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Патент USA US2403978

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July 16,1946.
`
-K. c. D. HlcKMAN ET Al.
2,403,978
VACUUM DISTILLATION APPARATUS
Filed Sep‘l'.. 12, 1944
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KENNET
.n.HICKMaN
EDMOND S . PERRY
INVENTORS
D/sT/LLATE our
BY
«um/ß
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ATTORNEYS
2,403,978
Patented July 16,1946
UNlTEosTATEs PATENT OFFICE
VACUUM DISTILLATION APPARATUS
Kenneth C. D. Hickman and Edmond S. Perry,A
Rochester, N. Y., assignors to Distillation Prod
`ucts, Inc., Rochester, N. Y., a corporation of
' Delaware
‘Application September 12, 1944, Serial No. 553,688
9 Claims.
(Cl. 202-205)
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with means -for distributing distilland on thesta‘
This invention relates to improved vacuum
distillation apparatus particularly of the type
wherein the vaporizing and condensing surfaces
are stationary and separated by substantially un
tionary vaporizingsurface:
obstructed space.
tion illustrating the use of distributingy means to
offer even less 'resistance to the flow of vapors
of Fig. l, and
High-vacuum Vunobstructed path distillation.
apparatus with stationary vaporizing and ,con
densing surfaces is well known. Such apparatus
than that shown inFig. 1.v
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Referring to Fig. l, numeral 6_ designates a
has the definite disadvantage that distilland can
cylinder casing provided `with an annular recess
gutter 8 in the lower `and i0 in _the upper wall
thereof. Numeral l2 designates an integralb'ase
lli
not be distributed on‘the vaporizing surface in a
sufficiently thin nlm. The distribution takes place
by >gravitational ñow and this limiting factor re- v
and numeral I4 a removable cover which makes
a gas-tight connection by means of a gasketlls.,
sults in films of relatively great thickness. Since
distillation takes place from the surface of the
Numerals I8 and 20 designate-Withdrawal con
duits for removal of gases'from the distillation
chamber. These conduits4 are connected ïto
ñlm only such thick films give poor distillation
and considerable thermal decomposition. It has
s proposed'previously that the distilland be
Vï-tstributecl on the vaporizing surface by centrif
ugal force. This representeda distinct advance
in the art. However, construction of large rotat
ing vaporizing surfaces is not a simple problem.
The gravitational flow type of still heretofore used
has had the distinct advantage of simplicity and
,
This invention has for its object to provide a
evacuating pumps (not shown).>
extremity with a hole 28. Numeral 30 designates
a'bearing positioned near the centerof base plate
l2 in which is housed shaft 32.l The upper por
; tion of shaft 32 is integral with an eight-spoked
spider 34 similar to `26. Spiders 26 and _34 _are
connected by means of >rods 36 to form a_ single
integral rotating element including >shaft 22,
spider 26, rods 35, brushes 38,'spider 34_ andshaft
tribution of distilland thereon in a ñlm sub
32 as one integral unit. - Rods 36 carry numerous
stantially thinner than'obtained by gravitational
wire bristles 38 which are sufficiently long to im
Another object is to provide vacuum un
pinge upon the inside wall of still casing 6,.' Y
obstructed path distillation apparatus in which
the surface of the distilling film is rapidly re
Other objects will appear hereinafter.
_These and other objects arel accomplished by
my invention which includes vacuum distillation
`
eight-spoked spider 26'and is provided atits lower'
tionary vaporizing surface which is simple and
economical to construct, and which enables dis
newed. A further object is to provide improved
vacuum unobstructed path distillation apparatus.
'
Numeral 22 designates a shaft 'housed in a
packed bearing 24. This shaftte?minates inA an
vacuum unobstructed path still having asta
iiow.
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Fig. 3'is a vertical section of l a slight modifica
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low eeft of construction.
f -
Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken on line 2'-'-2
2,3 Cl
t
Numeral 4l! designates a cylinder positioned in
side the still casing 6 and approximately co
axial therewith. Cylinder 40 lis. provided with a
double wall forming a tight jacket through which
cooling fluid is circulated by introduction through
conduit 42 and withdrawal through conduit 44.
