several recti?ers of
the cascade in sequence under the control of the
stored charge at each half-cycle of the supplied
alternating current to charge the respectiveen
ergy storage circuits, developing an electro-mag
netic ?eld of predetermined ?eld strength by the
application of the alternating current to the loop,
said ?eld having a reaching distance from the
inductive loop which is dependent upon the ap
plied alternating current, modifying the current
?ow in the ?rst and subsequent recti?ers in ac
cordance with ?eld changes of the developed
magnetic ?eld as varied by the presence of ferro
magnetic bodies coming within the reaching
range of the said ?eld, and controlling a load
circuit in accordance with the charge stored in
18
of the‘ supplied alternating current to produce an
indication of the controlling electromagnetic ef- '
feet on the load circuit.
.
6. An indicating system comprising a plurality
of thermionic tubes connected in series. cascade,
an inductive loop element, an alternating current
source of energy of predetermined frequency con
nected to supply operating voltages‘ to the tubes
of the said cascade, transformer means connected
to receive energy from the source of alternating
current and to supply said energy from the sec
ondary terminals thereof to the said loop element
to develop a predetermined strength electromag
netic ?eld within a predetermined reaching distancev of the loop, means to bias the said cascade
of tubes to establish normally a predetermined
current flow therethrough, means to balance the
normal loop inductance and to form with trans
former secondary winding a balanced bridge cir
the storage circuit .of the last recti?er of the 20
cuit, transformer means connected across one
cascade so that the load circuit current changes
are a measure of the change from a normally
diagonal ofvthe formed bridge to the input of
the ?rst tube of the plurality of cascaded tubes
4. An ampli?er system comprising a plurality
of cascaded directly connected grid-controlled
recti?er tubes, a source of alternating current,
‘conditionsv tending to‘modify the normally pro
produced electro-magnetic ?eld.
means for supplying alternating current from the
source to the said tubes to provide operating
to apply thereto a control , voltage measuring
’ duced electromagnetic ?eld to cause an unbal
ancing of the said bridge, anda signal indicating
circuit ‘connected to receive the output energy
from the tube cascade to produce a manifesta
voltages therethrough with alternate tubes of the
tion of the magnitude and remoteness of altera
cascade being connected in alternate polarity with 30 tions
of the magnetic ?eld.
e
the said alternating current source so as to form
7. An indicating system comprising a plurality
the cascade into two groups of alternately con
of thermionic tubes connected in series cascade,
ductive tubes, an energy storage circuit compris
an inductive loop element, an alternating current
ing parallelly connected resistor and condenser
source of energy of predetermined frequency con- elements having a predetermined time constant
nected
to supply operating Voltages to the tubes
connected to the output of each recti?er tube of
of the said cascade, transformer means connected
the cascade, means to supply a predetermined
bias voltage upon the cathode circuit of the ?rst
tube of the cascade whereby the applied bias is
to receive alternating current energy'of liketfre
quency and phase and to supply said energy from
effective throughout the complete cascade, means 40 the secondary terminals thereof to the said, loop
element to develop a predetermined strength elec
responsive to a variation in electromagnetic ?eld
strengths to initiate a current ?ow in the ?rst
tube of the cascade independently of the applied
bias voltage, means for controlling the several
recti?er tubes of the cascade in sequence under
the in?uence of the charge from each preceding
storage stage to provide a bias voltage for the
next succeeding tube at each half-cycle of the
supplied alternating current, and a load circuit
to indicate the current variations.
