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Патент USA US2403990

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July 16, 1946.
w. P. MASON
v -
2,403,990 _
COMPRESSIONAL WAVE RADIATOR
Filed Aug. 1, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet l
RECTIFIER
INVENTOR
W F.’ MA SON
A ARNEV
July 16, 1946.
2,403,990
w. P. MASON
COMPRESSIONAL WAVE RADIATOR
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Aug. 1,‘ 1942
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FIG. 5
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TiIIJHILEI
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lNVENTUR
W R MASON
BY
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ATTORNEY
July 16, 1946.
A
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104
W
w, P, MASON
2,403,990 '
CO'MPRESSIONAL WAVE RADIATOR
_
Filed Aug. 1, 1942
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
AS _
'
'
INVENTOR
W R MASON
ATTORNEY
July 16, 1946.
w_ p_ MASON
‘
COMPRESSIONAL WAVE RADIATOR
Filed Aug. 1, 1942
7 2,403,990
I
_
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
INVENTOR
_
-
w F.’ MASON
ATTORNEY
2,403,990
Patented July 16, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT-OFFICE,‘ "
dOliIPRESSIONAL WAVE RADIATOR .
Warren P. Mason, West Orange, N. J.,'i_assignor'
to Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application August 1, 1942, Serial No. {153,225
14 Claims. (Cl.-177—386)
1
This invention relates to submarine signaling
‘1'.
2
.
grammatically, a parabolic-type of compressional.
Wave radiator in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 2 is asectional view taken along the line‘
radiator.
An object of the invention is to radiate com-.
Fig. 3 is a schematic circuit of the mechanical
pressional waves under water.
?lter unit used in the radiator; '
"
~ '
Another object is to convert a shock wave into
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of ‘a cylindrical type;
a vibration of limited frequency range.
of radiator;
A further object is tov increase the duration
Fig. 5 is a sectional .view takenamhgthe line
of the vibration radiated.
Another object of the invention is to increase 10 5-5 of Fig. 4;
.Fig. 6 is a view, partlyfin section, of a spherical
the output of a compressional wave radiator fall
type of radiator; and
. I
,
.
ing within a limited band of frequencies.
Fig. 7 is a perspective view, partly exploded,
Shock waves having large energies for a short
of parts of the radiator-.vof Fig. 6. '
_
period of time have been employed heretofore
Taking up the ?gures in more detail, Figs. 1
in submarine signaling systems. Such a shock 15
and more particularly to a compressional wave
2_"2
of
Fig.
.
_
.
,
r
'
v
-
.
and 2 show a compressional wave radiator com
wave has its energi7 spread quite uniformly over
a very wide frequency range but,’ in a typical
case, dies out in about two milliseconds, In some
prising a water-tight‘ container l0 formed of a
submarine signaling systems, however, there is
required a compressional wave which will persist
tor l l has an'annular ?ange [4 to which the inner
at a high energy level for a much longer time. .
In accordance with the present invention there
is provided a submarine compressional wave radi
ator which will deliver the required type of wave.
The radiator comprises a water-tight container
?lled with liquid, means within the container for
delivering a strong impulse to the liquid and ?l
tering means associated with the container for
transmitting therethrough a limited band of fre
quencies. The impulse may, for example, be gen
erated by an electrical discharge through the liq
uid in the container. The ?ltering means prefer
ably comprise a pair of metal diaphragms, rigid
ly supported at their peripheries, and an inter
posed layer of elastic material having a compara
tively low Young’s modulus. A satisfactory elas
tic material is resin, such, for example, as cellu
lose acetate or polymerized methyl methacrylate.
The mid-band of the ?lter is placed at the fre
quency at which it is desired that the peak of
parabolic metallic re?ector ll closed by two cir
cular metallic end plates l2 and IS. The refl'_e_q—_
plate I2 is secured by means of screws'such as ' 15.
‘A number of circular holes. suchas l8 are drilled
in the outer side of the .plate l2, leaving compara
tively thin diaphragms H! which are rigidly sup
25 ported at their p ripheries. A corresponding
number of matchin circular holes such as? 270 are
drilled in the inne side of the plate [3, leaving
thin diaphragms 2 . .vBetween each pair of dia
phragms l9 and 2i "and‘cemented thereto is a
30 cylindrical plug 23 made of an elastic material for
which Young’s modulus is.v comparatively low.