Shaft> 45 is integral with the baseplate 48 of
apparatus provided with a stationary vaporizing
cylinder ¿.0 and with plate l2 in the still andV
surface, a condensing surfaceV separated there 40 serves to rigidly maintain cylinder 40 in the posi
from by substantially unobstructed space and
tion illustrated. Numeral 50 designates a short
means, which oder relatively little resistance to
the flow of vapors, for distributing and rapidly
renewing the film of distilland, which means is
positioned between the vaporizing and condens
ing surfaces.
_
shaft which protrudes into hole 2,8 and which is
integral with plate 52 of the upper part of cylin
45 der 40, and serves as a means for stabilizing cylin
der 4t and maintaining it in theposition illus
trated. Numeral’öd indicates' an annular gutter
In the following description we have set forth
integral with the base of cylinder 40 but which
several of the preferred embodiments of our in
is
connected to withdrawal conduit `Sli. “Numeral
vention but it is to be understood that these are
58 designates a conduit connected to the inside
50
given by way of illustration and not in limitation
middle portion of casing 6 and numeral 60 desig
nates a conduit connected to gutter 8 and numeral Y
In the accompanying drawing we have’illus
thereof.
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trated a preferred embodimentof our invention
wherein:
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rFig. 1 is aV vertical section of a still provided
62 designates a `conduit connected _togutt’erY I0.
Numeral 64 designates a pulley integral with shaft
221. Numeral 66 designates an 4insulating jacket
3
2,403,978
4
surrounding casing 6 in which is positioned a
onto the vaporizing surface, means for removing
undistilled residue from the vaporizing surface,
heating element 63.
In operating the apparatus 'illustrated in Figs.
1 and 2 the system is evacuated through conduits
I3 and 20. Heating element 68 is put into opera
tion to heat the wall of 6 to distillation tempera
ture. Force is applied to pulley 64 to rotate the
means for removing distillate from the condens
ing surface and means for maintaining a vacuum
in the space between the vaporizing and con
densing surfaces.
2. Vacuum distillation `apparatus vcomprising in
brushes 38 and to cause them to pass Over the
inside wall of 6.
combination two hollow, stationary, approx1
Cooling fluid is introduced into
mately eo-axial members one member serving as
a vaporizing surface and the other serving as a
condensing cylinder 4i) and distilland is intro
duced through conduit 53 onto the inside wall .of
S. This distilland is immediately spread by the
brushes 38 upon the wall of .6 in a thin film which
is rapidly renewed due to repeated wiping action
of the bristles. The distilland is thus spread over
the entire wall of 6 and this spreading action
causes at least part of the distilland to travel
upward against gravitational force and to pass
into gutter lû. Similarly, by a combination of
the spreading action and gravitational force the
remainder of the distilland, or rather the undis
>condensing surface, said members being separated
from each other by substantially unobstructed
space, means ,for mechanically distributing dis
tilland onto the stationary vaporizing surface in
the form of a thin ñlm and for rapidly agitating
and renewing said thin ñlm by mechanical action,
which means offers relatively little resistance to
the flow of vapors from the vaporizing to the con
densing surface, means for heating the vaporizing
surface, means for cooling the condensing sur
face, means for removing undistilled residue from
the vaporizing surface, means for removing dis
tilled residue, passes into gutter 8.
During passage over the inside wall of 6 the
tillate from the condensing surfaceand means
for maintaining a vacuum in the space between
film is heated to distillation temperature. Vapors
which are generated pass to the condensing sur
face 46 with relatively little obstruction. These
vapors are then condensed to flow by gravity into
gutter 43 and are withdrawn from the still
through conduit 55. Undistilled residue is with
drawn through conduits 60 and 52.
The construction and operation of the appa
ratus illustrated in Fig. 3 is very similar to that
illustrated` and described in connection with Figs.
