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Патент USA US2404002

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C. G. SMHTH
ELECTRICAL GASEOUS DISCHARGE LAMP
Filedì Deo. 4, 1940
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2,404,002
Patented July 16, `1946
UNITED STATES >PATENT ’OFFICE
ELECTRICAL GASEOUS DISCHARGE LAMP
Charles G. Smith, Medford, Mass., assignor to
Raytheon Manufacturing Company, Newton,
Mass., a corporation of Delaware
Application December 4, 1940, Serial No. 368,469
17 Claims. (Cl. 176-422)
2
1
outer container 6 made of some suitable material,
such as glass. The container 6 is provided with
This invention relates to an electrical gaseous
discharge lamp.
An object of this invention is to produce such
a lamp of high intensity and high efficiency.
Another object is to produce such a lamp which
is an effective generator of ultraviolet light.
a reentrant stem 1. _ A band 8 is clamped around
Another object is to devise a lamp in whichv
a localized region of increased conductivity is
produced through which the discharge passes for
„in the stem 1. A lead I0 connected to the lead-in
conductor 3 extends through the stem 1 to pro
one end of the envelope I. A pair of standards
9 welded to the band 8 are sealed in the stem
l. One of the lead-in conductors'is also sealed
A still further object is to provide a lamp
vide an external electrical `connection to'one end
of the ñlament 2. The upper lead-in conductor
3 is connected in series with the resistance II
which utilizes a polyatomic gas, such as deuteri
um, which decomposes into a monatomic gas in
and the standard I2, the lower end of which is
also sealed in the stem l. The resistance I I is
improving the operation of the lamp.
for the purpose of stabilizing the lamp operation.
the discharge.`
The foregoing and other objects of this inven 15 The standard I2 is provided with an external
leadv I3. Where the discharge within the en
tion will be best understood from the following
velope I generates ultraviolet light, it may be de
description of an exempliñcation thereof, refer
sirable to convert such ultraviolet light into vis
ence being had to the accompanying drawing
ible light. For this purpose the interior walls of
wherein the single iigure is a cross-section of a
lamp embodying my invention.
The lamp illustrated consists of an envelope
l made of material which is preferably transpar
ent to ultraviolet light, as for example quartz
or ultraviolet light transparent glass. Substan
tially along the central axis of the envelope I is 25
disposed a filament made of a refractory con
ductor, such as tungsten, and which is designed
to operate at about 2000o C. or higher. The ñla
ment 2 is supported by lead-in conductors 3-3
sealed through the opposite ends of the envelope 30
l. Each lead-in conductor 3 also carries a small
coil of wire 4 which constitutes a self-heating
cathode. Each cathode 4 may consist of a coil
of thorium Wire, thoriated tungsten wire, or a
the container 6 may be coated with a suitable ñu
crescent material I4. It is also desirable in some
instances to exhaust the tube 5, and for this pur
pose it is provided with an exhaust tube I5.
When the conductors I0 and I3 are connected
to a suitable source of voltage, such as, for ex
ample, an alternating current voltage supply,
current passing through the ñlament 2 raises said
ñlament to a temperature of about 2000° or more.
At substantially the same time a discharge is
initiated between the cathodes 4 through the gas
eous atmosphere within the envelope I. Due to
this discharge assisted by the heat generated in
the filament Y2, the cathodes 4 are raised to tem
perature of copious thermionic emission so as to
coil of refractory conducting material coated
maintain the discharge with relatively low cath
with an oxide. Also contained within the en
velope I is a material 5 whose spectral proper
ties are desired in the discharge, This material
may be, for example, antimony, arsenic or mer
cury. _The envelope I also contains a diatomic
ode drop.
,
The deuterium or other polyatomic gas men
' tioned above performs several distinct functions
in the lamp. One such function is that it com
bínes with the antimony or arsenic to form vola
or polyatomic gas, such as deuterium or hydrogen,
tile and easily decomposable deuterides, whereby
which while inert with respect to the electrodes
forms volatile compounds with materials such
a sufficiently large number of atoms of the ma
terial 5 is introduced into the discharge to gen
erate the spectrum of said material to a substan
as antimony or arsenic. I prefer to use deuterium
which is commonly known as heavy hydrogen. 45 tial degree. This aspect of my invention is more
fully described and claimed in my copending ap
In addition, the envelope I contains an inert gas,
plication, Serial No. 358,848, ñled September 28,
such as argon, at a pressure of 1 to 20 mm., e. g.