5. An ampli?er system comprising a plurality
of cascaded directly connected recti?er elements,
tromagnetic ?eld within a predetermined reach
ing» distance of the loop, means to bias the said
cascade of tubes to establish normally a prede- '
termined current flow therethrough, means to
balance the normal loop inductance and to form
with transformer secondary winding a balanced
bridge circuit, transformer means connected
across one diagonal of the formed bridge to the
input of the ?rst tube of the plurality of cascaded
tubes to apply thereto a control voltage measur
ing conditions tending to modify the normally
a source of alternating current, means for sup
produced electromagnetic ?eld to cause an un
plying alternating current from the source to the
said recti?ers to provide operating voltages there
through with alternate recti?ers of the cascade
being connected in alternate polarity with the
balancing of the said bridge, and a signal indi
energy from the tube cascadeto produce a mani
festation of the magnitude and remoteness of
said alternating current source so as to form the
alterations of the magnetic ?eld.
cating circuit connected to receive the output
‘
cascade into two groups of recti?ers alternately
8. An indicating system comprising, in comb-i4
conductive, an energy storage circuit comprising .60 nation, a series cascade of thermionic tubes, a
parallelly connected resistor and condenser ele
pair of inductive loop elements, ‘and a source of
ments having a time constant at least equal to a
alternating current energy of predetermined fre
time period corresponding to one-half thev cycle
quency connected to supply operating voltages to
of the source of alternating current connected to
the tubes of the said cascade and to energize the
the output of each recti?er of the cascade, electro 65 said loops at like phase and frequency to de
magnetically activated means to initiate a cur
velop predetermined strength electromagnetic
rent flow in the ?rst tube of the cascade, im
?elds within predetermined reaching distances
pedance means to supply an alternating‘current
thereof, means to bias the said cascade of tubes
bias upon the cathode circuit of the ?rst recti
to establish normally a predetermined current
her of the cascade, whereby the applied bias is 70 ?ow therethrough, a bridge circuit including’ the
effective throughout the complete cascade, a load
said loops for applying a control voltage to mod
circuit, and means for releasing the effect of the
ify the normal current flow in the cascade with
stored charge from each of the storage circuits
changes in the sensitivity of the resulting elec
in sequence to the next direct connected tube to
provide a bias voltage thereon at each half-cycle 75 tromagnetic ?elds causing an unbalance of ‘the
bridge, and a signal indicating circuitto produce
£2,403, 9-56
19
a manifestation of the magnitude and remoteness
of alterations of the magnetic ?eld.
An electrical apparatus comprising a plu
raiity of inductive loop elements connected in
normally balanced relationship, an electron tube
circuit including a plurality of thermionic tubes
coni'ieeted
series cascade, a source of alternat
ing current, means _for supplying operating volt
20
source of alternating current to provide oper
ating voltages for said cascaded tubes, a current
transformer means for supplying energy from the
alternating current source to the said inductive
loop to develop an electromagnetic ?eld of pre
determined magnitude within predetermined
reaching distance thereof, capacity means for
providing an inductive and capacitive circuit
resonant at the frequency of the alternating cur
ages for said tubes of the cascade from the source
rent source to strengthen the current ?ow
of alternating current, a current step-up trans 10 through the said inductance, means for biasing
former having its primary winding connected to
the said tube cascade to a predetermined volt
age whereat a predetermined normal current
ondary winding terminals connected to the said
?ows through the cascade, means responsive to
loops for supplying the energy from the alter
term-magnetic bodies coming within the said
na '
currez'it source to the said inductive loop 15 produced ?eld to apply a proportional voltage
ele nts to develop electromagnetic ?elds of pre
change upon the cascaded tubes to provide a
determined magnitude within predetermined
proportional change in the current ?ow through
reaching distances of the said loops, means oper
the cascade, and an indicator circuit connected
ating in phase with the said alternating current
20 to respond to the energy output of the said cas
the alternating current source and its outer sec
for biasing the said tube cascade relative to
ground to a predetermined voltage whereat a
predetermined normal current flows through the
cade so as to indicate the presence of bodies with
in the reaching range of the effect of the said
electromagnetic ?eld.