1 and> 2, the only difference being that two
brushes 69 only are used and these are mounted
on a two-spoked support 10. These brushes offer
even less obstruction to the flow of vapors than
the construction illustrated in Figs. l and 2.
It-isapparent that many modifications can be
made in the apparatus illustrated without depart
ing from the spirit or scope of our invention.
Obviously the number of brushes 38 can be in
creased or decreased and obviously the rate of
rotation can be varied to offset any change in the
number of brushes, or to increase or decrease the
spreading or filming action. Instead of heating
by means of a Vhot coil Yas illustrated, it may be
preferred in many cases to circulate hot combus
tion gases in the space between jacket 6B and the
outside wall of casing 6. This would be a dis
tinct advantage in that cheap sources of heat
could be used.~ While a brush constitutes the
preferred form of distributing and renewing the
surface of the distilland, this can be accomplished
by othermeans such as wiper blades having sufi“ cient'tension as applied to the inside surface cf
5 to spread the distilland in the desired thickness.
The bristles etc., should touch the vaporizing sur
face so that they wipe or smear the distilland
into a thin film.
, What we claim is:
l. Vacuum distillation apparatus comprising in
combination a stationary vaporizing surface, a
condensing surface, said surfaces being separated
_from each other by substantially unobstructed
space, means positioned between the vaporizing
and condensing surfaces for mechanicallyV dis
25
the vaporizing and condensing surfaces.
3. Vacuum distillation apparatus comprising in
combination two hollow, stationary, approxi
mately co-axial members having substantially
parallel sides one member serving as a vaporizing
surface and the other serving as a condensing
surf-ace, said members being separated from each
other by substantially unobstructed space, a mov
able brush adapted to .pass over the vaporizing
surface distributing and renewing the ñlm of `dis
tilland thereon during such passage, said brush
offering relatively little resistance to the flow of
vapors from the vaporizing to the condensing
surface, means for heating the vaporizing sur
face, means for cooling the condensing surface,
40 means for introducing distilland onto the vapor
izing surface, means for removing undistilled resi
due from the vaporizing surface, means for re
moving distillate from the condensing surface
and means for maintaining a vacuum in the space
between the vaporizing and condensing surfaces.
4. Vacuuzn distillation apparatus comprising
in combination two hollow stationary approxi~
mately co-aXial members having substantially
parallel sides, one member serving as a vaporiz- `
ing surface, and the other serving as a condens
ing surface said members being separated from
each other by substantially unobstructed space,
a rotatable brush which oifers relatively little
resistance to the flow .of vapors between the va
, porizing and condensing surfaces positioned so
that during rotation the bristles thereof pass over
the vaporizing surface and distribute distilland
thereover in a thin, rapidly renewed nlm, means
for heating the vaporizing surface, means for
cooling the condensing surface, means for intro
ducing distilland onto the vaporizing surface,
means for removing undistilled residue from the
vaporizing surface, means for removing distillate
from the condensing surface, and means for
maintaining a vacuum in the space between the
vaporizing and condensing surfaces.
v
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surface in the form of a thin film and for rapidly
5. Vacuum distillation apparatus comprising in
combination a stationary vaporizinfI surface, a
densing surface, means for introducing distilland
ing and condensing surfaces positionedso‘that,
tributing distilland-onto the stationary vaporizing
agitating and renewing said thin film by mechani 70 condensing surface positioned substantially op
posite to and separated from the vaporizing sur
Kcal. action which means offers relatively little re
face by substantially unobstructed space, a ro
sistance to .the flow of vapors from the vaporizing
tatable brush which offers relatively little resist
to thecondensing surface, means for heating the
ance tothe flow of vapors betweenthe Vaporiz
vaporizing-surface, means for cooling the con
duringrotation, the bristles thereof pass ¿over
2,403,978
maintaining a vacuum between the vaporizing
and condensing surf aces.