Natural or synthetic resin such, for example, as
cellulose acetate or polymerized methyl methac- '
rylate is a suitable material.” The plate I3 is fas
35 tened to the plate l2 by means of screwssuch
as 24. The container Ill may, for example; 'be,
mounted on the side or bottom of a ship in such
a way that the reflector I l extends inside the ship
through a hole 251 in the'ship’s plate 26, and it;
40 may be secured by'meansof bolts such as .21
which go through the ship’s plate 26, the ?ange
energy shall occur. The band width is made sum
l4 and the plate l2. A gasket 28 prevents water
ciently narrow to ensure the desired duration of
from leaking through the joint.
'
the pulse, since the narrower the band‘ the longer
"The container Ill is ?lled' with fresh or dis-v
it will take for the output to die down to a given
fraction Of its initial value. In order to increase 45 tilled water, or other liquid having a compara
tively high resistivity. The source of the impulse
the power output of the radiator, more than one’
is an electricaldischarge across the gap 30 be
?lter unit may be provided. The container may
tween'the ends of the electrodes 3| and 32 within
take the form of a parabola, a cylinder, a sphere
the container H). The electrode 3| is electrically
or any other suitable shape.
The nature of the invention will be more fully 60 connected’k-to the reflectorl I but the electrode 32' ,
is insulated therefrom by means of the insulator
understood from the following detailed descrip
33. The center of the gap 3|] is‘pl-aced at the‘
tion and by reference to the accompanying draw
focus of the parabolic re?ector ll;
7 ,
>
ings, in which like reference characters refer to
The required voltage is derived‘ from the alter
similar or corresponding parts and in which:
Fig. 1 shows, partly in section and partly dia 55 natorl 35, recti?ed by the recti?er‘35 and used; _ A
2,403,990
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4
to charge the capacitor 37, one side of which is
connected to the re?ector II at the point 38 by
suf?ciently narrow to ensure the required dura
tion of the output vibration. The number of
the lead 39 and the other side of which is con
nected through the switch 49 and the lead M to
?lter units I6 depends upon the power required
to be radiated. The radiator shown in Figs. 1
the insulated electrode 32.
and 2 has 21 of these units.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of a cylindrical type of
compressional wave radiator, and Fig. 5 is a sec
tional view taken along the line 5—-5~ of Fig. 4.
When the switch 40
is closed there is impressed across the gap 30 a
voltage su?iciently high to cause between the
electrodes 3I.,and 3.2 an electrical. discharge which
delivers a strong impulse to the liquid within
Here the water-tight container 43 is formed of
the container II. This impulse is transmitted 10 two concentric cylindrical shells 44, 45 and two
through the liquid to the inner plate I2.
end plates 46, 41. To facilitate assembly, the
A diaphragm I9 in the plate I2, a correspond
outer shell 44 is made in four quadrants such as
ing diaphragm 2| in the plate l 3 and! the inter‘
431 fastened together by means of bolts 49
posed plug 23 constitute a mechanical wave ?lter
through the adjacent?anges 5i! and 5|, as shown
' ' IS‘ the equivalent T network. or‘. which. is shown
in Fig. 5. The end plate 46 is fastened to the
schematically in Fig. 3. Each; seriesv impedance
outer cylinder 44 by means of screws such as 54
"lbranch comprises a compliance C, furnished by
and the end plate 41 is fastened thereto by means
the diaphragm I9 or U, and a mass M.
The
of screws such as 55. The electrode 3| is mounted
interposed shunt impedance branch is constituted
in. a central boss 58 in the end plate 46 and the
by a compliance C1 furnished by the plug 23. 20 opposite electrode 32 extends through an insulator
The mass M is equal to. the sum of two masses
M1 and M2, where M1 is equal to half the mass of‘
the plug 23 and‘ M2 is the equivalent mass of the
diaphragm I'9 or 2|. In accordance With well
60 in a central hole in. the other end plate 4.1. to
form a gap having its center 30 at the center of
the container 43. The assembly is mounted onthe
outside of a ship by means of the bolts 42 which
establishedv practice the electrical symbol for 25 go through the ship’s plate. 6|. the end plate 41
capacitance is used for the compliances C and C1
and the symbol for. inductance is. used for the
and. an annular ?ange 62 on the. outer shell 44.