l
cascade in sequential steps from one to another
12. An electrical apparatus comprising an in
of the tubes thereof, means responsive to the
ductive 100p element, an electron tube circuit
sensitivity of the said electromagnetic fields to 25 including a plurality of thermionic tubes con
apply a proportional voltage to the input circuit
nected in series cascade with the output of one
of the ?rst of the tubes of the cascade so that for
tube being connected to the input of the suc
?eld conditions tending to alter either of the
ceeding tube of the cascade, a source of alter
electromagnetic ?elds Within the pre-established
nating current, means for supplying operating
reaching distance of the loops a proportional cur
voltage for said tubes of the cascade from the
rent ?ows in the said tube cascade, and a load
source of alternating current, a transformer hav
circuit connected to receive the energy output of
ing its primary winding connected to the alter
the said cascade and to produce an indication
nating current source and its secondary winding
of the magnitude of the departure from equi
connected to the inductive loop for supplying the
librium value of either of the said electromag
energy of the alternating current source to the
inductive loop element to develop an- electromag
netic ?elds.
10. An electrical apparatus comprising, in com
netic ?eld of predetermined magnitude within a
bination, a plurality of inductive loop elements
predetermined reaching distance of the loop,
connected in normally balanced relationship, an
means to balance the loop to provide an electrical
electron tube circuit including a plurality of
bridge connection of which an intermediate point
thermionic tubes connected in series cascade, and
on the said transformer winding and one loop
a source of alternating current, means for sup
terminal form the terminal points of a diagonal
plying energy from the source of alternating
across which at a normally predetermined
current to provide the operating voltages for said
equilibrium condition no’ voltage is developed, a
45
tubes of the cascade, a current step-up trans
connection from one end of the said diagonal
former having its primary winding connected to
to ground, means for biasing the said tube cas
the alternating current source and its outer sec
cade relative to ground to a predetermined volt
ondary winding terminals connected to the said
age whereat a predetermined normal current
loops for supplying the, energy from the alter
?ows through the cascade, means for energizing
50
nating current source to the said inductive loop
the input circuit of the ?rst of the tubes of the
elements to develop electromagnetic ?elds of
cascade with a voltage corresponding to that at
predetermined magnitude within predetermined
reaching distances of the said loops, means for
the ungrounded bridge diagonal point so that
for field conditions tending to alter the electro
biasing the ?rst tube of the said tube cascade
magnetic ?eld within the pre-established reach
to provide a predetermined. normal current flow 55 ing distance of the loop a voltage to unbalance
therethrough and through the complete cascade,
the bridge diagonal is developed and applied as
means responsive to changes in the sensitivity
a signal voltage to the said tube cascade, and
of said loops due to the presence of external
a load circuit connected to receive the energy
ferro-magnetic bodies coming within the reach
output of the said cascade and to produce an
60
ing ?eld thereof to apply a proportional voltage
indication of the magnitude of the departure
control to the input circuit of the ?rst of the
from equilibrium value of the voltage across the
tubes of the cascade so that for ?eld conditions
said bridge and thereby of the magnitude and
tending to alter either of the electromagnetic
distance of the effect modifying the normal elec
?elds within the pre-established reaching dis
tromagnetic ?eld.
65
tance of the loops a proportional current flows
13. An indicating system comprising a plu
in the said tube cascade, and a load circuit
rality of directly connected thermionic tubes
connected to receive the energy output of the
connected in series cascade to supply the output
said cascade and to produce an indication of
energy from the several tubes directly to the
the magnitude of the departure from equilibrium
input of the next succeeding tubes of the cascade,
value of either of the said electromagnetic ?elds. 70 energy storage means connected to receive the
11. An electrical apparatus comprising, in com
output energy from each tube of the cascade so
bination, an inductive loop element, a signal
that the magnitude of accumulated charge is
amplifying circuit including a plurality of therm
proportional to the current flowing in the as
ionic tubes connected in series cascade, a source
sociated tube, an inductive loop element, an alter
of alternating current, means for connecting the
2,403,956.