1940. Also, Vthe hot filament 2 decomposes the
the pressure of the deuterium is preferably lower
diatomic deuterium or other polyatomic gas into
than the pressure of the argon, e. g. about 1/20
of the argon pressure.
’
Although the lamp described above may be
utilized without an exterior container, in some
>instances it may be desirable to support it in
50 a monatomic gas.
Hence the region immediate
ly surrounding the filament contains mostly mon
atomic deuteríum. Monatomic deuterium pro
vides a better‘path for conduction of the elec
such a container as illustrated in the drawing.`
trical discharge than 'does the diatomîc deuteri
_As shown, the envelope I is supported within an 55 um. This is also true ofthe other monatomic
2,404,002
3
4
gases as compared with the polyatomic gases
What is claimed is:
from which they are produced by the heat of the
ñlament 2. As a result of this action, the dis
charge is concentrated in a localized region with
in the envelope I along the filament 2.
As between hydrogen and deuterium, deuterium
is preferred because of the fact that its atomic
means independent of the discharge for decom- Y
posing said polyatomic gas into a gas of smaller
molecular weight and means for Aproducing an
electrical discharge within said envelope.
2. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
deuterium, means for decomposing said deuterium
weight is twice that of ordinary hydrogen. This
makes the deuterium a poorer conductor of heat
by a factor of
'
'
into monatomic deuterium along a restricted dis
charge path spaced from the walls of said enve
lope, and means for vproducing an electrical dis
l
Ví
chargek within said «envelope through said dis
Thus the energy liberated by the filament 2 and
by the discharge is conserved along the discharge
charge path.
3. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
deuterium, thermal means for decomposing said
path increasing the emciency of the discharge
and the ease with which ionization and excita
tion of the atoms in said discharge space are
deuterium into monatomic deuterium and means
for producing an electrical discharge Within said
produced. Also the larger atomic weight of deu
envelope.
terium causes the loss due to elastic collisions
with velectrons. to be only one-half of such loss
in .the case of ordinary hydrogen.
4. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
a gas or vapor whose spectral properties are de
However;
sirable in said lamp and a polyatomic gas, means
Where the deuterium is in diatomic form, the loss
due. tocollisions is much greater than in the case
of monatomic deuterium `thus increasing the
tendency> for the discharge to concentrate in the
region around the ñlament 2. Also the diñ‘usion
of the decomposed deuterium away from the re
gion of the filament 2 is
independent of the discharge within said lamp
for decomposing said polyatomic gas into a gas
of smaller molecular weight and means for pro
ducing an electrical discharge within said en
velope.
5. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
a gas or vapor whose spectral properties are de
_L
sirable in said lamp and a polyatomic gas, ther
mal means independent of the discharge within
said lamp for decomposing said polyatomic gas
V2
times as fast as that of ordinary hydrogen. All
of` these eñects increase the tendency of the dis
charge to localize in the region of the filament
2 and to increase the leiîectiveness of such dis
charge;
into a gas of smaller molecular weight and means
for producing an electrical discharge within said
envelope.
a gas or vapor whose spectral propertiesk are de
The argon or other inert gas tends to prevent
sirable in said lamp and deuterium, means for
decomposing said deuterium into monatomic
deuterium and means for producing an electrical
discharge within said envelope»
, L `
"I, A lamp comprising an envelope containing
a gas or vapor Whose spectral properties are de
sirable in said lamp and deuterium, thermal
means independent of the discharge Within said
It alsol acts as a heat-shielding medium for the
discharge because it reduces the effective thermal
conductivity of the diatomic deuterium.
>It is preferable to mount the lamp with its lon
lamp for decomposing said deuterium into mon
atomic deuterium, and means Yfor producing an
gitudinal axis in a vertical position. In this way
circulation of the-gas due to thermal effects tends ‘
to take place parallel to the ñlament and thus
avoids a tendency for such circulation of gas to
carry the decomposed polyatomic gas away from
electrical discharge Within said envelope.
8. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
a gas or vapor whose spectral properties are cle
sirable in said lamp and a polyatomic gas, means
independent of the discharge within said lamp
for‘decomposing said polyatomic gas into a gas
of smaller molecular Weight along a restricted dis
charge path spaced from the Walls of said en
velope, and means for producing an electrical
the regionvof the ñlament. Also in this position,
the -arc does not tend to move over toward the
tube side Wall where undesirable heating might
'
'
6. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
Y
excessive disintegration of the cathode 4. It also
assists in the starting of the discharge Where the
vapor pressure of the vaporizable material at the
start is insuiïicient for the desired operation. The
inert gas also hinders diffusion of the atomic
deuterium away from the region ofthe filament.
take place.>
c _
1. An electrical discharge device comprlsing an
envelope containing a polyatomic gas, thermal
`
discharge through said discharge path.
The lamp which I have described above utiliz
9. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
ing vaporizable material will operate very much
a gas or vapor whose spectral properties are de
like a vapor lamp of moderate pressure, the arc, 60
sirable in said lamp and deuterium, means for
however, being localized in the immediate neigh
decomposing said deuterium into monatomic
borhood of the ñlament.
deuterium along a restricted discharge path
Itis to be understood that this invention is not
spaced from the walls of said envelope, and means
limited to the particular details as described
for producing an electrical discharge through said
above as many equivalents will suggest themselves "
to those skilled in the art. For example, in some
instances the inert gas may be eliminated. In
cases where the inert gas or a component thereof
serves as the light emitting medium, the vapor
izable‘material may be omitted. Other embodi
ments utilizing the principles of my invention will
suggest themselves to those skilled in the art. It
discharge path.
an envelope containing a polyatomic gas, thermal
means, independent of the discharge and localized along a predetermined path for the dis*
70 charge, for decomposing said polyatomic gas into
a gas of smaller molecular weight, and means for
producing an electrical discharge within »said en~
~ is accordingly desired that the appended claims
be» given a broad interpretation commensurate
with the scope of theinvention within the art.
`
l0. An electrical discharge device comprising
velope.
75
,
_.
11. An electrical discharge device comprising
an envelope containing a polyatomic gas, thermal
2,404,002
5
means independent of the discharge arranged to
decompose the polyatomic gas along the path of
said discharge into a gas of smaller molecular
Weight, and means for producing an electrical
discharge Within said envelope.
12. An electrical discharge device comprising
an envelope containing a polyatomic gas, a ther
mal ñlament for decomposing said polyatomic
gas into a gas of smaller molecular weight, and
means for producing an electrical discharge with
in said envelope.
,
13. An electrical discharge device comprising an
envelope containing a polyatomic gas, a thermal
filament adjacent the discharge path for de
composing said polyatornic gas into a gas ci
smaller molecular Weight, and means for produc
ing an electrical discharge within said envelope.
14. An electrical discharge device comprising
an envelope containing a polyatomic gas, a ther
mal filament extending longitudinally along the
discharge path and adapted to decompose said
polyatomic gas into a gas of smaller molecular
weight, and means for producing an electrical
discharge within said envelope.
6
15. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
deuterium and a monatomic rare gas of substan
tially greater molecular Weight than that of the
deuteriurn, means for decomposing said deuterium
into a gas of smaller molecular weight along a
restricted discharge path, and means for produc
ing an electrical discharge through said discharge
path.
16. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
deuterium and argon, means for decomposing
said deuterium into a gas of smaller molecular
weight, and means for producing an electrical
discharge through said gases.
.
17. A lamp comprising an envelope containing
deuterium and a monatomic gas of greater mo
lecular Weight than that of the deuterium, ther
ma1 means, independent of the discharge with
in said lamp and localized along a predetermined
path in which the discharge is adapted to take
place, for decomposing the deuterium along the
path of said discharge, and means for producing
an electrical discharge through said discharge
path.
CHARLES G. SMITH.
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