A hole 63 in the ship’s plate BI. permits electrical
mass M.
connections to be made to the end plate 4.1 and
the insulated electrode 32 by means. of. the lead
wires 39 and 4I,_ respectively, from a voltage
source of the type shown. in Fig, 1. Thev gasket
61 keeps the water: out. of the ship.
The inner shell. 45 has a. number of circular
holes 64 drilled in. from the. outside and: it. is
milled off ?at on the. inside as. shownat. 65. to
form a number of inner diaphragms. 6.6. Corre
sponding. holes. 68 are drilled. in they outer shell.
44 from the inside and it is. milled o? ?at on the
outside. as. shown. at ‘H1 to. form. the. outer dia
The valueslof C, C1. and. M2,, in mechanical units,
may be found‘ from the following equations:
A4(1‘-B-°»)’
C‘TGW
__i
<1)
M2=§1>EK
63)
in which A is theradius, D the area,. E the thick
ness. and K the density of the. d-iaphragin I9 or 2| ,. 40 phragms ‘H.
Between each pair of diaphragms
66 and ‘H, and cemented thereto, is a cylindrical
elastic plug 13 having its. outer corner beveled‘as
modnlusfor, the plug, 23.
shown. at ‘£5 to facilitate. assembly of the four‘
The ?lter IZB. may be. designed to have, a trans-'
quadrants. 48.- of the outer shell 44.. Each pair of
mission. hand between a. lower cut-01f frequency 40 diaphragms 6.6 and ‘II and the interposed plug
f1 and an upper cut-o?“ frequency in by giving the
1.3 form a mechanical ?lter unit ‘I8’ which may
elements 0, C1 and. M the- following values:
be designed. in the same. manner as explained
above. in- connection with: the unit I6 of Fig. 1‘ to?
Bis Poisson’s ratio and. F YounsFs modulusithere
for, and. G is the thickness. of, and H Young’s
have the desired: mid-band- frequency fin, cute-off‘
50 frequenciesfi- and f2- and. characteristic impedance
Z. The radiator just described‘ is. less directive
in its radiating properties than is the one shown.
M
in- Figs. 1 and 2 since it covers an arc of 360
Z
“arm-m
(6)
where Z is the characteristic impedance of the
?lter at its mid-band irequency fm, de?ned as
the. geometric mean of the cut-0H3 frequencies f1.
and f2. To avoid re?ection effects the impedance
Z should match the load impedances between.
which. the ?lter operates.
degrees.
55
Figs. 6‘ and '7 show- a- radiator of. the: spherical
type. Fig. 6 is: a side view, partly cut‘ away and
partly in section, showing the water-tight spher
ical container 80- attached to‘ the outside of. the
ship’s plate ill and Fig. 7' is a perspective» View,
partially exploded, showing certain of the parts.
The container 89; comprises: a hollow spherical
The function of the ?lter units‘ Hi is to- con
inner shell 82, made up of two hemispherical
vert the shock wave- generated within the’ con
sections such as 84*, and a; spherical‘ outer' shell
tainer I0 into a vibration of longer duration but
85, made’ in eight sections, such as‘ 87; The inner
limited. frequency range, with its energy peaked‘ 65. shell 82 has a number of circul'arhol‘es 88 drilled
at some chosen frequency; An analysis of the be
part way' through from the outside to form: the
havior of a shock wave impressed upon a band
diaphragms 89 and‘ the outer shell 86 has a cor:
pass- ?lter shows that the‘ output vibration will
responding' number‘ of matching holes 9.0.’ drilled
be con?ned mainly to the hand between‘ f1‘- and f2,
part way through from the inside to. form the
will. have its energy peaked in’ the vicinity of the
diaphragms 92'. Between each pair of dia
mid-band frequency fur and will persist for a
phragms 89 and’ '92, and cemented thereto, is a
time which is inversely proportional to the‘ band‘
cylindrical elasticv plug 93, similar’ to the plugs
width. The mid-band frequency fin‘ is, therefore,
23 and, 'I3-v described above. The plug 93 has its
chosen to coincide with the desired frequency of
outer corner beveled as‘ shown at 94 to facilitate
the. energy peak and the band width is. made - assembly. The tiliaphragmsv 89 and. 9.2: and. the
2,403,990
5
from thei-nside to leavecomparativelylthin ‘outer
diaphragms and said ?ltering means including
interposed plug 93 form- a mechanical ?lter unit
similar to the units I6 and. ‘I8, already described,
elastic -'- plugs inserted- respectively ‘between said
and it may be designed in the same "way. ’All of
the shell sections are bolted together by means
of bolts such as 96 through adjacent flanges such
as 91 and 98 to form a water-tighthollow sphere
80.
inner‘ diaphragms and’ the corresponding outer
diémpjmiagms_v
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._
q.