nating current source of energy of predetermined
frequency connected to supply voltages to the
tubes of the said cascade in such manner that
cyclically alternate tubes of the cascade are
22‘
bridge diagonal point so that for ?eld conditions
tending to alter the electromagnetic ?eld within
the pre-established reaching distance of the loop
a voltage to unbalance the bridge diagonal. is
developed and applied as a signal voltage to the
the other alternate tubes of the cascade are
said tube cascade, and a load circuit connected
simultaneously de-energized so that'the stored
to receive the energy output of the said cascade
charges bias in sequence the operative tubes,
and to produce an indication of the magnitude
transformer means connected to receive energy
of the departure ‘from equilibrium value'of the
from the source of A. C. and to supply said 10 voltage across the said bridge and thereby of the
energy from the secondary terminals thereof to
magnitude and remoteness of the effect modify
the said loop element to develop a predetermined
ing the normal electromagnetic ?eld. '
strength electromagnetic ?eld within a predeter
15. An‘ electrical apparatus comprising a plu-o
mined reaching distance of the loop, means to
rality of inductive loop elements connected in
bias the ?rst of the said cascade connected tubes 15 series, an electron tube circuit including a plu
to establish normally a predetermined current
rality of series cascaded thermionic tubes, an
flow through the cascade, inductive and resist
energy storage circuit connected with ‘each tube
ance means of values substantially equal to the
of the cascade and arranged to be charged under
normal loop inductance and resistance connected
the control of the current ?owing in the asso~
serially with the loop and transformer secondary 20 ciated .tube, a source of alternating current,
winding to form a bridge circuit, connections
means for connecting said tubes of the cascade , ‘
between the said loop and a predetermined point
alternately to the source of alternating current
on the transformer to a plane of normally ?xed
in a polarity such that the plurality of tubes of
potential to provide one balanced diagonal loop
the cascade is divided into two, alternately opera
bridge connection, step-up transformer means
tive groups, a transformer ‘having its primary.
connecting said diagonal of the formed bridge
winding connected to be energized by alternating
to the input of the ?rst tube of the plurality
current energy source and’ its outer secondary
so that for conditions of equilibrium the said
connected to the end terminals of the series loops, 7
applied bias potential alone controls the current
for supplying the energy'of the alternating cur
flow in the said cascade and for external condi 30 rent source to the inductive loop element to de
tions tending to modify the normally produced
velop an electromagnetic ?eld of predetermined
electromagnetic ?eld to cause an unbalancing of
magnitude within a predetermined reaching dis
the said bridge a control voltage is applied to
tance of the loop, serially connected capacity
the said ampli?er from the said transformer
elements connected with the said loop elements
connection, and a signal utilization circuit con 35 to tune said loops to the generator frequency,
nected to receive the output energy from the
means for biasing the said tube cascade relative
ampli?er.
to ground to a predetermined voltage whereat a
14. An electrical apparatus comprising an in
predetermined normal current flows through the
simultaneously energized by the said source and
ductive loop element, an electron tube circuit
including a plurality of thermionic tubes con
nected in series cascade with the output of one
cascade in sequential steps from one to‘another
of the tubes thereof, voltage step-up transformer
means for supplying an energizing control volt
age to the input circuit of the ?rst of the tubes
of the cascade representative of ?eld conditions
tending to alter the electromagnetic ?eld within
tube being connected to the input of the succeed
ing tube of the cascade, energy storage circuits
connected with each tube of the cascade and
arranged to be charged in accordance with the
the pre-established reaching distance of any loop
current ?owing in the associated tube, a source
of the plurality so that‘ the ampli?er current flow
of alternating current, means for connecting said
varies from the pre-established normal, depend
ing upon which electromagnetic ?eld is modi?ed,
tubes of the cascade alternately to the source
of alternating current in a polarity such that the
plurality of tubes of the cascade is divided into
two alternately operative groups, a transformer
having its primary winding connected to the al
ternating current source and its secondary wind
ing connected to the inductive loop for supplying
the energy of the alternating current source to
the inductive loop element to develop an electro
magnetic ?eld of predetermined magnitude with
in a predetermined reaching distance of the loop,
a resistance and a shielded inductance element
and a load circuit connected to receive the energy
output of the said cascade and to produce an
indication of the magnitude of the departure
from equilibrium value of the, said altered elec
tromagnetic ?eld.