the vaporizing surface and distribute distilland
thereover in a thin, rapidly renewed film, means `
8. Vacuum distillation apparatus comprising in
for heating the vaporizing surface, means for
combination a stationary, approximately cylin
cooling the condensing surface, means for in
drical vaporizing surface, a stationary approxi
troducing distilland onto the vaporizing surface, (il mately cylindrical condensing surface of sub
means for removing undistilled residue from the
stantially smaller diameter than the vaporizing
vaporizing surface, means for removing distillate
surface and positioned inside thereof and ap
from the condensing surface, and means for
proximately co-axial therewith, a rotatable brush
maintaining a vacuum in the space between the
which offers relatively little resistance to the flow
Vaporizing and condensing surfaces.
of vapors between the vaporizing and condensing
6. Vacuum distillation apparatus comprising in
surfaces positioned so that during rotation the
combination stationary vaporizing and condens
bristles thereof pass over the Vaporizing surface
ing surfaces separated by substantially unob
and distribute distilland thereover in a thin,
structed space, which surfaces are approximately
rapidly renewed ñlm, means for heating the va
circular in cross section and co-axial with re 15 porizing surface, means for introducing distilland
spect to each other, a rotatable brush which
onto the vaporizing surface, means for removing
offers relatively little resistance to the flow of
undistilled residue from the vaporizing surface,
vapors positioned between said vaporizing and
means for cooling the condensing surface, means
condensing surfaces so that it rotates on approxi
for removing distillate from the condensing sur
mately the same axis as the vaporizing and con 20 face and means for maintaining a high vacuum
densing surfaces, and so that the bristles thereof
in the space between the vaporizing and condens
during rotation pass over the vaporizing surface
ing surfaces.
and distribute distilland thereover in a thin,
9. Vacuum distillation apparatus comprising in
rapidly renewed film, means for introducing dis
combination an approximately cylindrical vapor
tilland onto the vaporizing surface, means for
izing surface, means for bringing hot combustion
removing undistilled residue from the vaporizing
gases into contact with the outside of said cylin
surface, means for heating the vaporizing sur
drical vapoiizing surface, a substantially cylin
face, means for cooling the condensing surface,
drical condensing surface of considerably smaller
means for removing distillate from the condens
diameter than the vaporizing surface positioned
ing surface, and means for maintaining a vac
uum between the vaporizing and condensing sur
faces.
7. Vacuum distillation apparatus comprising in
combination stationary, approximately concen
tric, cylindrical vaporizing and condensing sur
faces, separated from each other by substantially
unobstructed space which offers relatively little
resistance to the flow of vapors between the va
porizing and condensing surfaces positioned so
that, during rotation, the bristles thereof pass
over the vaporizing surface and distribute dis
tilland thereover in a thin, rapidly renewed film,
30
inside the vaporizing surface and approximately
co-axial therewith, a rotatable brush which offers
relatively little resistance to the now of vapors
between the vaporizing and condensing surfaces
positioned so that during rotation the bristles
thereof pass over the vaporizing surface and dis
tribute distilland thereover in a thin, rapidly
renewed ñlm, means for introducing distilland
onto the vaporizing surface, means for removing
undistilled residue from the vaporizing surface,
means for cooling the condensing surface, means
for removing distillate from the condensing sur
face. and means for maintaining a vacuum in
means for heating the vaporizing surface, means
the space between the vaporizing and condensing
for introducing distilland onto the vaporizing sur
face, means for removing undistilled residue from 45 surfaces.
KENNETH C. D. HICKMAN.
the vaporizing surfaces, means for cooling the
condensing surface, means for removing distillate
from the condensing surface, and means for
EDMOND S. PERRY.
Disclaimer
2,403,978.-Ke1meth C'. D. Hickman and Edmond S. Perry, Rochester, N. Y. VACUUM
DISTILLATION APPARATUS. Patent dated July 16, 1946. Disclaimer filed
Nov. 12, 1947, by the assignee, Dtstillat'ion Products, Inc.
Hereby enters disclaimer to claims 1 and 2 of said patent.
[Újicial Gazette January 6, 1948.]
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