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.
,.
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_
4. A‘ compressional 'wave radiator. comprising
a parabolic re?ector, an‘ inner plate and an outer
7
plate closing said reflector-to make awater-tight
container, liquid within-'said-container, means for
Within the container 89 are two electrodes (II
and 32 separated by a gap the center 99 of‘ which
is at the center of the- sphere. ‘The electrode -3I
delivering ' a strong ‘ impulse ' to 'said vliquid ‘near
is electrically connected to the inner shell‘82 but
the focus‘ of said» parabolic reflectorvv and I a plu
the electrode 32 is insulated from 'the container
89 by means of the tubular insulator I90 within
the protecting tube IOVI. The leads 39 ‘and M
said plates for: transmitting therethrough a band
rality“ of mechanical ?lter‘ units'associatedwith
of frequencies while attenuating frequencies ' out;
side of ' said-band, each of said ?lter units com
from ‘the voltage source‘arev connected, respec- .
prising two diaphragms rigidly supported at
their peripheries and aninterposed layer of elas'e
tively, to the tube IOI and the electrode 32.
The container 80 is suspended from the ship’s
plate8l by means of four rods I93, each of which
tic material having a comparatively low Young’s
is secured at one end to an outer plate I04 and
modulus.
-
a
'
' ‘
_-
i,
1 5. A compressional wave radiator comprising
is held in place by means of the four vbolts I95
which go through the outer plate I94, the ship’s
plate 8| and the inner plate I96. The‘ other end
of the rod I93 goes through holes in the lugs ‘I98
and I9<9v associated, respectively, with the upper
half and the lower half of the outer shell 86 and,
a parabolic re?ector, an inner plate and‘an outer
plat'efclosing‘ said re?ector to make a water-‘tight
container,‘ liquid'within said container, means for
delivering a strong impulse to said liquid ‘near
the focus ofsaid parabolic re?ector and a'plu
with the aid of the nuts III} and III, holds ‘the
two halves of the shell 86 together. The‘ tube
rality of mechanical ?lter units associated with
directions with substantially equal intensity.
wall, end. plates closing said cylindrical walls to
said ‘plates for transmitting therethrough 'a band
of frequencies while attenuating frequencies?outé
IIlI enters the ship through a ho1e'II2‘Yin the
side of said band; said inner plate having a num
plate 8| made water-tight by means of the pack
30 ber of. holes extending part way through from
ing box H3 and packing material H4.
,the outside to leave comparatively thin inner
The spherical type of compressional wave ra
diaphragms, said outer plate having the same
diator shown in Figs. 6 and '7 has some advan
number of matching holes extending part way .
tages over the other types of radiators disclosed
through from the inside to leave comparatively
herein. Since the shock wave is generated at
the center 99 of the inner spherical shell 82 it 35 thin outer diaphragms and each of said ?lter
units including an elastic plug inserted between
sets up a spherical compressional wave which
one of said inner diaphragms and the correspond
reaches all the ?lter units, and all portions of
ing outer diaphragm. i
v
each inner diaphragm 89, at the same time and
6.'A compressional wave radiator’ inaccord
in the same phase. The output energy from all
ance with claim 4 in which a plurality‘ of said
of the ?lter units will, therefore, be in phase
?lter units are located substantially equidistantly
and possible interference between units will be
from the point of ‘delivery of said impulse;
avoided. A further advantage is that the output
'7. A compressional wave radiator comprising
energy from the radiator will also be very nearly
an
inner cylindrical wall, an outer cylindrical
a spherical Wave and will be radiated in all
make a water-tight container, liquid within said
container, means for delivering a strong impulse
to said liquid near the center of said container
and a plurality 'of mechanical ?lter units asso
ciated with said cylindrical walls for transmit
ting therethrough a band of frequencies while
attenuating frequencies outside of said band, each
What is claimed is:
1. A compressional wave radiator comprising‘
a water-tight container, liquid within said con
tainer, means for delivering a strong impulse ‘to
said liquid and ?ltering means associated with
said container for transmitting therethrough a
band of frequencies while attenuating frequen
cies outside of said band, said ?ltering means
including a plurality of mechanical ?lter units
and each of said units comprising two diaphragms
rigidly supported at their peripheries and an in
terposed layer of elastic material having a com
of said ?lter units comprising two diaphragms
rigidly supported at their peripheries and an in
terposed layer of elastic material having a com
paratively low Young’s modulus.