16. A locating device comprising, in combina
tion, a plurality of inductive loop elements quad
rantally positioned, a plurality of thermionic am
pli?er devices, and a two-phase alternating cur
rent source of predetermined frequency, means
for supplying operating energy to each of the
connected serially with the transformer second 60 said ampli?ersifrom di?'erent phases of the said
alternating current source, means for connecting
ary winding to balance the loop inductance and
diametrically opposite loop'elements of the quad
resistance and to provide an electrical bridge
rantal arrangement, means for supplying energy
connection of which an intermediate point on the
from the said source of alternating current to the
said transformer winding and one loop terminal
said connected pairs of loops with one phase of
form the terminal points of a diagonal across
the alternating current source being supplied to
which at a normal predetermined equilibrium
one oppositely connected pair of loops and the
condition no voltage is developed, a connection
other phase being supplied to the other oppo
from one point on said diagonal to ground, means
sitely connected loop pair to generate from, the >
for biasing the said tube cascade relative to
said
loops electromagnetic ?elds of predeter
ground to a predetermined voltage whereat a pre 70
mined magnitude extending into each quadrant,
determined normal current ?ows through the
means for, normally producing a predetermined
cascade in sequential steps from one to another
current flow through each of the said ampli?ers,
of the tubes thereof, voltage step-up transformer
a ‘connection from the connected series of said
means connecting the input circuit of the'?rst
loop elements to that ampli?er device which is
of the tubes of the cascade and the ungrounded 75 energized
by a like'phase of the said alternating
2,403,956
23
current source so that external conditions tend
ing. to change the magnetic ?eld distribution pro
24
indicating circuit comprises a cathode ray tube‘
having a pair of electron beam de?ecting means
for de?ecting the developed cathode ray beam in
each of two mutually perpendicular directions, an’
to modify the normal current ?owing in the con.
electron tube having its output circuit connected
5
nected ampli?er‘, and an indicator circuit to in
to each of said de?ecting means, means for sup
dicate the relative change in current flow in each
plying alternating current energy to said tubes to
of the ampli?ers simultaneously.
cause said- tubes to become conductive, said tubes
l7. The electrical apparatus claimed in claim
being energized by the said- alternating current
16 comprising, in addition, voltage step-up trans
during opposite half-cycles in each direction of
former means to supply the control voltages from 10' deflection, and means responsive to the output
the said loops to the said ampli?ers.
energy from the said ampli?ers to control the
18. The circuit claimed in claim 16- wherein the
de?ection of the said- beam.
said indicator circuit includes a cathode ray tube.
23.. A detector circuit for detecting the presence
19. A detector circuit for detecting the presence
of. disturbing conditions coming within developed
of electromagnetically active bodies which com
electromagnetic ?elds which comprises a plurality
prises a plurality of inductive loop elements posi
of inductive loop elements positioned in quad
tioned in quadrantal relationship relative to each
rantal relationship relative to each other with
other and connected serially to each other in di
diametrically opposite loops connected serially
ametrically opposing relationship, an ampli?er
with respect to each other, an ampli?er having
circuit connected to each pair of connected dia 20' its input circuit connected to be energized from
metrically opposite loop elements, and a two
the connected pair of diametrically opposite loop
phase source of alternating current energy hay
elements, and a source of two-phase alternating
ing one phase connected to energize one ampli
current energy having one phase connected to
?er and the loops connected thereto, and the
energize one of said ampli?ers and the loops. con
second phase connected to energize the other or"
nected thereto, and the second phase connected
said ampli?ers and the loops connected thereto,
to energize the other of said ampli?ers and the
whereby an electromagnetic ?eld is developed in
loops connected thereto, whereby an electromag
the region of each loop element so as to provide
netic ?eld is developed in the region of each loop
a ?eld distribution extending substantially in all
element so as to provide a ?eld distribution ex
quadrants, capacity means included in the con
tending substantially in all quadrants and the
necting path between the said alternating current
ampli?ers become operative under the in?uence
energy source and each of the said loops to tune
of the alternating current source, impedance
the said loop elements to the frequency of the
means to bias each of said ampli?ers to produce
said alternating current source so as to intensify
a predetermined normal current ?ow therein,
the ?eld strength developed thereby, bias means
means responsive to the presence of disturbing
to control each of the ampli?ers to produce a
electromagnetically active bodies within the,
predetermined normal current flow therethrough,
reaching distance of the electrical ?elds devel
means responsive to the presence of disturbing
oped by said alternating current energized loops
electromagiretically active bodies Within the
to produce a variance of the current flow in the
40
reaching distances of the ?elds developed from
said ampli?ers, and a directionally responsive in
said loops to produce proportional variances of
dicator circuit connected to receive the combined
the current flow in the said ampli?ers, and a di
output energy from the said ampli?ers to indicate
rectionally responsive indicator circuit connected
the quadrant wherein any variance of the mag
to receive the combined output energy from the
netic ?eld is produced due to the said disturbing
said ampli?ers to indicate the variance of the
bodies.
.
magnetic ?eld due to the said disturbing bodies.
24. The circuit claimed in claim 23 comprising,
20'. The circuit claimed in claim 19 comprising,
in addition, a cathode ray indicating device in
in addition, a cathode ray indicating device in
cluded in the indicator circuit to provide the quad
cluded in the indicator circuit, and means to sup
rantal indications, means to supply energy from
ply energy from the said alternating current
the said alternating current source to said cathode
source to said cathode ray tube to provide operat
ray tube to provide operating voltages therefor,
ing voltages therefor.
and means to control the beam deflection within
21. [-111 indicating system comprising a plurality
the said cathode ray tube in each of two mutually
of inductive loop elements, an ampli?er compris
perpendicular directions in accordance with the
ing a plurality of cascade connected thermionic
output energy from the said ampli?ers.
tubes, and means to supply alternating current
25. A detector circuit for detecting the pres
energy to all of said loop elements and the tubes
ence of di ‘ 'rbing conditions coming within de
of said ampli?er respectively, so as to develop
veloped ole rornagnetic ?elds which comprises
electromagnetic ?elds of predetermined strength
a plurality of inductive loop elements positioned
from said loop elements and to cause said ampli
in quadrantal relationship relative to each other
?er to become operative during positive half
with diametrically opposite loops connected seri
cycles of the alternating current, each of the said
ally with respect to each other, an ampli?er cir
supplies being co-phasal and of like frequency,
cuit having its input connected to vbe energized
means normally to provide a current ?ow of pre
from the connected pair of diametrically opposite
duce a control voltage of proportional magnitude
determined magnitude in said ampli?er during
conductive periods thereof, means for supplying
control energy to said ampli?er to vary the cur
rent flow therethrough under the control of ex
ternal conditions tending to alter the magnetic
?eld sensitivity within the region of any of the
developed electromagnetic ?elds from said loops,
and an indicating means to produce indications
of the said modi?cations in ampli?er output
loop elements, and a source of two-phase alter
nating current energy having one phase connect
ed to energize one ampli?er and the said loops
connected thereto, and the second phase con
nected to energize the other of Said amplifiers
and the loops connected thereto, whereby from
the loops an electromagnetic ?eld is developed in
the region of each loop element so as to provide
a ?eld distribution extending substantially in all
energy.