paratively low Young’s modulus.
an inner cylindrical wall, an outer cylindrical
2. A compressional wave radiator in accord
ance with claim 1 in which a plurality of said
?lter units are located substantially equidistantly
wall, end plates closing said cylindrical walls to
'8. A compressional wave radiator comprising ”
make a water-tight container, liquid within said
container, means for delivering a strong impulse
to said liquid near the centerof said container
from the point of delivery of said impulse.
3. A compressional wave radiator comprising
a water-tight container, liquid within said con
tainer, means for delivering a strong impulse to
said liquid and ?ltering means associated with
said container for transmitting therethrough a
band of frequencies while attenuating frequen
cies outside of said band, a portion of said con
tainer being constituted by an inner wall and
an outer wall, said inner wall having a number
of holes extending part way through from the
outside to leave comparatively thin inner dia
phragms, said outer wall having the same number
65
and a plurality of mechanical ?lter units asso
ciated with said cylindrical walls for transmit- .
ting therethrough a band of frequencies while
attenuating frequencies outside of said band, said
inner cylindrical wall having a number of holes
extending part way through from the outside to
leave comparatively thin inner diaphragms, said"
outer cylindrical wall having the same number
of matching holes extending part way through
diaphragms
from the inside
andtoeach
leaveofcomparatively
said ?lter units
thin
includouter VA
of matching holes extending part way through 75 ing an elastic plug inserted between one of said a
7
2,403,990
inner diaphragms and the corresponding outer
diaphragm.
9. A compressional wave radiator in accord
ance with ‘claim 7 in which a plurality of said
?lter units are located substantially equidistantly
from the point of delivery of said impulse.
10. A compressional wave radiator comprising
a hollow spherical inner shell and a spherical
part way through from the outside :to leave-com
paratively thin inner diaphragm, said outer shell
having the same number of matching holes ex
tending part way through from the inside (to
leave comparatively thin outer diaphragms and
each of said ?lter units including-an elastic fplug
inserted between one of said inner diaphragms
and the ‘corresponding outer diaphragm.
outer shell constituting a water-tight container,
1/2. A compressional wave vradiator in accord
liquid within said container, means for delivering 10 ance with claim 10 in which a.plurality of :said
a strong impulse to said liquid near the center of
?lter units are located substantially 'e'quidistantly
said container and apluralityof mechanical ?lter
from the point of delivery 'of said impulse.
units associated with said shells for transmitting
13. ‘A wave ?ltering device comprising an inner
therethrough a band of frequencies while atten
plate, an ‘outer .plate and a plurality ‘of )plugs ‘of
uating frequencies outside of said band, each of :15 elastic material having a comparatively ‘low
said ?lter ‘units comprising two diaphragms rig
Young’s modulus, said inner plate :having a mime
idly supported at their peripheries and ‘an inter
ber of holes extending part way through from
posed layer :‘of elastic material having 'a compara
the outside to leave ‘comparatively thin inner dia
tively low Young’s modulus.
phragms, said outer plate having the same num*
.141. A compressional wave radiator comprising
ber of matching holes extending part way
a hollow spherical ‘inner shell and a spherical
through from the inside to leave comparatively
outer shell constituting a water-tight container,
thin outer diaphragms and said ,plu'gs being in‘
liquid within said container, means for deliver
serted, respectively, between said ‘inner "dia;
ing'a strong impulse to ‘said liquid near the center
phragms and the ‘corresponding outer dia
of said container, and a plurality of mechanical
phragms.
26
?lter uni-ts associated with said shells for trans
14. A wave ?ltering device in accordance with
mitting therethrough a band of frequencies while
claim 13 in which said plugs are cemented to said
attenuating frequencies outside of said band, said
diaphragms.
inner shell having 1a number of holes extending
WARREN P. MASON.
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