quadrants and the ampli?ers become opera
75
22. The system claimed in claim 21 wherein the
25
2,403,956
tive under the influence of the alternating cur
rent energy source, capacity means included in
the connecting path between the said alternat
26
to develop predetermined strength electromag
netic ?elds extending to predetermined reaching
distances thereof, means to bias the said cascade
ing current energy source and the said loops to
of tubes to establish normally a predetermined
tune the said loop elements to the frequency of
current
?ow therethrough, capacity means con
the said alternating current source whereby the
nected with each inductive loop element to tune
?eld strength developed is intensi?ed, means to
said elements to the frequency of the energizing
bias each of the ampli?ers to produce a prede
alternating current source, a bridge circuit in
termined normal current ?ow through the said
ampli?ers, means responsive to the presence of 10 cluding the said loops for applying a control volt
age to modify the normal current flow in the
disturbing electromagnetically active bodies
cascade upon the presence of ?eld disturbing con
within the reaching distance of the electromag
ditions modifying the said produced electromag
netic ?elds developed by said alternating cur
netic ?elds and causing an unbalance of the
rent energized loops to produce an increase or
a decrease of the current ?ow in the said asso
ciated ampli?ers in accordance with the loca
tion of the disturbance relative to one 01' the
bridge, ferro-magnetic means for shielding the
15 said tube cascade from the direct e?ects of ?eld
disturbing conditions which a?ect the said loop
elements, and a signal indicator circuit to pro~
other of the connected diametrically opposite
duce a manifestation of the magnitude and re
loops, and the degree of increase or decrease of
of the external disturbance affecting
current being determined by the nearness or re 20 moteness
the said produced magnetic ?elds.
moteness of the disturbances relative to the loop,
28. The circuit claimed ‘in claim 2'7 wherein
and a directionally responsive indicator circuit
the said indicator circuit includes a cathode ray
connected to receive the combined output energy
tube having means therein to develop a cathode
from the said ampli?ers to indicate both the mag
nitude and quadrantal location of any variance 25 ray beam, means associated with the cathode
raytube for de?ecting the produced cathode ray
of the magnetic ?eld due to the said bodies.
beam developed therein into each quadrant,
26. The circuit claimed in claim 25 compris
means for controlling the said de?ection by the
ing, in addition, a cathode ray indicating device
said ampli?er outputs thereby to indicate, by
having means to deflect and control the produced
cathode ray in mutually perpendicular directions 30 direction of de?ection, that quadrant wherein
magnetic ?eld disturbances have occurred and
included in the indicator circuit to provide the
by the magnitude of the de?ection the relative
quadrantal indications of disturbance location,
nearness of the disturbance.
means to supply energy from the said alternat
29. The apparatus claimed in claim 27 wherein
ing current source to said cathode ray tube to
provide operating voltages therefor, means to 35 the indicator circuit includes a cathode ray tube
having means therein for developing an electron
connect the output of one of the ampli?ers to
beam adapted to impact the tube target to pro
control the de?ection of the cathode ray beam in
duce visible indications, a plurality of opposing
one direction, and means to connect the output
pairs
of electron beam deflecting means for de
of the other of said ampli?ers to control the de
?ecting the developed cathode ray beam in mu
?ection of the cathode ray beam in the second 40
tually normal directions one to the other, means
normally perpendicular direction so that the
for controlling the deflection in the said two nor
combined e?ect is a quadrantally positioned elec
mal directions independently of one another by
tron beam representative of and pointing in the
the output energy from the said ampli?ers, rec
quadrantal direction of the center of the dis
45 ti?er means connected to be energized by al
turbance.
ternate half-cycles of the said alternating cur
27. An indicating system comprising, in com
rent energy source, and means for supplying the
bination, a series cascade of thermionic tubes, a
recti?er output individually to one electron beam
pair of inductive loop elements, and a source of
de?ecting means of each pair for controlling the
alternating current energy of predetermined
50 beam motion in the same plane as the ampli?er
frequency connected to supply operating volt
connected with the same phase of the alternat
ages to the tubes of the said cascade and to ener
ing current source.
gize the said loops at like phase and frequency
KURT SCI-ILESINGER.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
2 597 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа